HG&D Test 4

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HG&D Test 4
2013-04-24 17:41:17

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  1. What is epigenetics?
    Changes in the gene activity that do not involve alterations to the genetic code and are passed down to at least one successive generation
  2. Define epigenome.
    Sits on top of genome; switches genes on and off
  3. A given genotype can give rise to a different phenotype depending on _______ conditions
  4. ______ _______ erases many of the epigenetic tags that would be passed down through generations
    Epigenetic reprogramming
  5. Types of epigentic tags can be passed from parent to offspring via _____ _____
    behavioral stressors
  6. In order to provide a convincing case for epigentic inheritance, an epigenetic change must be observed in the ___ generation
  7. Because identical twins develop from a single zygote, they have the same _____.
  8. What is plasticity?
    Process by which an organism modified its behavior, morphology, and physiology in response to changing enviornments
  9. Plasticity during early development can be adaptive if...
    it increases survival during the embryonic stage of life
  10. Plasticity during early development have important fitness consequences because they can lead to permanent or profound changes in _____ or ______
    morphology or physiology
  11. Mature phenotype from different _______ differ from each other with regard to the expression of the particular _______
  12. Explain how some grasshoppers have adapted to their environment
    The amount of light reflected from the ground surface decides what color the grasshopper will be after its next molt. The adaptation improves the ability of the animal to hide itself by camoflouge
  13. Heavy babies are at _____ risk of disease
  14. _____ - birth weight babies are more likely to have CVD, stroke and diabetes
  15. In a study where human growth was followed from birth to adulthood, it was found that _______ ____ prepare an individual for a certain course during life
    environmental cues
  16. Mothers with a small pelvis had (larger/smaller) babies with (increased/decreased) offspring risk of stroke and CVD
    smaller; increased
  17. Evidence suggests that....
    A mother having a small pelvis is linked to her own poor nutrition as a child, thus indicating an _______ effect
  18. People who grow up in impoverished conditions tend to have.....?(3)
    -smaller body size

    -lower metabolic rate

    -a reduced level of behavioral activity
  19. "______ ______" results in baby being born with adaptations, such as small body and modified metabolism, helping to cope with the stressed environment
    Weather Forecast
  20. Data shows that babies exposed to ____ _____ during last trimester had increase in diabetes in adult life
    food shortages
  21. In which 3 ways can organisms express effects to adaptive responses to their environment during development and in life?
    - immediate

    - short term

    - may be expressed in offspring
  22. Changes in the gene activity that do not involve alterations to the genetic code are passed down to at least one successive generation are known as
  23. Sits on top of genome; switches genes on and off
  24. The presence of ____ groups that attach to DNA strands can tightly coil genes around histones, thereby making the gene ______ and inhibiting the expression of the gene (can be good or bad thing)

  25. What are the two groups of low birth weight babies?
    - Premature or Preterm

    -Small for date infants
  26. Name the four variables of social factors in regards to low birth weight babies
    - Occupation of family

    -Mother's educational status

    -Family support

    -Ethnic background
  27. Coal mining is one example of how ________ factors can contaminate the growth and weight of a fetus
  28. _______ refers to mental disorders, mental distress and abnormal/maladaptive behavior
  29. There is an increase in ___ matter and ___ matter in the brain during adolescence
    grey matter and white matter
  30. Abnormal hormone levels can augment gene expression and result in cell death. This is known as _____
  31. Hormone deficiency can lead to failed ___ _______ critical for proper brain development
    gene expression
  32. (Hormone and Neurotransmitter Changes)
    The HPG axis controls the rise of _____ during puberty
  33. (Hormone & Neurotransmitter Changes)
    HPA axis plays an important role in ____ response
  34. Sensitivity to stress is high in adolescence because of declining _____ levels
  35. ______ are an important part of human variation and evolution because they introduce new traits
  36. If a mutation provides an advantage....
    it is more likely to spread throughout a population, particularly if their geographic area is isolated
  37. What is the protein responsible for the replication of our DNA?
    DNA polymerase
  38. What are 2 the two main reasons for DNA mutations during replication?
    Translocations or Deletions
  39. DNA can also be mutated by environmental factors such as _____ and _____
    Chemicals and Radiation
  40. Environmental Factors that cause mutations can do two things:
    They can damage DNA by altering nucleotide bases

    They can break the bonds between oxygens and phosphate groups
  41. The ____ _____ is a strain of Yersinia pestis that was largely transmitted through fleas and rats
    Black Plauge
  42. Malaria is a virus that is generally transmitted through
    mosquito bites
  43. ____ ____ _____ is a blood disease that causes blood cells to develop into a sickle shape
    Sickle Cell Anemia
  44. Prenatal exposure to famine is strongly correlated with
    - Decreased cognitive and behavioral function and increased neurodevelopmental disorders and congenital abnormalities of the nervous system
  45. What trend can be seen between life opportunities and having a low education?
    • - lowered socioeconomic status
    • -lower earnings
    • - poorer health
  46. Increase instances of schizophrenia correlated to prenatal exposure to ______
  47. "Morality did not occur randomly... frail and less healthy individuals tended to die first while healthier and stronger individuals had a better chance of survival"
    This is referring to what?
    The Wood's Hypothesis
  48. What re the 3 Domains of autism?
    • -Social deficits
    • -Impaired language and communication
    • -Stereotyped and repetitive behaviors
  49. Difficulty with verbal communication, repetitive behaviors, awkward social interaction, intellectual disability, unprimed fine motor skills, short attention span, and physical health are characteristics of
  50. Breast fed infants were _____ than bottle fed infants in childhood and adulthood
  51. Most birth defects occur prior to conception and are due to abnormalities of _____ and ______
    chromosomes and genes
  52. Name the 3 categories of pre-conception birth defects
    • - chromosomal
    • -single gene defects
    • - multifactorial disorders
  53. (birth defects)
    Trisomies are indicative of ____ ______
    extra chromosome
  54. What is the most common form of mental retardation?
    Down Syndrome
  55. What are the 3 categories of single gene defect mutations?
    • - Autosomal dominant
    • - Autosomal recessive
    • - X-linked
  56. Autosomal Recessive -

    how many parents are carriers?
    what is the mutant gene known as?
    how likely is each child to inherit the disorder?
    • Both parents are carriers
    • Each child has a 25% chance of inheriting the disorder
  57. Autosomal Dominant -

    how many parents are carriers?
    what is the mutant gene known as?
    how likely is each child to inherit the disorder?
    • One parent
    • Dominant Inheritance
    • Each child has a 50% chance of inheriting the disorder
  58. X linked mutations are inherited by _____ from their ____. The likelihood of inheriting it is __%
    males ; mother ; 50%
  59. an example of an X linked gene mutation is _____
  60. _______ birth defects are caused by a combination of genes and environmental exposures.
  61. Multifactorial birth defects are characterized by the malformation of  ______ or _____
    • a single organ system
    •           or
    •    limb
  62. Congenial heart defects, cleft lip or palate, clubfoot and dysplasia are examples of _____ birth defects
  63. What are the five categories of Post conception birth defects?
    • - Single system defects
    • - Disruption
    • - Deformation
    • - Dysplasia
    • - Sequence
  64. ___ ______ birth defects are usually non-genetic and are caused by intrauterine enviornmental factors
    Post Conception
  65. These are characteristics of which type of birth defects?
    - occurs within the first 8 weeks of gestation
    - constitute largest group of defects affecting single organ systems or region of the body
    -Inherited as polygenic traits with low risk of re-occurrence
    Single System Defects
  66. These are characteristics of which type of birth defects?
    - Congenital abnormalities occuring in consistent patterns known as syndromes
    - Occur in two or more systems in the body associated with mental retardation
    Multiple Malformation Functions
  67. What is a "disruption" and what is the effect?
    Disruption is a destruction in part of the fetus and creates facial clefts and central nervous defects
  68. ______ is due to abnormal intrauterine molding and involves musculoskeletal system resulting in spinal bifida and positional deformities of legs and feet
  69. _____ refers to abnormal cellular function in specific organ or tissue type. It is usually created by single gene defects
  70. _______ is a form of short limbed dwarfism. Most have average trunk size with short limbs, limited range of elbows and enlarged head.
  71. What are the 3 environmental causes of birth defects?
    • - what we eat
    • - where we live
    • - how we live
  72. A developing baby is particularly vulnerable to environmental factors between __ - __ week of pregnancy
    5th to 10th
  73. List and give details on the 3 categories of environmental factors that relate to birth defects.
    Chemical Sources - drugs, alcohol, caffeine

    Biological Sources - nutrition, microorganisms

    Physical Sources - heat, radiation, pollution
  74. A drug or substance capable of interfering with the development of an embryo that may lead to birth defects or developmental abnormalities is known as
  75. What is congenital hydrocephalus?
    excessive fluid in the infants brain
  76. ___ % of adult body weight is gained during puberty
  77. About ___ % of total bone mass is established during pubertal years
  78. Menarche and accrual of bone mineral are related. (True/False)
  79. Manually adding new DNA to an organism with the goal of adding one or more traits that are not already found in that organism is known as...
    Genetic Engineering
  80. What is a transgene?
    a section of genetic material from one organism which appears in the DNA of another organism
  81. What are the goals of Genetic Engineering? (4)
    • - decrease genetic disorders
    • - improve cognitive abilities
    • - decrease susceptibility to disease
    • - improve fitness/ survivability
  82. What are the two types of genetic engineering done in humans?
    Somatic and Germline
  83. Which type of genetic engineering targets the genes in specific organs and tissues of the body?
  84. What type of genetic engineering targets the genes in eggs, sperm or very early embryos which ultimately affects every cell in the body of the resulting individual and are passed on to all future generations?
  85. Extra Mitochondrial DNA (mDNA) refers to
    a child contained of DNA from mother, father and donor
  86. Experience _____ traits are "common to the human species" ex- sound, language, opportunities to move/manipulate objects
    Experience Expectant
  87. ____ _____ refers to the overproduction of synapses in specific areas of the brain at specific times
    Experience Expectant
  88. _____ ______ involves modifying existing synapses or generating new ones based on individual experience
    Experience Dependent
  89. Experience _____ is typically associated with learning and memory and happens over a lifetime (culture, language, school, job skills, leisure activities, sports)
    Experience Dependent
  90. When stress occurs, _____ is released
  91. Methylation controls genes which terminate _____ _____
    stress response
  92. ________ of a child may cause methylation.
  93. Stress affects the experience ______ plasticity process of memory
  94. Stress damages the _______ while it enhances connections in other parts of the brain
  95. ______ can be effected from chronic stress through the action of cortisol on the hippocampus
  96. Development of music skills training can affect ____ development in children