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2013-05-05 21:08:19

Ch 17 18
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  1. _________________________, the scientific study of population, encompasses all measures of population: size, ____________________________, __________________________, age structure, and change
    • Demography
    • distribution
    • composition
  2. Three population processes - _____________________________, __________________________, and ___________________________ - are responsible for population growth and decline.
    • fertility
    • mortality
    • migration
  3. The most general explanation for migration is the so-called _______________________-______________________ theory
    push - pull
  4. “In his essay, Malthus proposed. . .Population, if left unchecked, will tend to exceed the available _______________________ supply. This is because population increases______________________________; the food supply does not.”
    • food
    • exponentially
  5. Raising people’s aspirations for a higher standard of ________________________, Malthus suggested, would enhance the beneficial effects of universal _________________________ on population control
    • living
    • education
  6. “To the extent that developed nations have defied Malthus’s theory, they have done so through the _____________________________ ______________________________. . .”
    demographic transition
  7. Partly because of America’s __________________________ heritage, American culture has always had a bias against _______________________ living
    • frontier
    • urban
  8. “The result is the central-city ___________________________ - the concentration of a large population in need of public ____________________________. . . but without the money to provide for them.
    • services
    • dilemma
  9. . Some parts of inner cities are being restored through ____________________________ -the development of low-income areas by middle-class home buyers, landlords, and professional developers.
  10. Urbanization, Wirth said, brings a _________________________________ of human relationships.
  11. Three interrelated social processes lead to social change. Although related, the processes of__________________________, ____________________________, and _____________________________ are distinct.
    • discovery
    • intention
    • diffusion
  12. “Spengler believed that civilizations are _________________, ripen, __________________,and perish.”
    • born
    • decay
  13. “. . .the ________________________________ perspective held that societies must pass through a set series of _______________________, each of which results in a more complex and advanced stage of development.
    • evolutionary
    • stages
  14. . According to the ____________________________ perspective, social change is the result of ___________________________ between groups for scarce resources.
    • struggles
    • conflict
  15. . ________________ are unusual behavior patterns that spread rapidly, appeal to a particular segment of society, and then ___________________________ after a short time.
    • Fad
    • disappear
  16. People who participate in _________________ typically lack _______________________and engage in destructive behavior as a way to express their _________________________.
    • riot
    • power
    • frustrations
  17. _________________________ theory emphasizes the _____________________________ of crowds that is created by participants stimulating one another to higher and higher levels of emotional intensity
    • Contagion
    • irrationality
  18. “A ________________________________ movement attempts to change a society totally…A ________________________________ movement aims to effect only partial change in a society. . .
    • revolutionary
    • reformance
  19. “A ________________________________ focuses on changing individuals. . .Finally an _______________________________ movement seeks only limited changes in individuals.”
    • redemptive movement
    • alternative
  20. ____________________________ ______________________________ occurs when people compare themselves with others and believe that they should have as much as those others have.
    relative deprivation
  21. Who coined the term “Sociology”?
    Auguste Comte
  22. Symbolic Interaction is
    what does it mean
  23. Conflict Theory is
    who's being opressed
  24. Functionalist Theory is
    it a good thing
  25. Who thought that class conflict was the key to understanding history?
    Karl Marx
  26. Who said, “Survival of the Fittest?”
    Herbert Spencer
  27. Marx’s view of religion –
    Working class accepting their lower position - waiting for a better life after death.

    He called it the opiate of the people
  28. What is a hypothesis?
    a testable prediction coming from a theory
  29. What is a theory?
    explains a social situation makes predictions about the future
  30. What is the relationship between correlation and causation?
    independent variable (cause)

    dependent Variable (effect)
  31. What are “norms”?
    Rules about appropriate behavior that comes out of values
  32. What does “tabula rasa” mean?
    we are born a blank slate
  33. What is the “central principle of Sociology”?
    social factors such as: roles, religion, and social class
  34. What is cultural relativism?
    trying to view a culture on its own therms without prejudice
  35. What is the Thomas Theorem?
    If a person defines situations are real, they are real in their consequences
  36. What does culture do for us?
    It becomes the lens we view the world

    It helps us understand what people are doing

    It simplifies day to day interactions
  37. According to Durkheim, what holds society together?
    It is the social cohesion: (glue) The degree of which people bond to one another
  38. What really killed Kitty Genovese?
    The Bystander effect
  39. Why did NASA have problems with the shuttles, Challenger and Columbia?
    Group think
  40. What did Solomon Asch’s line test demonstrated?
    informational conformity
  41. How many people obeyed in Milgram’s “shock machine” experiment?
  42. What is the social facilitation effect?
    Improved performance in the presents of others
  43. How many people are in slavery today?
    27 million
  44. What did Weber say divided people? (What 3 things are we stratified by?)
    • Power
    • property
    • prestige
  45. What % of people with a college degree are poor?
  46. The lower one’s social class, the more likely they are to. . .
  47. What’s the main barrier that keeps Hispanics from advancing in society?
  48. What are superordinate goals?
    give people a common sense of purpose and blinds people together
  49. How do the Conflict theorists see Education?
    Education keeps the haves and have not's separated
  50. Why is the emphasis on “sports” harmful for minorities?
    it divert attention from learning academic and business - related skills necessary from success in mainstream American society
  51. What % of those who cohabit are likely to be divorced?
  52. What often happens to children whose parents divorce according to Wallerstein?
    • Have higher divorce rate
    • Have lower educational rates
    • higher rates of drug use
  53. What’s the difference between cohabitation and marriage?
  54. What did Straus report about abuse in relationships?
    husbands and wives are about equally likely to attack one another
  55. What is the exponential growth curve?
    growth rate will suddenly increase
  56. What do the new Malthusians worry about?
    The world population will out strip its food supply
  57. Malthus proposition
    • The population grows geometrically
    • The food supply grows arithmetically
  58. What would be their solution to the problem of growth?
    reduce the # of people with abortion, birth control, and having smaller families
  59. What was Malthus' solution?
    Let poor people starve, poverty is god punishment
  60. stable population
    birth and death are balanced
  61. rapid growth
    due to industrializations
  62. stable population
    there are fewer children because, their exspensive a luxury not a nessesety
  63. shrinking population
    deaths out # births
  64. Whats the Anti Malthusian solution to starvation?
    distribute food equaly
  65. What is the primary factor that influences a country's growth rate?
    the rate of industrialization
  66. 4 Revolutions
    Domestication - change from hunting and gathering groups

    Agriculture - the invention of the plow

    Industrial - changed from an agricultural society

    Informational - the microchip
  67. Ogburns Theory of social change
    changes comes through TECHNOLOGY
  68. Moral decay is
    This is the COMMON CAUSE in the decline of all world civilization
  69. Will & Ariel Durant say
    Decay comes from within
  70. Proactive movement is
    initiate change
  71. Reactive movement is
    resist change
  72. futility is
  73. Perversity is
    youll make it worse
  74. Jeopardy is
    you'll detract from more important issues
  75. The key to social movements
  76. Propaganda is
    information used to influence ppl
  77. Who are the gate keepers to social movement?
    The media