_________________________, the scientific study of population, encompasses all measures of population: size, ____________________________, __________________________, age structure, and change
Three population processes - _____________________________, __________________________, and ___________________________ - are responsible for population growth and decline.
The most general explanation for migration is the so-called _______________________-______________________ theory
push - pull
“In his essay, Malthus proposed. . .Population, if left unchecked, will tend to exceed the available _______________________ supply. This is because population increases______________________________; the food supply does not.”
Raising people’s aspirations for a higher standard of ________________________, Malthus suggested, would enhance the beneficial effects of universal _________________________ on population control
“To the extent that developed nations have defied Malthus’s theory, they have done so through the _____________________________ ______________________________. . .”
Partly because of America’s __________________________ heritage, American culture has always had a bias against _______________________ living
“The result is the central-city ___________________________ - the concentration of a large population in need of public ____________________________. . . but without the money to provide for them.
. Some parts of inner cities are being restored through ____________________________ -the development of low-income areas by middle-class home buyers, landlords, and professional developers.
Urbanization, Wirth said, brings a _________________________________ of human relationships.
Three interrelated social processes lead to social change. Although related, the processes of__________________________, ____________________________, and _____________________________ are distinct.
“Spengler believed that civilizations are _________________, ripen, __________________,and perish.”
“. . .the ________________________________ perspective held that societies must pass through a set series of _______________________, each of which results in a more complex and advanced stage of development.
. According to the ____________________________ perspective, social change is the result of ___________________________ between groups for scarce resources.
. ________________ are unusual behavior patterns that spread rapidly, appeal to a particular segment of society, and then ___________________________ after a short time.
People who participate in _________________ typically lack _______________________and engage in destructive behavior as a way to express their _________________________.
_________________________ theory emphasizes the _____________________________ of crowds that is created by participants stimulating one another to higher and higher levels of emotional intensity
“A ________________________________ movement attempts to change a society totally…A ________________________________ movement aims to effect only partial change in a society. . .
“A ________________________________ focuses on changing individuals. . .Finally an _______________________________ movement seeks only limited changes in individuals.”
____________________________ ______________________________ occurs when people compare themselves with others and believe that they should have as much as those others have.
Who coined the term “Sociology”?
Symbolic Interaction is
what does it mean
Conflict Theory is
who's being opressed
Functionalist Theory is
it a good thing
Who thought that class conflict was the key to understanding history?
Who said, “Survival of the Fittest?”
Marx’s view of religion –
Working class accepting their lower position - waiting for a better life after death.
He called it the opiate of the people
What is a hypothesis?
a testable prediction coming from a theory
What is a theory?
explains a social situation makes predictions about the future
What is the relationship between correlation and causation?
independent variable (cause)
dependent Variable (effect)
What are “norms”?
Rules about appropriate behavior that comes out of values
What does “tabula rasa” mean?
we are born a blank slate
What is the “central principle of Sociology”?
social factors such as: roles, religion, and social class
What is cultural relativism?
trying to view a culture on its own therms without prejudice
What is the Thomas Theorem?
If a person defines situations are real, they are real in their consequences
What does culture do for us?
It becomes the lens we view the world
It helps us understand what people are doing
It simplifies day to day interactions
According to Durkheim, what holds society together?
It is the social cohesion: (glue) The degree of which people bond to one another
What really killed Kitty Genovese?
The Bystander effect
Why did NASA have problems with the shuttles, Challenger and Columbia?
What did Solomon Asch’s line test demonstrated?
How many people obeyed in Milgram’s “shock machine” experiment?
What is the social facilitation effect?
Improved performance in the presents of others
How many people are in slavery today?
What did Weber say divided people? (What 3 things are we stratified by?)
What % of people with a college degree are poor?
The lower one’s social class, the more likely they are to. . .
What’s the main barrier that keeps Hispanics from advancing in society?
What are superordinate goals?
give people a common sense of purpose and blinds people together
How do the Conflict theorists see Education?
Education keeps the haves and have not's separated
Why is the emphasis on “sports” harmful for minorities?
it divert attention from learning academic and business - related skills necessary from success in mainstream American society
What % of those who cohabit are likely to be divorced?
What often happens to children whose parents divorce according to Wallerstein?
Have higher divorce rate
Have lower educational rates
higher rates of drug use
What’s the difference between cohabitation and marriage?
What did Straus report about abuse in relationships?
husbands and wives are about equally likely to attack one another
What is the exponential growth curve?
growth rate will suddenly increase
What do the new Malthusians worry about?
The world population will out strip its food supply
The population grows geometrically
The food supply grows arithmetically
What would be their solution to the problem of growth?
reduce the # of people with abortion, birth control, and having smaller families
What was Malthus' solution?
Let poor people starve, poverty is god punishment
birth and death are balanced
due to industrializations
there are fewer children because, their exspensive a luxury not a nessesety
deaths out # births
Whats the Anti Malthusian solution to starvation?
distribute food equaly
What is the primary factor that influences a country's growth rate?
the rate of industrialization
Domestication - change from hunting and gathering groups
Agriculture - the invention of the plow
Industrial - changed from an agricultural society
Informational - the microchip
Ogburns Theory of social change
changes comes through TECHNOLOGY
Moral decay is
This is the COMMON CAUSE in the decline of all world civilization