Urinalysis and Body Fluids

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ncrook
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215669
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Urinalysis and Body Fluids
Updated:
2013-05-03 00:23:53
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Renal Pathology Tests
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Renal Pathology and Tests
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  1. Name the urine organic substances
    • Urea
    • Creatinine
    • Uric acid
    • Glucose
    • Proteins
    • Hormones
    • Vitamins
    • Metabolized meds
  2. Name the urine inorganic substances
    • Chloride
    • Sodium
    • Potassium
    • Sulfate
    • Phosphate
    • Ammonium
    • Calcium
    • Magnesium
  3. What part of the renal is a muscular tube that connects the pelvis of the kidney to the bladder?
    Ureter
  4. Urine is stored in the _________ until excretion through the ___________
    • Stored in the bladder
    • Excreted in the urethra
  5. What is the outer and inner layers of the kidney?
    • Cortex: outer layer
    • Medulla: inner layer
  6. What arteries and vein supply and circulate blood to the kidney?
    • Abdominal aorta supplies blood to the renal artery
    • Renal vein returns blood to the inferior vena cava
  7. What is the functional part of the kidney and what does it do?
    • Nephron: functional part of kidney
    • Responsible for urine formation
  8. What is the function of glomerulus?
    Functions as a semipermeable membrane to make an ultra filtrate of the plasma that is protein free
  9. What is the normal GFR formed per minute by the glomeruli?
    115-125 mL/min
  10. What is the function of the proximal convoluted tube?
    • Reabsorbs:
    • Water
    • Na
    • Cl
    • K
    • Urea
    • Glucose
    • Amino acids
  11. What is the value of the renal threshold?
    160-180 mg/dL
  12. What is the function of the Loop of Henle?
    Reabsorb Na and Cl
  13. What is the function of the distal convoluted tubule?
    • Reabsorption of Na
    • Secretion of H and K
  14. What hormone controls the reabsorption of water, Na, Cl?
    ADH (antidiuretic hormone)
  15. What hormone controls the reabsorption of Na and water and the secretion of K and H into the filtrate?
    Aldosterone
  16. What is the function of the collecting duct?
    Reabsorption of Na and Cl
  17. What secretes renin?
    Juxtaglomerular apparatus of the kidneys
  18. What catalyzes the conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin I?
    Renin
  19. What stimulates production of angiotensin II?
    Angiotensin I
  20. What regulates renal blood?
    Angiotensin II
  21. How does Angiotensin II work?
    • Regulates blood by:
    • Constriction of renal arterioles
    • Secretion of aldosterone from the adrenal glands to facilitate retention of sodium
  22. What does aldosterone do for the kidneys?
    • Acts on the kidneys by promoting the reabsorption of Na from the filtrate and the secretion of K from the blood
    • Reabsorbs Na
    • Secretes K
  23. What does the antidiuretic hormone (ADH) do for the kidneys?
    Promotes water reabsorption from the filtrate into the blood
  24. What does the parathyroid hormone (PTH) do for the kidneys?
    • Promotes Ca reabsorption from the filtrate
    • Excretion of phosphate ions from blood
  25. Where is erythropoietin produced?
    Produced by the peritubular fibroblasts in the kidneys
  26. What does erythropoietin do?
    Stimulates RBC production in response to lowered oxygen levels
  27. What condition:
    Is an inflammation of the glomerulus seen in children and young adults
    Can follow Group A Strep respiratory infection
    Characterized by hematuria, proteinuria, WBCs, and casts (RBC, granular, and hyaline)
    Acute glomerulonephritis
  28. What condition:
    A more serious condition than acute glomerulonephritis that may result in renal failure
    Urinalysis results would be similar to acute glomerulonephritis (hematuria, proteinuria, WBCs, and casts)
    Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
  29. What condition:
    Inflammation of renal interstitutium that may be cause by an allergic reaction to meds
    Characterized by hematuria, proteinuria, WBCs (especially Eos), and WBC casts
    Acute interstitial nephritis
  30. What condition:
    Thickening of the glomerular capillary walls and basement membrane
    Characterized by hematuria and proteinuria
    Membranous glomerulonephritis
  31. What condition:
    May be caused by renal blood pressure irregularities
    Characterized by proteinuria (>3.5 g/24 hr), hematuria, lipiduria, oval fat bodies, renal tubular epithelial cells, and casts (epithelial, fatty, and waxy)
    Nephrotic syndrome
  32. What condition:
    Affects a specific number of glomeruli, not the entire glomerulus
    Often seen in HIV patients
    Characterized by hematuria and proteinuria
    Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
  33. What condition:
    Results in a long-term progressive loss of renal function
    characterized by hematuria, proteinuria, glucosuria, presence of casts (including broad)
    Chronic glomerulonephritis
  34. What condition:
    An infection of the renal tubules caused by a urinary tract infection
    Characterized by hematuria, proteinuria, WBCs, bacteria, and casts (WBC and bacterial)
    Acute pyelonephritis
  35. What condition:
    Chronic infection of the tubules and interstitial tissue that may progress to renal failure
    Characterized by hematuria, proteinuria, WBCs, bacteria, and casts (WBC, bacterial, granular, waxy, and broad)
    Chronic pyelonephritis
  36. What condition:
    Tubular necrosis caused by nephrotoxic agents an other disease processes
    Results in failure of the kidneys to filter blood
    Renal failure
  37. What test measures the amount of solute dissolved in a solution?
    Osmolality
  38. What test measures and is dependent on the solute dissolved in a solution AND the density of this solute?
    Specific gravity
  39. What 2 tests:
    Can be used to evaluate renal concentrating ability
    Monitor the course of renal disease
    Monitor fluid and electrolyte therapy
    • Osmolality
    • Specific gravity
  40. What test is used to assess renal waste removal and solute reabsorbing abilities?
    • Creatinine clearance
    • Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)
    • (Glomerular tests)
  41. What test is used to assess glomerular filtration rate?
    Creatinine clearance
  42. What does a decreased clearance test indicate?
    Compromised kidney function
  43. What is the creatinine clearance formula?
    • U: Urine creatinine
    • V: urine flow in mL/min
    • P: plasma creatinine
    • SA: body surface area
  44. What is the reference range of creatinine clearance?
    • Males: 105 +/- 20 mL/min/1.73 m2
    • Females: 95 +/- 20 mL/min/1.73m2
  45. What is the normal output of urine for an adult?
    1200-1500 mL/24 hr
  46. What is the term for decreased urine output because of dehydration?
    Oliguria
  47. What is the term for no urine output because of kidney damage or renal failure?
    Anuria
  48. What is the term for an increased urine output at night?
    Nocturia
  49. What is the term for an increased daily output of urine - may exceed 2 L/day?
    Polyuria
  50. What causes polyuria?
    • Diabetes mellitus
    • Diabetes insipidus

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