psych220 CH 10
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What happens if Wolffian Ducts and Mullerian Ducts both develop?
What is Intersex?
External sex organs affected due to chromosome defects or the presence of the wrong hormones.
What is gender?
The psychological aspects of being male or female.
It is influenced by biological and environmental factors.
What are gender roles?**
Culture's expectations for masculine or feminine behavior
It includes attitudes, actions, and personality traits associated with being male or female in that culture
What is gender identity?
the individual's sense of being male or female
What is transgendered?**
Gender identity does not match external characteristics or sex chromosomes
What is transsexual?
People who feel they were born the wrong sex. Typically are cross-dressers and undergo hormone treatment and/or reassignment surgery
What influences gender?
- Biological Influences
- Environmental Influences
What are biological influences on Gender
Environmental influences on Gender**
What are the two types of culture?
- Individualistic: non-traditional
- Collectivist: traditional
Social learning theory**
gender identity is formed through reinforcement of appropriate gender behavior as well as imitation of gender models
Gender schema theory
theory of gender identity acquisition in which a child develops a mental pattern, or schema, for being male or female and then organizes observed and learned behavior around that schema.
a concept held about a person or group of people that is based on being male or female.
prejudice about males and/or females leading to unequal treatment.
Sexual Orientation: Nature**
Assumes no choice, much like being male or female
Evidence for genetic influences is increasing.
(twin studies found 52% of identical sibling also gay opposed to 22% fraternal)[Bailey, 1991]
Sexual Orientation: Nurture
Assumes behavior can change, placing burden of "normalcy" on homosexual person
Male homosexuals generally are more feminine as children [Bailey, 1995] Does his change the way they are raised?
3 Famous Research Studies on Human Sexuality**
- 1. Masters and Johnson (1955-56) on Human Sexual Response2. Kinsey (1948, 1953) on Sexual Behavior3. The Janus Report (1993) on Sexual Behavior
Masters and Johnson Study
used volunteers, some of whom were prostitutes, and both observed and measured their physiological responses during all phases of sexual intercourse
publication after 12 years of research
challenged sexual myths and the meaning of sexual normalcy
Series of sexual behavior surveys in the late 1940s and early 1950s
Revealed some highly controversial findings about the kinds of sexual behavior common among people in the United States, including:
- Premarital sex
- Extramarital sex
Large-scale survey of sexual behavior in the United States in 1990s
Did not differ widely from those of Kinsey but looked at many more types of sexual behavior and factors related to sexual behavior, including:
Sexual deviance - behavior that is unacceptable according to societal norms and exprectations
Organic or Stress-Induced Dysfunctions**
- Hypoactive Sexual Desire
- Aversion to sex
- Inhibited Sexual Arousal
- Premature/ Retarded Ejaculation
Hypoactive Sexual Desire**
lack of interest in sex
Aversion to sex**
anxiety, disgust, repulsion to having sex
Inhibited sexual arousal**
erectile inhibition, inhibited vaginal lubrication
General origins of Sexual Dysfunction**
- 1. Life cycle events
- 2. Experience of first partner sex
- 3. STDs
- 4. Medical Conditions
- 5. Drugs, prescribed and illicit
- 6. Cultural and/or religious influence
How to protect from spreading STIs**
- Use condoms
- Have only one partner
- Abstain from sex
- Avoid IV drug use
- Aware of various symptoms of diseases
- Get regular physicals
the period of life from about age 13 to the early 20s, during which a young person is no longer physically a child but is not yet an independent, self-supporting adult
- the physical changes that occur in the body as sexual development reaches its peak
- period of about four years
Adolescence vs Puberty
- Adolescence: psychosocial changes
- Puberty: physical changes
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