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Compare/analyze major developmental milestones for children from infancy through adolesence i the areas of psychosocial; cognitive, language and physical development.
- Cognitive milestones for children, It is not until around seven or eight months that infants will search for an object hidden as they watch, believing, apparently, that the object continues to exist even though they no longer see it.
- First words are usually uttered late during the first year, and children's first two-word sentences are typically spoken between eighteen and twenty-four months of age. Language abilities develop rapidly during the third year of life, so that by age three and a half, most children are linguistic geniuses, being able to speak their native tongue proficiently (and far better than most adult second-language learners).
- The list for physical development includes a number of familiar milestones for infants, most related to gaining control over their bodies so that they are able to move about on their own.adults must specially prepare food for children years after they have stopped nursing. This is a pattern seen in no other animal and makes the period of "childhood" unique to the human species.Physical growth is slow and gradual between the ages of about six and eleven, when the adolescent growth spurt begins (sometimes a bit earlier for girls). The rapid growth at this time, which occurs later for boys, coupled with the development of secondary sexual characteristics, marks the physical transition to adulthood.
Differentiate characteristics of typical and atypical development at various stages of development.
The development of knowledge in infants typically must be explored by indirect means.
The development of normal individual in motor ability are common and depend in part on the child's weight and build. However, after the infant period, normal individual differences are strongly affected by opportunities to practice, observe, and be instructed on specific movements.Atypical development of social-emotional characteristics may be mildly unusual, or may be so extreme as to indicate mental illness.
There are normal individual differences in the ages at which specific cognitive abilities are achieved, but schooling for children in industrialized countries is based on the assumption that these differences are not large.Atypical delays in cognitive development are problematic for children in cultures that demand advanced cognitive skills for work and for independent living.
Atypically delayed language development may be diagnostic of autism, and regression of language may indicate serious disabilities like Rett syndrome. Poor language development also accompanies general developmental delays such as those found in Down syndrome.
analyze how social, economjic, political, historical, and cultural contexts affect children's development.
- better economic resources tended to be display more supportive parenting, which in turn positively influenced their children's cognitive performance.family earnings may not have a strong impact on children's cognitive developmentprograms that offer a combination of cash assistance and services designed to improve the quality of parenting may be more effective.
- Societal factors also affect children's social development. Stressed families and those with little time for interaction with children have become a focus of research as divorce rates have risen. Poverty conditions undermine opportunities for children's positive development. Further investigation is needed on the linkage between child development and social factors.
children are best understood in the context of family, culture, and society.
- cultural contexts affect in children'ts development.Some cultural groups tend to prefer one or the other of these styles, each of which encourages and controls different patterns of behavior in children.
- political and social forces, such as welfare reform, homelessness, domestic violence, and civil rights issues, profoundly mold the plane on which child well-being is drawn. political developments that affect children’s safety. This policy statement explores the historical context of contemporary policy development, definitions of child maltreatment, and demographics of child abuse in the United States.
review Vygotsky and Piaget.
- Cognitive Development TheoryJean Piaget's cognitive development theory views children as "busy, motivated explorers whose thinking develops as they act directly on the environment" This theory focuses on mental growth as being the most important element in a child's development. Piaget believed that individuals progress through four ages of cognitive development: sensorimotor (0-2 years of age), preoperational (2-7 years of age), concrete operational (7-11 years of age), and formal operational At the sensorimotor stage the thinking involves forming knowledge via the senses: sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell. It is at this stage that object permanence (objects exist whether perceived or not) is developed. Also, during this stage, goal-directed actions occur using trial and error attempts to reach a particular goal (i.e. reach a toy or open a box). During the preoperational stage, preschoolers begin to use internal thought and symbols to solve problems but rely heavily on perception and physical cues and are therefore easily fooled by the "appearance of things." This perspective suggests that we can get to know about how children think by listening carefully and observing ways in which they solve problems and that children should be guided in actively constructing knowledge(11 years of age - adulthood).
- Sociocultural TheoryLev Vygotsky's sociocultural theory considers the effect of culture when looking at child development and child behavior. This theory suggests that social interactions need to be understood as a part of the cultural setting and not separately in order to understand the contribution of social interaction to cognitive development and thinking. Vygotsky's theory places a greater role of language, social interaction, and society in child development than Piaget's cognitive development theory. Whereas Piaget emphasized children being active, constructive beings independently, Vygotsky supports that guided participation as an interactive process by adults is vital for cognitive development. Vygotsky maintains that caregivers and parents scaffold (use language to guide thinking) children's learning. If tasks are too difficult for a child, Vygotsky maintains that the adult intervene by asking questions or giving hints that assist the child in completing the task or solving the problem. These periods of indirect guidance are called "zone of proximal development." Vygotsky maintains that indirect guidance, when a child is within the zone of proximal development, promotes powerful learning. From the sociocultural perspective, knowledge construction can be enhanced by use of rich language and provided for peer interactions.
review the behaviorist theorists.
Behaviorist theories of learning seek scientific, demonstrable explanations for simple behaviors. For these reasons, and since humans are considered to resemble machines, behaviorist explanations tend to be somewhat mechanical in nature.There were Behaviorists, such as John B. Watson, Ivan Pavlov, B.F. Skinner, E. L. Thorndike (connectionism), Bandura, Tolman (moving toward cognitivism)
review primary and secondary sexual development
sexual development is typically associated with the teen years, in reality young kids develop an emotional and physical foundation for sexuality in many subtle ways from infancy.Physical and emotional changes become more dramatic and complex with the onset of puberty and into the teen years, and kids are likely to have lots of questions.The physical body is primary; and sexual interests, curiosity, arousal and behavior are spontaneously expressed unless or until the child is taught to repress or inhibit her/his pleasure orientation.age range is highly variable: approximately ages 13 to 15. As the hormones come into play, the body is once again primary, with rapid growth spurts, the development of secondary sex characteristics, sensations of increased intensity and a new awareness of the physical self and its impact on others in the social sense.
review parenting styles as related to adolescent delinquency
- A parenting style is a psychological construct representing standard strategies that parents use in their child rearing. There are many differing theories and opinions on the best ways to rear children, as well as differing levels of time and effort that parents are willing to invest.
- Many parents create their own style from a combination of factors, and these may evolve over time as the children develop their own personalities and move through life's stages. Parenting style is affected by both the parents' and children's temperaments, and is largely based on the influence of one’s own parents and culture.
- Hierarchical regression analyses show that combinations of adolescents' and parents' conflict resolution styles are significantly related to delinquency. In adolescent-father relationships, the demand-withdraw pattern was found to be related to delinquency, and in adolescent-mother relationships the interaction characterized by mutual hostility was found to be related to delinquency. The results stress the interdependence of adolescents and parents in conflict resolution and demonstrate the need for investigating combinations of adolescents' and parents' conflict resolution styles.