Micro Test 3

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Micro Test 3
2013-04-24 19:51:19

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  1. List the three mechanisms of bacterial genetic recombination.
    Transformation, conjugation and transduction
  2. Why is recombination an advantage for the species?
    Genetic variation
  3. How does transformation occur?
    An exchange of genes
  4. What is competence?
    Cells which can alter their cell walls making them more permeable to DNA fragments
  5. What is transferred in conjugation?
  6. What is the difference between F+ cells and HFR cells?
    F+ cells carry the plasmid and with HFR cells the plasmid is incorporated into the chromosome
  7. How does transduction occur?
    Bacterial DNA from donor to recipient by a bacteriophage (virus)
  8. How is genetic information exchanged on plasmids?
    They are self replicating
  9. How is genetic information exchanged on transposons?
    They jump around from one location in the DNA to another
  10. How does genetic engineering using plasmids work? How might this work with bacteriophage?
    They add a gene to the plasmid which is then taken up by a cell such as a bacterium and the cells with the gene of interest are cloned
  11. Explain cDNA cloning?
    A method of cloning the coding sequence of a gene, starting with its mRNA transcript. It is normally used to clone a DNA copy of a eukaryotic mRNA. The cDNA copy, being a copy of a mature messenger molecule, will not contain any intron sequences and may be readily expressed in any host organism if attached to a suitable promoter sequence within the cloning vector.
  12. What type of genetic material do you use with cDNA cloning?
  13. Explain PCR. What is it used for?
    Used to make multiple copies of a gene or segment of DNA in a test tube. DNA from an individual, treated with restriction enzymes reults in a collection of fragments of different sizes. During gel electrophonesis the fragments are separated by charge and size. The result is a pattern of distinctive bands
  14. What is a gel?
    Agarose or polyacrylamide gel. Allows separation of DNA and creates a visible difference.