Norton Quiz

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  1. acting
    the last of the four steps of characterization in aperformed play.
  2. action
    an imagined event or series of events; an event maybe verbal as well as physical, so that sayingsomething or telling a story within the story may bean event.
  3. allegory
    as in metaphor, one thing (usually nonrational,abstract, religious) is implicitly spoken of in terms ofsomething concrete, but in an allegory thecomparison is extended to include an entire work orlarge portion of a work.
  4. alliteration
    the repetition of initial consonant sounds through asequence of words— for example, “While I nodded,nearly napping” in Edgar Allan Poe’s “The Raven.”
  5. allusion
    a reference—whether explicit or implicit, to history,the Bible, myth, literature, painting, music, and so on—that suggests the meaning or generalizedimplication of details in the story, poem, or play.
  6. ambiguity
    he use of a word or expression to mean more thanone thing
  7. amphitheater
    the design of classical Greek theaters, consisting of astage area surrounded by a semicircle of tiered seats
  8. analogy
    a comparison based on certain resemblances betweenthings that are otherwise unlike.
  9. anapestic
    a metrical form in which each foot consists of twounstressed syllables followed by a stressed one
  10. antagonist
    a neutral term for a character who opposes theleading male or female character. See hero/heroineand protagonist.
  11. antihero
    a leading character who is not, like a hero, perfect oreven outstanding, but is rather ordinary andrepresentative of the more or less average person.
  12. archetype
    a plot or character element that recurs in cultural orcross-cultural myths, such as “the quest” or “descentinto the underworld” or “scapegoat.”
  13. arena stage
    a stage design in which the audience is seated all theway around the acting area; actors make theirentrances and exits through the auditorium.
  14. assonance
    the repetition of vowel sounds in a sequence ofwords with different endings— for example, “Thedeath of the poet was kept from his poems” in W. H.Auden’s “In Memory of W. B. Yeats.
  15. aubade
    a morning song in which the coming of dawn iseither celebrated or denounced as a nuisance.
  16. auditor
    someone other than the reader—a character withinthe fiction—to whom the story or “speech” isaddressed.
  17. authorial time
    distinct from plot time and reader time, authorialtime denotes the influence that the time in which theauthor was writing had upon the conception andstyle of the text.
  18. ballad
    a narrative poem that is, or originally was, meant tobe sung. Characterized by repetition and often by arepeated refrain (recurrent phrase or series ofphrases), ballads were originally a folk creation,transmitted orally from person to person and age toage.
  19. ballad stanza
    a common stanza form, consisting of a quatrain thatalternates four-beat and three-beat lines; lines 1 and3 are unrhymed iambic tetrameter (four beats), andlines 2 and 4 are rhymed iambic trimeter (threebeats).
  20. blank verse
    the verse form most like everyday human speech;blank verse consists of unrhymed lines in iambicpentameter. Many of Shakespeare’s plays are inblank verse.
  21. caesura
    a short pause within a line of poetry; often but notalways signaled by punctuation. Note the twocaesuras in this line from Poe’s “The Raven”: “Onceupon a midnight dreary, while I pondered, weak andweary.”
  22. canon
    when applied to an individual author, canon (likeoeuvre) means the sum total of works written by thatauthor. When used generally, it means the range ofworks that a consensus of scholars, teachers, andreaders of a particular time and culture consider“great” or “major.” This second sense of the word isa matter of debate since the literary canon in Europeand America has long been dominated by the worksof white men. During the last several decades, thecanon in the United States has expandedconsiderably to include more works by women andwriters from various ethnic and racial backgrounds.
  23. casting
    the third step in the creation of a character on thestage; deciding which actors are to play which parts
  24. centered (central)consciousness
    a limited third-person point of view, one tied to asingle character throughout the story; this characteroften reveals his or her inner thoughts but is unableto read the thoughts of others.
  25. character
    (1) a fictional personage who acts, appears, or isreferred to in a work; (2) a combination of aperson’s qualities, especially moral qualities, so thatsuch terms as “good” and “bad,” “strong” and“weak,” often apply. See nature and personality.
  26. characterization
    the fictional or artistic presentation of a fictionalpersonage. A term like “a good character” can, then,be ambig-uous—it may mean that the personage isvirtuous or that he or she is well presented regardlessof his or her characteristics or moral qualitie
  27. chorus
    in classical Greek plays, a group of actors whocommented on and described the action of a play.Members of the chorus were often masked and reliedon song, dance, and recitation to make theircommentary.
  28. classical unities
    as derived from Aristotle’s Poetics, the principles ofstructure that require a play to have one action thatoccurs in one place and within one day
  29. climax
    also called the turning point, the third part of plotstructure, the point at which the action stops risingand begins falling or reversing
  30. colloquial diction
    a level of language in a work that approximates thespeech of ordinary people. The language used bycharacters in Toni Cade Bambara’s “Gorilla, MyLove” is a good example.
  31. comedy
    a broad category of dramatic works that are intendedprimarily to entertain and amuse an audience.Comedies take many different forms, but they sharethree basic characteristics: (1) the values that areexpressed and that typically present the conflictwithin the play are social and determined by thegeneral opinion of society (as opposed to beinguniversal and beyond the control of humankind, as intragedy); (2) characters in comedies are often definedprimarily in terms of their society and their rolewithin it; (3) comedies often end with a restorationof social order in which one or more characters takea proper social role
  32. conception
    the first step in the creation of any work of art, butespecially used to indicate the first step in thecreation of a dramatic character, whether for writtentext or performed play; the original idea, when theplaywright first begins to construct
  33. conclusion
    the fifth part of plot structure, the point at which thesituation that was destabilized at the beginning of thestory becomes stable once more
  34. concrete poetry
    poetry shaped to look like an object. RobertHerrick’s “Pillar of Fame,” for example, is arrangedto look like a pillar. Also called shaped verse.
  35. confessional poem
    a relatively recent (or recently defined) kind inwhich the speaker describes a state of mind, whichbecomes a metaphor for the larger world.
  36. conflict
    a struggle between opposing forces, such as betweentwo people, between a person and something innature or society, or even between two drives,impulses, or parts of the self.
  37. connotation
    what is suggested by a word, apart from what itexplicitly describes. See denotation
  38. controlling metaphors
    metaphors that dominate or organize an entire poem.In Linda Pastan’s “Marks,” for example, thecontrolling metaphor is of marks (grades) as a wayof talking about the speaker’s performance of roleswithin her family.
  39. conventions
    standard or traditional ways of saying things inliterary works, employed to achieve certain expectedeffects.
  40. cosmic irony
    a type of irony that arises out of the differencebetween what a character aspires to and what socalled universal forces deal him or her; such ironyimplies that a god or fate controls and toys withhuman actions, feelings, lives, outcomes.
  41. criticism
    See literary criticism.
  42. culture
    a broad and relatively indistinct term that implies acommonality of history and some cohesiveness ofpurpose within a group. One can speak of southernculture, for example, or urban culture, or Americanculture, or rock culture; at any one time, each of usbelongs to a number of these cultures.
  43. curiosity
    the desire to know what is happening or hashappened.
  44. dactylic
    the metrical pattern in which each foot consists of astressed syllable followed by two unstressed ones.
  45. denotation
    a direct and specific meaning. See connotation.
  46. descriptive structure
    a textual organization determined by therequirements of describing someone or something.
  47. diction
    an author’s choice of words.
  48. discriminated occasion
    the first specific event in a story, usually in the formof a specific scene.
  49. discursive structure
    a textual organization based on the form of a treatise,argument, or essay.
  50. dramatic irony
    a plot device in which a character holds a position orhas an expectation that is reversed or fulfilled in away that the character did not expect but that we, asreaders or as audience members, have anticipatedbecause our knowledge of events or individuals ismore complete than the char-acter’s.
  51. dramatic monologue
    a monologue set in a specific situation and spoken toan imaginary audience.
  52. dramatic structure
    a textual organization based on a series of scenes,each of which is presented vividly and in detail.
  53. dramatis personae
    the list of characters that appears either in the play’sprogram or at the top of the first page of the writtenplay
  54. echo
    a verbal reference that recalls a word, phrase, orsound in another text.
  55. elegy
    in classical times, any poem on any subject writtenin “elegiac” meter; since the Renaissance, usually aformal lament on the death of a particular person.
  56. English sonnet
    see Shakespearean sonnet.
  57. enjambment
    running over from one line of poetry to the nextwithout stop, as in the following lines byWordsworth: “My heart leaps up when I behold / Arainbow in the sky.
  58. epic
    a poem that celebrates, in a continuous narrative, theachievements of mighty heroes and heroines, usuallyin founding a nation or developing a culture, anduses elevated language and a grand, high style.
  59. epigram
    originally any poem carved in stone (on tombstones,buildings, gates, and so forth), but in modern usage avery short, usually witty verse with a quick turn atthe end.
  60. expectation
    the anticipation of what is to happen next (seecuriosity and suspense), what a character is like orhow he or she will develop, what the theme ormeaning of the story will prove to be, and so on.
  61. exposition
    that part of the structure that sets the scene,introduces and identifies characters, and establishesthe situation at the beginning of a story or play.Additional exposition is often scattered throughoutthe work.
  62. extended metaphor
    a detailed and complex metaphor that stretchesthrough a long section of a work
  63. falling action
    the fourth part of plot structure, in which thecomplications of the rising action are untangled.
  64. farce
    a play characterized by broad humor, wild antics,and often slapstick, pratfalls, or other physicalhumor.
  65. figurative
    usually applied to language that uses figures ofspeech. Figurative language heightens meaning byimplicitly or explicitly representing something interms of some other thing, the assumption being thatthe “other thing” will be more familiar to the reader
  66. figures of speech
    comparisons in which something is pictured orfigured in other, more familiar terms.
  67. first-person narrator
    a character, “I,” who tells the story and necessarilyhas a limited point of view; may also be anunreliable narrator.
  68. flashback
    a plot-structuring device whereby a scene from thefictional past is inserted into the fictional present ordramatized out of order.
  69. flat character
    a fictional character, often but not always a minorcharacter, who is relatively simple; who is presentedas having few, though sometimes dominant, traits;and who thus does not change much in the course ofa story. See round character.
  70. focus
    the point from which people, events, and otherdetails in a story are viewed. See point of view.
  71. foil
    one character that serves as a contrast to another
  72. formal diction
    language that is lofty, dignified, and impersonal. Seecolloquial diction and informal diction.
  73. free verse
    poetry characterized by varying line lengths, lack of traditional meter, and nonrhyming lines.
  74. genre
    he largest category for classifying lit-erature—fiction, poetry, drama. See kind and subgenre.
  75. haiku
    an unrhymed poetic form, Japanese in origin, thatcontains seventeen syllables arranged in three linesof five, seven, and five syllables, respectively.
  76. hero/heroine
    he leading male/female character, usually largerthan life, sometimes almost godlike. See antihero,protagonist, and villain.
  77. heroic couplet
    hymed pairs of lines in iambic pentameter
  78. hexameter
    a line of poetry with six feet: “She comes, | shecomes | again, | like ring | dove frayed | and fled”(Keats, The Eve of St. Agnes).
  79. high (verbal) comedy
    humor that employs subtlety, wit, or therepresentation of refined life. See low (physical)comedy.
  80. hyperbole
    overstatement characterized by exaggeratedlanguage.
  81. iamb
    a metrical foot consisting of an unstressed syllablefollowed by a stressed one
  82. iambic pentameter
    a metrical form in which the basic foot is an iamband most lines consist of five iambs; iambicpentameter is the most common poetic meter inEnglish: “One com | mon note | on ei | ther lyre | didstrike” (Dryden, “To the Memory of Mr. Oldham”)
  83. imagery
    broadly defined, any sensory detail or evocation in awork; more narrowly, the use of figurative languageto evoke a feeling, to call to mind an idea, or todescribe an object.
  84. imitative structure
    a textual organization that mirrors as exactly aspossible the structure of something that alreadyexists as an object and can be seen.
  85. implied author
    the guiding personality or value system behind atext; the implied author is not necessarilysynonymous with the actual author
  86. informal diction
    language that is not as lofty or impersonal as formaldiction; similar to everyday speech. See colloquialdiction, which is one variety of informal diction.
  87. initiation story
    a kind of short story in which a character—often butnot always a child or young person—first learns asignificant, usually life-changing truth about theuniverse, society, people, himself or herself.
  88. in medias res
    “in the midst of things”; refers to opening a story inthe middle of the action, necessitating filling in pastdetails by exposition or flashback.
  89. irony
    a situation or statement characterized by a significantdifference between what is expected or understoodand what actually happens or is meant. See cosmicirony, dramatic irony, and situational irony.
  90. Italian sonnet
    see Petrarchan sonnet.
  91. kind
    a species or subcategory within a subgenre; initiationstory is a subcategory of the subgenre short story.
  92. limerick
    a light or humorous verse form of mainly anapesticverses of which the first, second, and fifth lines areof three feet; the third and fourth lines are of twofeet; and the rhyme scheme is aabba.
  93. literary criticism
    the evaluative or interpretive work written byprofessional interpreters of texts. It is “criticism” notbecause it is negative or corrective, but ratherbecause those who write criticism ask hard,analytical, crucial, or “critical” questions about theworks they read.
  94. litotes
    a figure of speech that emphasizes its subject byconscious understatement. An example fromcommon speech is to say “Not bad” as a form ofhigh praise.
  95. low (physical) comedy
    humor that employs burlesque, horseplay, or therepresentation of unrefined life. See high (verbal)comedy
  96. lyric
    originally, a poem meant to be sung to theaccompaniment of a lyre; now, any short poem inwhich the speaker expresses intense personalemotion rather than describing a narrative ordramatic situation.
  97. major (main) characters
    those characters whom we see and learn about themost.
  98. meditation
    a contemplation of some physical object as a way ofreflecting upon some larger truth, often (but notnecessarily) a spiritual one.
  99. memory devices
    also called mnemonic devices; these devices—including rhyme, repetitive phrasing, and meter—when part of the structure of a longer work, makethat work easier to memorize.
  100. metaphor
    (1) one thing pictured as if it were something else,suggesting a likeness or analogy between them; (2)an implicit comparison or identification of one thingwith another unlike itself without the use of a verbalsignal. Sometimes used as a general term for figureof speech.
  101. meter
    the more or less regular pattern of stressed andunstressed syllables in a line of poetry. This isdetermined by the kind of “foot” (iambic anddactylic, for example) and by the number of feet perline (five feet = pentameter, six feet = hexameter, forexample)
  102. minor characters
    those figures who fill out the story but who do notfigure prominently in it.
  103. mode
    style, manner, way of proceeding, as in “tragicmode”; often used synonymously with genre, kind,and subgenre.
  104. monologue
    a speech of more than a few sentences, usually in aplay but also in other genres, spoken by one personand uninterrupted by the speech of anyone else. Seesoliloquy
  105. motif
    a recurrent device, formula, or situation thatdeliberately connects a poem with common patternsof existing thought.
  106. narrative structure
    a textual organization based on sequences ofconnected events usually presented in astraightforward chronological framework.
  107. narrator
    the character who “tells” the story.
  108. nature
    as it refers to a person?“it is his (or her) nature”?arather old term suggesting something inborn,inherent, fixed, and thus predictable. See character,personality.
  109. occasional poem
    a poem written about or for a specific occasion,public or private.
  110. octameter
    a line of poetry with eight feet: “Once u | pon a |midnight | dreary | while I | pondered, | weak and |weary” (Poe, “The Raven”).
  111. octave
    the first eight lines of the Italian,or Petrarchan,sonnet. See also sestet.
  112. ode
    a lyric poem characterized by a serious topic andformal tone but no prescribed formal pattern. SeeKeats’s odes and Shelley’s “Ode to the West Wind
  113. oeuvre
    the sum total of works verifiably written by anauthor. See canon.
  114. omniscient point of view
    also called unlimited point of view; a perspectivethat can be seen from one character’s view, thenanother’s, then another’s, or can be moved in or outof any character’s mind at any time. Organization inwhich the reader has access to the perceptions andthoughts of all the characters in the story.
  115. onomatopoeia
    a word capturing or approximating the sound ofwhat it describes; buzz is a good example.
  116. orchestra
    in classical Greek theater, a semicircular area usedmostly for dancing by the chorus.
  117. overplot
    a main plot in fiction or drama.
  118. overstatement
    exaggerated language; also called hyperbole
  119. oxymoron
    a figure of speech that combines two apparentlycontradictory elements, as in wise fool (sophomore).
  120. parable
    a short fiction that illustrates an explicit morallesson.
  121. paradox
    a statement that seems contradictory but mayactually be true, such as “That I may rise and stand,o’erthrow me” in Donne’s “Batter My Heart.”
  122. parody
    a work that imitates another work for comic effect byexaggerating the style and changing the content ofthe original.
  123. pastoral
    a poem (also called an eclogue, a bucolic, or anidyll) that describes the simple life of country folk,usually shepherds who live a timeless, painless (andsheep-less) life in a world full of beauty, music, andlove.
  124. pastoral play
    a play that features the sort of idyllic world describedin the definition for pastoral.
  125. pentameter
    a line of poetry with five feet: ”Nuns fret | not at |their con | vent’s nar | row room“ (Wordsworth)
  126. persona
    the voice or figure of the author who tells andstructures the story and who may or may not sharethe values of the actual author.
  127. personality
    its qualities are judged not so much in terms of theirmoral value, as in “character,” but as to whether theyare “pleasing” or “unpleasing.”
  128. personification
    (or prosopopeia) treating an abstraction as if it werea person by endowing it with humanlike qualities.
  129. Petrarchan sonnet
    also called Italian sonnet; a sonnet form that dividesthe poem into one section of eight lines (octave) anda second section of six lines (sestet), usuallyfollowing the abbaabba cdecde rhyme scheme or,more loosely, an abbacddc pattern.
  130. plot/plot structure
    the arrangement of the action.
  131. plot summary
    a description of the arrangement of the action in theorder in which it actually appears in a story. Theterm is popularly used to mean the description of thehistory, or chronological order, of the action as itwould have appeared in reality. It is important toindicate exactly in which sense you are using theterm.
  132. plot time
    the temporal setting in which the action takes placein a story or play
  133. point of view
    also called focus; the point from which people,events, and other details in a story are viewed. Thisterm is sometimes used to include both focus andvoice.
  134. precision
    exactness, accuracy of language or description. N
  135. presentation
    the second step in the creation of a character for thewritten text and the performed play; therepresentation of the character by the playwright inthe words and actions specified in the text.
  136. props
    articles and objects used on the stage
  137. proscenium arch
    an arch over the front of a stage; the prosceniumserves as a “frame” for the action on stage.
  138. protagonist
    the main character in a work, who may be male orfemale, heroic or not heroic. See antagonist, antihero,and hero/ heroine. Protagonist is the most neutralterm.
  139. protest poem
    a poetic attack, usually quite direct, on allegedlyunjust institutions or social injustices.
  140. psychological realism
    a modification of the concept of realism, or telling itlike it is, which recognizes that what is real to theindividual is that which he or she perceives. It is theground for the use of the centered consciousness, orthe first-person narrator, since both of these presentreality only as something perceived by the focalcharacter.
  141. reader time
    the actual time it takes a reader to read a work.
  142. realism
    the practice in literature of attempting to describenature and life without idealization and withattention to detail.
  143. red herring
    a false lead, something that misdirects expectations.
  144. referential
    when used to describe a poem, play, or story,referential means making textual use of a specifichistorical moment or event or, more broadly, makinguse of external, “natural,” or “actual” detail.
  145. reflective (meditative)structure
    a textual organization based on the pondering of asubject, theme, or event, and letting the mind playwith it, skipping from one sound to another or torelated thoughts or objects as the mind receivesthem.
  146. represent
    to verbally depict an image so that readers can “see”it.
  147. rhetorical trope
    traditional figure of speech, used for specificpersuasive effects.
  148. rhyme scheme
    the pattern of end rhymes in a poem, often noted bysmall letters, e.g., abab or abba, etc.
  149. rhythm
    the modulation of weak and strong (or stressed andunstressed) elements in the flow of speech. In mostpoetry written before the twentieth century, rhythmwas often expressed in regular, metrical forms; inprose and in free verse, rhythm is present but in amuch less predictable and regular manner.
  150. rising action
    the second of the five parts of plot structure, inwhich events complicate the situation that existed atthe beginning of a work, intensifying the conflict orintroducing new conflict.
  151. rite of passage
    a ritual or ceremony marking an individual’s passingfrom one stage or state to a more advanced one, oran event in one’s life that seems to have suchsignificance; a formal initiation. Rites of passage arecommon in initiation stories.
  152. round characters
    complex characters, often major characters, who cangrow and change and “surprise convincingly”—thatis, act in a way that you did not expect from whathad gone before but now accept as possible, evenprobable, and “realistic.”
  153. sarcasm
    a form of verbal irony in which apparent praise isactually harshly or bitterly critical.
  154. satire
    a literary work that holds up human failings toridicule and censure.
  155. scanning/scansion
    Scansion is the process of scanning a poem,analyzing the verse to show its meter, line by line.
  156. sestet
    the last six lines of the Italian, or Petrarchan, sonnet.See also octave.
  157. sestina
    an elaborate verse structure written in blank versethat consists of six stanzas of six lines each followedby a three-line stanza. The final words of each line inthe first stanza appear in variable order in the nextfive stanzas, and are repeated in the middle and atthe end of the three lines in the final stanza, as inElizabeth Bishop’s “Sestina.
  158. set
    he design, decoration, and scenery of the stageduring a play.
  159. setting
    the time and place of the action in a story, poem, orplay.
  160. Shakespearean sonnet
    also called an English sonnet; a sonnet form thatdivides the poem into three units of four lines eachand a final unit of two lines (4+4+4+2 structure). Itsclassic rhyme scheme is abab cdcd efef gg, but thereare variations.
  161. shaped verse
    another name for concrete poetry; poetry that isshaped to look like an object.
  162. simile
    a direct, explicit comparison of one thing to another,usually using the words like or as to draw theconnection. See metaphor.
  163. situation
    the context of the literary work’s action, what ishappening when the story, poem, or play begins. NA
  164. situational irony
    in a narrative, the incongruity between what thereader and/or character expects to happen and whatactually does happen.
  165. skene
    a low building in the back of the stage area inclassical Greek theaters. It represented the palace ortemple in front of which the action took place.
  166. soliloquy
    a monologue in which the character in a play isalone and speaking only to him-or herself.
  167. sonnet
    a fixed verse form consisting of fourteen linesusually in iambic pentameter. See Italian sonnet andShakespearean sonnet.
  168. spatial setting
    the place of a poem, story, or play.
  169. speaker
    the person, not necessarily the author, who is thevoice of a poem.
  170. Spenserian stanza
    a stanza that consists of eight lines of iambicpentameter (five feet) followed by a ninth line ofiambic hexameter (six feet). The rhyme scheme isababbcbcc.
  171. spondee
    a metrical foot consisting of a pair of stressedsyllables (“Dead set”).
  172. stage directions
    The words in the printed text of a play that informthe director, crew, actors, and readers how to stage,perform, or imagine the play. Stage directions arenot spoken aloud and may appear at the beginning ofa play, before any scene, or attached to a line ofdialogue. The place and time of the action, thedesign of the set itself, and at times the characters’actions or tone of voice are dictated through stagedirections and interpreted by the group of people thatput on a performance.
  173. stanza
    a section of a poem demarcated by extra linespacing. Some distinguish between a stanza, adivision marked by a single pattern of meter orrhyme, and a verse paragraph, a division governedby thought rather than sound pattern.
  174. stereotype
    a characterization based on conscious or unconsciousassumptions that some one aspect—such as gender,age, ethnic or national identity, religion, occupation,marital status, and so on—is predictablyaccompanied by certain character traits, actions, evenvalues.
  175. stock character
    a character that appears in a number of stories orplays, such as the cruel stepmother, the braggart, andso forth.
  176. structure
    the organization or arrangement of the variouselements in a work.
  177. style
    a distinctive manner of expression; each author’sstyle is expressed through his/her diction, rhythm,imagery, and so on.
  178. subgenre
    a division within the category of a genre; novel,novella, and short story are subgenres of the genrefiction.
  179. subject
    (1) the concrete and literal description of what astory is about; (2) the general or specific area ofconcern of a poem—also called topic; (3) also usedin fiction commentary to denote a character whoseinner thoughts and feelings are recounted.
  180. subplot
    another name for an underplot; a subordinate plot infiction or drama.
  181. suspense
    the expectation of and doubt about what is going tohappen next.
  182. syllabic verse
    a form in which the poet establishes a precisenumber of syllables to a line and repeats it insubsequent stanzas.
  183. symbol
    a person, place, thing, event, or pattern in a literarywork that designates itself and at the same timefiguratively represents or “stands for” something
  184. symbolic poem
    a poem in which the use of symbols is so pervasiveand internally consistent that the larger referentialworld is distanced, if not forgotten.
  185. syntax
    the way words are put together to form phrases,clauses, and sentences.
  186. technopaegnia
    the art of “shaped” poems in which the visual forceis supposed to work spiritually or magically
  187. temporal setting
    the time of a story, poem, or play.
  188. terza rima
    a verse form consisting of three-line stanzas inwhich the second line of each stanza rhymes with thefirst and third of the next.
  189. tetrameter
    a line of poetry with four feet: “The Grass | divides |as with | a comb” (Dickinson).
  190. tetrameter couplet
    rhymed pairs of lines that contain (in classicaliambic, trochaic, and anapestic verse) four measuresof two feet or (in modern English verse) fourmetrical feet.
  191. theme
    (1) a generalized, abstract paraphrase of the inferredcentral or dominant idea or concern of a work; (2)the statement a poem makes about its subject.
  192. third-person narrator
    a character, “he” or “she,” who “tells” the story; mayhave either a limited point of view or an omniscientpoint of view; may also be an unreliable narrator.
  193. thrust stage
    a stage design that allows the audience to sit aroundthree sides of the major acting area
  194. tone
    the attitude a literary work takes toward its subjectand theme.
  195. topic
    (1) the concrete and literal description of what astory is about; (2) a poem’s general or specific areaof concern. Also called subject.
  196. tradition
    an inherited, established, or customary practice.
  197. traditional symbols
    symbols that, through years of usage, have acquiredan agreed-upon significance, an accepted meaning.See archetype.
  198. tragedy
    a drama in which a character (usually a good andnoble person of high rank) is brought to a disastrousend in his or her confrontation with a superior force(fortune, the gods, social forces, universal values),but also comes to understand the meaning of his orher deeds and to accept an appropriate punishment.Often the protagonist’s downfall is a direct result ofa fatal flaw in his or her character
  199. trochaic
    a metrical form in which the basic foot is a trochee.
  200. trochee
    a metrical foot consisting of a stressed syllablefollowed by an unstressed one (“Homer”)
  201. turning point
    the third part of plot structure, the point at which theaction stops rising and begins falling or reversing.Also called climax.
  202. underplot
    a subordinate plot in fiction or drama. Also called asubplot.
  203. understatement
    language that avoids obvious emphasis orembellishment; litotes is one form of it.
  204. unity of time
    one of the three unities of drama as described byAristotle in his Poetics. Unity of time refers to thelimitation of a play’s action to a short period—
  205. unlimited point of view
    also called omniscient point of view; a perspectivethat can be seen from one character’s view, thenanother’s, then another’s, or can be moved in or outof any character’s mind at any time. Organization inwhich the reader has access to the perceptions andthoughts of all the characters in the story.
  206. unreliable narrator
    a speaker or voice whose vision or version of thedetails of a story are consciously or unconsciouslydeceiving; such a narrator’s version is usually subtlyundermined by details in the story or the reader’sgeneral knowledge of facts outside the story. If, forexample, the narrator were to tell you that Columbuswas Spanish and that he discovered America in thefourteenth century when his ship the Golden Hindlanded on the coast of Florida near present-dayGainesville, you might not trust other things he tellsyou.
  207. verbal irony
    a statement in which the literal meaning differs fromthe implicit meaning. See dramatic irony andsituational irony
  208. verse paragraph
    see stanza.
  209. villain
    the one who opposes the hero and heroine—that is,the “bad guy.” See antagonist and hero/heroine.
  210. villanelle
    a verse form consisting of nineteen lines divided intosix stanzas—five tercets (three-line stanzas) and onequatrain (four-line stanza). The first and third linesof the first tercet rhyme, and this rhyme is repeatedthrough each of the next four tercets and in the lasttwo lines of the concluding quatrain. The villanelle isalso known for its repetition of select lines. A goodexample of a twentieth-century villanelle is DylanThomas’s “Do Not Go Gentle into That GoodNight.”
  211. voice
    story’s words; the speaker; the “person” telling thestory.
  212. word order
    the positioning of words in relation to one another.

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