How is the selection of one of the three procedures made for prostate cancer patients? Pg. 481
The selection of a particular procedure or a combination of procedures depends on established prognostic factors such as stage, grade, and pre-treatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration.
Surgery is indicated if the tumor is confined to the prostate gland with no extension through the capsule or into the seminal vesicles. Implants are used for early-stage cancers, either alone or in conjunction with external beam radiation therapy. Patients with extensive tumors (TNM stage T3 and T4) are not good candidates for implantation.