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physiological systems of animals operate in what kind of environment?
regulates solute concentrations and balances the gain and loss of water
freshwater animals show adaptions that reduce uptake of what and conserve what?
reduce water uptake and conserve solutes
gets rid of nitrogenous metabolites and other waste products
cells require a balance between osmotic what and loss of what?
osmotic gain and loss of water
the solute concentration of a solution, determines the movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane
if two solutions are isoosmotic what does this mean?
- the movement of water is equal in both directions
- If two solutions differ in osmolarity, the net flow of water is from the hypoosmotic to the hyperosmotic solution
consisting only of some marine animals, are isoosmotic with their surroundings and do not regulate their osmolarity
expend energy to control water uptake and loss in a hyperosmotic or hypoosmotic environment
most animals are stenohaline or euryhaline?
they cannot tolerate substantial changes in external osmolarity
animals can survive large fluctuations in external osmolarity
most marine invertebrates are osmo what, while most marine vertebrates are osmo what?
- invertebrates osmoconformers
- vertebrates osmoregulators
containing a lower concentration of osmotically active components than a standard solution.
marine bony fishes are what to sea water?
- hypoosmotic- sea water is saltier than them
- They lose water by osmosis and gain salt by diffusion and from food
- They balance water loss by drinking seawater and excreting salts
Freshwater animals constantly take in water by what from their hypoosmotic environment
- They lose salts by diffusion and maintain water balance by excreting large amounts of dilute urine
- Salts lost by diffusion are replaced in foods and by uptake across the gills
- –Active movement of chloride ions brings in sodium ions
adaption called anyhyrobiosis
- Some aquatic invertebrates in temporary ponds lose almost all their body water and survive in a dormant state
- (phylum tardigrade)
- –Water bears
- Can survive extreme conditions
- –Temperatures from 151°C (for a few minutes) to -200°C for days
- –Pressures from the vacuum of space to 1200 atmospheres
- –Complete Dehydration
- –Intense radiation
Fairy shrimp live in?
- vernal pools
- Eggs can survive years without water
- Adults live fast and furious
- Many species threatened
- –Development and draining of habitats
- Rapidly dehydrate and survive in cysted state
- –When recovering from dessication they will incorporate foreign DNA into their genome
- –Plant, fungi and Bacterial DNA
- Parthenogenic for millions of years
- are specialized epithelial cells that regulate solute movement
- They are essential components of osmotic regulation and metabolic waste disposal
- They are arranged in complex tubular networks
- An example is in salt glands of marine birds, which remove excess sodium chloride from the blood
land animals manage water budgets by what?
drinking and eating moist foods and using metabolic water
how do desert animals get major water savings?
from simple anatomical features and behaviors such as a nocturnal life style