HDFS Exam 3

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  1. Mental Retardation
    DSM-IV-R Diagnostic Criteria
  2. DSM-IV-R Diagostic Criteria
    • A. IQ 70 an below - Weschler's Intelligence Scales
    • B. Impairments in functioning at least 2 of the following
    • Communication
    • self-care
    • home living
    • academic skills
    • work
    • leisure
    • use of community resources
    • C. Onset prior to the age of 18
  3. B. Impairments in functioning at least 2 of the following
    • Communication
    • self-care
    • home living
    • academic skills
    • work
    • leisure
    • use of community resources
  4. Core Symptoms
    • Inattention
    • Impulsivity
    • Hyperactivity
  5. ADHD - Diffifult to diagnose prior to the age of 4/5
  6. ADHD - Excessive motor activity first observed in toddlers by parents
  7. ADHD more frequent in males than females
  8. Treatments of ADHD
    • Stilulant medications
    • Behavioral therapy
  9. Treatments of ADHD
    80% of childrent will respond to at least 1 medication
  10. Problems of Stimulant Medications
    • effects are short lived (need frequent dosing)
    • side effects
  11. Behavioral Therapy
    Recommended to be administered along w/ medications
  12. Problems of Behavioral Therapy
    • Do not generalize beyond specific context
    • rapid reappearance of symptoms when behavioral techniques are faded out
  13. Elementary School is the showplace for ADHD
    • demands of school highlights ADHD deficits
    • inattention to school work
    • problems organizing assignments and belongings
    • rushing through work
    • problems staying seated and following classroom rules
    • respond before reflecting
    • problems cooperating w/ others
  14. ADHD - Adolescents
    • Fail to live up to academic expectations
    • peer rejection
    • lowered self-esteem
  15. ADHD - Adulthood
    • Reduction of core symptoms in 50%
    • those w/ persisting symptoms show problems w/ work success, marriage, and family life, higher rates of mood disorders, acoholism, substance abuse
  16. Azheimer's Disease
    Irreversible, progressive, degenerative cortical dementia that destroys memory and thinking skills and eventually the ability to carry out sample tasks
  17. Prevalence of Alzheimer's Disease
    • Slightly more common in females than males
    • Prevalence of Alzheimer's increase with age
  18. Changes in the CNS
    • Neurofibrillary tangles
    • Amyloid plaques
    • Neuron loss
  19. Neurofibrillary tangles
    Abnormal twisted filaments found within neuron bodies
  20. Amyloid plaques
    Abnormal deposits of a protein (beta amyloid) in the extracellular spaces of the brain
  21. Neuron Loss
    Leads to cortical atrophy
  22. Attachment Theory
    • Harry Harlow
    • Konard Lorenz
    • John Bowlby
    • Mary Ainsworth
  23. Harry Harlow
    • Tested rhesus monkeys by rearing them either on a wire mother surrogate or a softer terrycloth mother suggogate
    • Found that all monkeys spent most of their time with the soft mother, regardless of feeding habits
    • Found that it was contact comfort - the comfort supplied by bodily contact - rather than nourishment that formed the basis of the infant monkey's attachment to its mother
  24. Harry Harlow
    Contact Comfort
  25. Harry Harlow - Feeding vs Contact Comfort
    Need for comfort and touch was more important need than feeding
  26. Origins of Attachment Theory
    • Ethology - study of animal and human behavior within an evolutionary context
    • Lorenz - father of modern ethology
    • Critical periods and imprinting
  27. Ethology
    study of animal and human behavior
  28. Definition of Imprinting
    The rapid, innate learning within a limited critical period of time that involves attachment to the first moving object seen
  29. Lorenz - imprinting
    • suggested that imprinting occurs during a critical period
    • animal must be exposed to object within a specific time period after hatching
    • If it is not done during that period, it may never be done
    • Found that ducklings imprint their mothers upon birth
  30. Attachment Phase
    • Social Referencing
    • Separation Anxiety
    • Stranger Anxiety
  31. Social Referencing
    Reading emotional cues in caregivers to help determine how to act in a particular situation
  32. Separation Anxiety
    The fear and distress shown by toddlers when their parent leaves, reaching a peak b/w 12 and 18 months
  33. Stranger Anxiety
    A fear of strangers common in infants at about 6 months and increasing in intensity until about 12 months, and then declining in the second year
  34. Mary Ainsworth
    • Studied and measured attachment behaviors through the strange situation
    • Strange Situation - explored how babies use their mothers as a base from which to explore and how thhey react to brief material separations
  35. Strange Situation
    explored how babies use their mothers as a base from which to explore and how thhey react to brief material separations
  36. The 20 minute social situation is a very powerful predictor of later behavioral and attachment patterns
  37. Mary Ainsworth
    Strange Situation
  38. Ainsworth and Attachment Styles
    • Securely Attached Infants (70%)
    • Insecure - Avoidant Infant (15%)
    • Insecure - Resistant Infants (15%)
  39. Securedly Attached Infants (70%)
    • Use their mothers as a secure base from which to explore
    • When mother leaves room they become visibly upset
    • When mother returns and when they are reassured they continue exploration
  40. Insecure - Avoidant Infants (15%)
    • Remain independent throughout the strange situation
    • Rarely reference mother and do not become upset when she leaves
  41. Insecure - Resistant Infants (15%)
    • Little exploration
    • Clingy and preoccupied w/ mother
    • Become extremely upset when mother leaves and cannot be soothed upon return
  42. Secure attachments are most common and most healthy
  43. There are culture differences in attachment styles
  44. Attachment styles found during the strange situation have predictive power for attachment styles in adulthood relationships (internal working model)
  45. Secure attachments
    • Parents consistently responds to infant's needs and signals
    • sensitive to infant's active role in contact comfort
  46. Insecure Avoidant Attachments
    • Parents rarely respond to infant's signals
    • Show little contact comfort
  47. Insecure Resistant Attachments
    Parents inconsistently respond to infant's needs and signals
  48. Insecure Disorganized Attachments
    Parents neglect/ physically abuse infants
  49. Erikson
    Psychosocial Development
  50. Psychosocial Development - Childhood
    • Trust v. Mistrust
    • Autonomy v. Shame/Doubt
    • Initiative v. Guilt
    • Industry v. Inferiority
  51. Psychosocial Development - Adolescence
    Indentity v. Identity Confusion
  52. Psychosocial Develoopment Adulthood
    • Intimacy v. Isolation
    • Generativity v. Stagnation
    • Integrity v. Despair
  53. Identity Formation vs. Confusion
  54. Identity Formation
    • Positive resolution
    • develops by figuring out who you are and where you are going in life
  55. Indentity Confusion
    • Negative resolution
    • develops when we don't select an identity
  56. Psychosocial Moratorium
    Moratorium of youth - a time-out period during adolescence in which we can experiment w/ several different identitie without having to assume responsibility for the consequences of any one (repudiation)
  57. Identity Statuses and Development
    James Marcia - expanded Erikson's theory
  58. James Marcia
    • Proposed four states of identity formation based on two concepts
    • diffusion
    • foreclosure
    • moratorium
    • achievement
  59. Four-way Classification System
    • Crisis - exploration of meaningful alternatives or choices (sometimes called exploration)
    • Commitment - a personal investment made
  60. Four-way Classification System
    • Identity Diffusion
    • Identity Foreclosure
    • IdentityMoratorium
    • Identity Achievement
  61. Identity Diffusion
    • No crisis
    • No commitment
    • No thoughts of forming an identity
  62. Identity Foreclosure
    • No crisis
    • commitment has been made
    • Status of making a commitment to an identity without experiencing an identity crisis
  63. Identity Moratorium
    • Crisis in action
    • No commmitment
    • A period of trying on lots of different roles and personalities
  64. Identity Achievement
    • Numerous crises resolved, commitment made
    • Successfully forming an identity after experiencing a crisis
  65. Intimacy vs. Isolation
    Early Adulthood
  66. Intimacy
    • Positive resolution
    • develops by forming strong emotional, physical, and intellectual relationships with others
  67. Isolation
    • Negative resolution
    • becoming socially isolated, fear for relationships
  68. Generativity vs. Stagnation
    Middle Adulthood
  69. Generativity
    • Positive resolution
    • feeling that you are making contributions to next generations (family, work, community, society)
  70. Stagnation
    • Negative resolution
    • Feeling that you are giving nothing to previous generations
  71. Nativist Approach
    • Noam Chomsky
    • Language Acquisition Device (LAD) : we are born with a genetic endowment that enables us to detect and learn languages
  72. Behaviorist Approach
    • Skinner
    • Language develops through a series of reinforced and conditioned chained responses
  73. Language Generativity
    Using the finite set of words in our vocabulary, we can compose an infinite number of sentences and ideas
  74. Components of Language
    • Phonemes
    • Morphemes
    • Syntax
    • Pragmatics
  75. Phonemes
    Phonological Development:learning about the sound system of a language
  76. Morphemes
    Semantic Development:learning about expressing meaning
  77. Syntax
    Syntactic Development:learning rules for combining words
  78. Pragmatics
    PragmaticDevelopment:learning how language is used
  79. Language Sounds
    • Kuhl: young infants are able to hear the sounds of every language
    • “citizens of the world” 6 mos
    • No trouble hearing distinctions and sorting sounds
    • This ability drops by 12 months as brain commits to native language
    • pruning
  80. Language Comprehension
    • Emerges at about 8 mos
    • We understand about 50 words by 13 mos
  81. Language Production
    • Emerges at about 13 mos.
    • We can produce about 50 words by about 18 mos
  82. Receptive language development precedes expressive language development
  83. Overextensions
    • applying a word to a wider collection of objects / events than is appropriate
    • represents an effort to communicate despite a limited vocabulary
  84. Underextensions
    applying a word too narrowly
  85. Vocabulary Spurt
    • The rapid increase in an infant’s vocabulary that begins at about 18 mos
    • 18 mos Can speak about 50 words
    • 2 years can speak about 200 words
  86. Milestones in FirstTwo Years
    • Crying
    • Cooing
    • Babbling
    • Gestures / comprehension / word boundaries
    • First words
    • Vocab spurt
    • Two-word utterances
  87. Learning 2 languages simultaneously
    • No problems with language development
    • May find slight, temporary delay in expressive language
    • Best time to learn a 2nd language
  88. Learning a second language after the first
    • Middle Childhood: critical period for being taught a 2nd language
    • Window / critical period gradually closes after age 7
    • 3-5 years to become fluent if taught in middle childhood
    • Continuous age-related decrease
  89. Two specialized language regions in the left hemisphere of the brain
    • Broca’s Area (frontal lobe) - Production, grammar and syntax
    • Wernicke’s Area (temporal lobe) - comprehension
  90. Broca’s Area
    • frontal lobe
    • Production, grammar and syntax
  91. Wernicke’s Area
    • temporal lobe
    • comprehension
Card Set:
HDFS Exam 3

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