Neuro Exam 4.1

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brau2308
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215524
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Neuro Exam 4.1
Updated:
2013-04-27 17:34:48
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neurology neuroscience neuroanatomy
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review of neuro part 1 for exam 4
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  1. All paths lead to:
    lower motor neuron
  2. What is the function of motor control systems?
    tell LMN (alpha and gamma MN) what to do
  3. What is the end result of motor control systems?
    instruct LMN to fire or not to fire
  4. How many motor control systems are there?
    2
  5. What are the names of the motor control systems?
    • pyramidal
    • extrapyramidal
  6. Are the motor control systems integrated?
    yes, highly integrated (play off each other and can't work alone!)
  7. Describe the pyramidal motor control system:
    initiated, voluntary skeletal muscle activity
  8. Describe the extrapyramidal motor control system:
    involuntary skeletal muscle activity (instinctive, reflexive)
  9. What are both motor control systems trying to get the attention of?
    LMN
  10. Which motor control system is the supplemental motor area a part of?
    pyramidal system
  11. In which lobe is the supplemental motor area located?
    frontal lobe
  12. The supplemental motor area is anterior to:
    pre-central gyrus (PCG)
  13. The supplemental motor area is superior to:
    pre-motor cortex
  14. What is the supplemental motor area functionally?
    an association area
  15. What are association areas?
    interact with pre-central gyrus using association fibers
  16. What is the supplemental motor area important for?
    initiation of movement
  17. The supplemental motor area is involved with:
    orientation of eyes and head (extrinsic eye m coordination)
  18. What does the supplemental motor area plan?
    sequential and bi-manual movements (like tying shoes)
  19. What does the supplemental motor area interact with?
    pre-central gyrus
  20. Where does the supplemental motor area send UMN to?
    • association areas
    • cranial N mtor nuclei
    • ventral horns of SC where UMN synapse with LMN
  21. When the supplemental motor area sends UMN to CN motor nuclei, which tract does it use?
    corticobulbar
  22. When the supplemental motor area sends UMN to ventral horns of SC, which tract does it use?
    corticospinal tract
  23. The supplemental motor area sends UMN to ventral horns of SC where UMN synapse with LMN.  Where does the LMN go to?
    skeletal mm
  24. What is the main function of supplemental motor area?
    finesse what precentral gyrus does
  25. Which system is the pre-motor area a part of?
    pyramidal system
  26. Which lobe is the pre-motor area in?
    frontal lobe
  27. The pre-motor area is anterior to:
    precentral gyrus
  28. What is the pre-motor area functionally?
    association area
  29. What does the pre-motor area control?
    trunk, pelvic, and pectoral girdle musculature (changing posture; stabilization)
  30. What is the pre-motor area involved with?
    anticipatory postural control and adjustments
  31. What does the pre-motor area interact with?
    • pre-central gyrus
    • UMN to CN motor nuclei in brain stem UMN to ventral horns (SC) via corticospinal
  32. Which system is the broca's area a part of?
    pyramidal system
  33. Which lobe is the broca's area located in?
    frontal lobe
  34. What is the Broca's area anterior to?
    precentral gyrus (in area of pre-motor cortex)
  35. What is the Broca's area functionally?
    association area
  36. What is the primary function of the Broca's area?
    instigate speech
  37. What are the types of motor tracts?
    • corticofugal
    • cranial nerve tracts
    • modulatory descending motor tracts
  38. Are corticofugal motor tracts LMNs or UMNs?
    UMN
  39. How many types of corticofugal tracts are there?
    2
  40. What are the 2 types of corticofugal tracts?
    • corticospinal
    • corticobulbar
  41. Which motor control system is the corticospinal tract a part of?
    pyramidal system
  42. What does the corticospinal tract control?
    voluntary contralateral skeletal muscle activity from the extremities and trunk
  43. Is the corticospinal tract bilateral or unilateral?
    unilateral
  44. How many neurons make up the corticospinal tract?
    2 neuron pathway
  45. Where are the cell bodies of the UMNs of the corticospinal tract located?
    pre-central gyrus (primary motor cortex) of frontal lobe
  46. Where do the UMNs that collectively form the corticospinal tract go?
    • descend through posterior limb of internal capsule (PLIC)
    • through crus cerebri of cerebral peduncles of midbrain
    • through ventral pons (longitudinal fibers) and into ventral medulla
  47. What happens after the UMNs of the corticospinal tract reach the medulla?
    • 90% decussate in pyramids of medulla
    • 10% do not decussate in the pyramids
  48. Where do the 90% of UMNs in the corticospinal tract that decussate in the pyramids of the medulla descend?
    contralateral lateral white column of SC
  49. What are the 90% of UMNs in the corticospinal tract that decussate in the pyramids of the medulla called as they descend?
    lateral corticospinal tract
  50. Where do the lateral corticospinal tract fibers synapse with LMNs?
    ventral horn
  51. Where do the 10% of UMNs in the corticospinal tract that don't decussate in the pyramids go?
    continue ipsilateral descent via ventral white column of the SC
  52. What are 10% of UMNs in the corticospinal tract that don't decussate in the pyramids called as they descend?
    ventral corticospinal tract
  53. Where does the ventral corticospinal tract decssate?
    via anterior white commissure (ventral spinal cord) to contralateral side
  54. Where do the ventral corticospinal tract fibers synapse with LMN?
    ventral horn
  55. Where do the LMN go?
    out through spinal nerve to innervate skeletal mm via peripheral nn
  56. As a result of the 90/10 decussation pattern, the corticospinal tract never experiences:
    a complete lesion
  57. Stroke via R anterior cerebral artery will damage:
    • UMN in R hemisphere
    • contralateral effect=problems on the L side of the body
  58. Spinal cord accident that wipes out the corticospinal tract in the spinal cord on L side:
    ipsilateral effect=problems on L side of body
  59. How do you refer to tracts when it comes to injuries?
    either corticospinal tract on R side of spinal cord (and vice versa)

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