Biology Chapter 20+21

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Biology Chapter 20+21
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Biology Chapter 20+21
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  1. The instructions for
    making new copies of a virus are

    a. part of a
    virus’s capsid.

    b. coded in
    proteins on the surface membrane.

    c. coded in
    either RNA or DNA.

    d. found
    only in bacteriophages.
    c
  2. What is the
    basic structure of a virus?

    a. DNA or
    RNA surrounded by a protein coat

    b. a capsid
    surrounded by a protein coat

    c. a
    bacteriophage surrounded by a membrane

    d. a tiny
    cell surrounded by a cell wall
    a
  3. A lytic
    infection concludes with the

    a. insertion
    of viral DNA into the host cell’s DNA.

    b. production
    of a prophage.

    c. bursting
    of the host cell.

    d. production
    of messenger RNA.
    c
  4. Bacteriophages
    infect

    a. other
    viruses.                          
      c.
    any available host cell.

    b. bacteria.                                    d. cells
    undergoing the lytic cycle.
    b
  5. Bacteria
    and archaea differ in

    a. whether
    they have a nucleus.   c. size.

    b. the
    makeup of their cell walls.  d. whether
    they have a cell wall.
    b
  6. Which of
    the following may be members of the kingdom Archaea?

    a. methane
    producers                   c. eukaryotes

    b. bacteria                                     d. E.
    coli
    a
  7. Which of
    the following can survive either with oxygen or without it?

    a. obligate
    aerobes                        c.
    facultative anaerobes

    b. obligate anaerobes   d. bacteriophages
    c
  8. . Some prokaryotes are able to survive unfavorable
    conditions by forming

    a. flagella.                                    c. cocci.

    b. capsids.                                    d. endospores.
    d
  9. Biologists
    think that prokaryotes living in extreme environments may be a good source of

    a. food.                                        c.
    fertilizer.

    b.
    heat-stable enzymes.                d.
    carbon dioxide.
    b
  10. An unknown
    disease or a well-known disease that suddenly becomes harder to control is
    called

    a. a
    pathogen.                               c.
    an antibiotic.

    b. an
    emerging disease.                 d.
    a viral disease.
    b
  11. During what
    process do prokaryotes exchange genetic information?

    a. cell
    division                              c.
    conjugation

    b. binary
    fission                           d.
    endospore formation
    c
  12. . Prokaryotes that break down dead organisms and wastes
    are called

    a. nodules.                                    c.
    producers.

    b. nitrogen
    fixers.                         d.
    decomposers.
    d
  13. Which of the
    bacterial cells shown in Figure 20–1 is a coccus?

    a. A                                              c.
    C

    b. B                                              d.
    none of the above
    c
  14. What three
    characteristics are used to classify prokaryotes?

    a. by size,
    where they live, and whether they need air

    b. whether they have cell walls, flagella or cilia, and
    nuclei

    c. how they
    reproduce, where they get food, and whether they have DNA

    d. by shape,
    how they move, and how they get energy
    d
  15. During an
    experiment, a scientist observed prokaryotes that lived near volcanic vents
    deep in the ocean. The scientist MOST likely observed

    a.
    photoautotrophs.                      c.
    heterotrophs.

    b. chemoautotrophs.                    d.
    photoheterotrophs.
    b
  16. The instructions for
    making new copies of a virus are

    a. part of a
    virus’s capsid.

    b. coded in
    proteins on the surface membrane.

    c. coded in
    either RNA or DNA.

    d. found
    only in bacteriophages.
    b
  17. What is the
    basic structure of a virus?

    a. DNA or
    RNA surrounded by a protein coat

    b. a capsid
    surrounded by a protein coat

    c. a
    bacteriophage surrounded by a membrane

    d. a tiny
    cell surrounded by a cell wall
    c
  18. A lytic
    infection concludes with the

    a. insertion
    of viral DNA into the host cell’s DNA.

    b. production
    of a prophage.

    c. bursting
    of the host cell.

    d. production
    of messenger RNA.
    d
  19. Bacteriophages
    infect

    a. other
    viruses.                            c.
    any available host cell.

    b. bacteria.                                    d. cells
    undergoing the lytic cycle.
    c
  20. . Bacteria and archaea differ in

    a. whether
    they have a nucleus.   c. size.

    b. the
    makeup of their cell walls.  d. whether
    they have a cell wall.
    d
  21. Which of
    the following may be members of the kingdom Archaea?

    a. methane
    producers                   c. eukaryotes

    b. bacteria                                     d. E.
    coli
    b
  22. Which of
    the following can survive either with oxygen or without it?

    a. obligate
    aerobes                        c.
    facultative anaerobes

    b. obligate
    anaerobes                    d.
    bacteriophages
    d
  23. Some
    prokaryotes are able to survive unfavorable conditions by forming

    a. flagella.                                    c. cocci.

    b. capsids.                                    d. endospores.
    c
  24. Biologists
    think that prokaryotes living in extreme environments may be a good source of

    a. food.                                        c.
    fertilizer.

    b.
    heat-stable enzymes.                d.
    carbon dioxide.
    b
  25. An unknown
    disease or a well-known disease that suddenly becomes harder to control is
    called

    a. a
    pathogen.                               c.
    an antibiotic.

    b. an
    emerging disease.                 d.
    a viral disease.
    d
  26. During what
    process do prokaryotes exchange genetic information?

    a. cell
    division                              c.
    conjugation

    b. binary
    fission                           d.
    endospore formation
    c
  27. Prokaryotes
    that break down dead organisms and wastes are called

    a. nodules.                                    c.
    producers.

    b. nitrogen
    fixers.                         d.
    decomposers.
    true
  28. Which of the
    bacterial cells shown in Figure 20–1 is a coccus?

    a. A                                              c.
    C

    b. B                                              d.
    none of the above
    false
  29. What three
    characteristics are used to classify prokaryotes?

    a. by size,
    where they live, and whether they need air

    b. whether they have cell walls, flagella or cilia, and
    nuclei

    c. how they
    reproduce, where they get food, and whether they have DNA

    d. by shape,
    how they move, and how they get energy
    true
  30. During an
    experiment, a scientist observed prokaryotes that lived near volcanic vents
    deep in the ocean. The scientist MOST likely observed

    a.
    photoautotrophs.                      c.
    heterotrophs.

    b. chemoautotrophs.                    d.
    photoheterotrophs.
    true
  31. What are protists?

    a. prokaryotes that are part of Domain Archaea

    b. eukaryotes that are not part of the plant, animal, or
    fungi kingdoms

    c. single-celled organisms that belong to the plant,
    animal, and fungi kingdoms

    d. single-celled eukaryotes that are part of the plant
    and fungi kingdoms
    b
  32. What is one
    reason why the classification of protists in one kingdom is difficult?

    a. Some protists are unicellular while other protists
    are multicellular.

    b. Protists
    more closely resemble members of other eukaryotic kingdoms than they do other
    protists.

    c. Protists
    may be funguslike, plantlike, or animal-like, but they do not have
    characteristics of more than one of these groups.

    d. Because they are unicellular, protists fit better in
    the two domains of prokaryotes.
    b
  33. Based on
    Figure 21–1, which of the major groups of protists is MOST closely related to
    plants?

    a.
    Amoebozoa.

    b. Excavates.

    c. Rhodophyta.

    d. Choanozoa.
    c
  34. To move,
    nonmotile protists depend on

    a.
    air or water currents and other organisms.

    b. cytoplasmic projections.

    c. cilia and flagella.

    d. microtubules.
    a
  35. The
    organism shown in Figure 21–2 is an example of

    a. a flagellate.                               c. an amoeba.

    b. a ciliate.       d. a spore-forming protist
    a
  36. During what
    process do two protists exchange genetic material?

    a. cell division.                             c. conjugation.

    b. meiosis.       d. mitosis
    c
  37. In water
    molds, what structure produces spores?

    a. micronucleus.                           c. egg cell.

    b. macronucleus.                          d. sporangium.
    d
  38. Many protists
    alternate between diploid and haploid stages during their life cycle in a
    process known as

    a. alternation of generations.        c. sexual
    reproduction.

    b. conjugation.                              d. asexual reproduction.
    a
  39. Phytoplankton are
    only found at the surface of ocean waters because

    a. they feed on tiny organisms living at the surface.

    b. they are
    an important food source to surface-dwelling marine organisms.

    c. they require sunlight to carry out photosynthesis.

    d. they cannot withstand the colder temperatures of deep
    water.
    c
  40. Which of the
    following predicts what might happen to a coral reef if protists disappeared?

    a. Many animals would lose the shelter of the kelp
    forests that make up coral reefs.

    b. An algal
    bloom would occur, and the decomposition of dead protists would remove oxygen
    from the water.

    c. Coral
    animals would suffer from lack of food and the reef would be destabilized by a
    lack of calcium carbonate.

    d. Whales, such as baleen whales, that eat protists
    would starve.
    c
  41. Which of the
    following events might lead to an algal bloom?

    a. Nitrogen-rich fertilizer washes off of fields into
    the ocean.

    b. Oxygen is
    removed from ocean water by decomposition.

    c. New
    sewage plants remove more wastes from discharge.

    d. The population of baleen whales increases.
    a
  42. Which of the
    following protists gets nutrients mainly by absorbing molecules from other
    organisms through their cell walls and cell membranes?

    a. amoebas                                  c. ciliates

    b. water molds                             d. slime molds
    b
  43. Protists
    living inside termites

    a. infect the termites with disease.

    b. prevent
    the termite from digesting wood.

    c. produce an enzyme that breaks down cellulose.

    d. recycle nutrients by decomposing organic matter.
    c
  44. In a mycorrhizal
    relationship, what benefit does the plant get from the fungus?

    a. an energy source.

    b. aid in
    seed dispersal

    c. products of photosynthesis

    d. aid in the absorption of water and minerals
    d
  45. All fungi are

    a. heterotrophic prokaryotes.       c. autotrophic
    prokaryotes.

    b.
    heterotrophic eukaryotes.        d. autotrophic eukaryotes.
    b
  46. Most
    protists are

    a. prokaryotes.                                 c. fungi.

    b. single-celled.                                d. algae.
    b
  47. Scientists
    developed the theory that protists and other eukaryotes evolved from
    prokaryotes by studying

    a. fossils
    of multicellular eukaryotes.

    b. genetic
    and fossil evidence.

    c. plants,
    animals, and fungi.

    d. today’s
    single-celled organisms.
    b
  48. What
    structures do protists such as amoebas use for movement?

    a. pseudopods                                  c. flagella

    b. cilia                                              d. spores
    a
  49. The
    organism shown in Figure 21–1 is an example of

    a. a flagellate.                                   c. an amoeba.

    b. a ciliate.                                        d. a spore-forming protist.
    a
  50. During what
    process do two protists exchange genetic material?

    a. cell division                                  c. conjugation

    b. meiosis                                         d. mitosis
    c
  51. How are
    phytoplankton important to whales?

    a. They are
    eaten by some whales.

    b. They
    provide calcium carbonate for whales.

    c. They
    provide the whales with shelter.

    d. They
    recycle wastes into materials whales can eat.
    a
  52. In amoebas,
    what structure stores food for a short period of time?

    a. cilium                                           c. plasmodium

    b. gullet                                            d. vacuole
    d
  53. All fungi
    are

    a. heterotrophic prokaryotes.            c. autotrophic
    prokaryotes.

    b. heterotrophic eukaryotes.             d.
    autotrophic eukaryotes.
    b
  54. . A mushroom
    is a

    a. fruiting body.                               c. mycelium.

    b. lichen.                                          d. hypha.
    a
  55. An important
    role of fungi in an ecosystem is

    a.
    photosynthesis.

    b. breaking
    down dead organisms.

    c. making
    alcohol.

    d. killing bacteria.
    b
  56. Figure 21–2 illustrates an association of

    a. a
    cyanobacterium and a plant.

    b. an alga or cyanobacterium and a fungus.

    c. a plant and a fungus.

    d. an alga and a plant.
    b
  57. Which of the following organisms is a multicellular
    protist?

    a. kelp                                             c. diatom

    b. Euglena                                       d. archaea
    a
  58. In water molds, what structure produces spores?

    a. micronucleus                               c. egg cell

    b.
    macronucleus                              d. sporangium
    d
  59. When the amoebas of slime molds join, they form
    structures with many nuclei called

    a.
    plasmodia.                                   c. spores.

    b.
    sporangia.                                    d. zygotes.
    a
  60. Many protists have a life cycle known as

    a. alternation
    of generations.

    b. conjugation.

    c. sexual reproduction.

    d. asexual reproduction.
    a

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