Exam #3

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Exam #3
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2013-05-20 02:55:42
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Biology 240 exam
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  1. heterogenous assemblage of organisms once classified in many phyla in kingdom protista
    algae
  2. 6 features shared by algae
    • photosynthetic
    • chlorophyll a
    • non vascular conducting tissues
    • simple reproductive structures
    • most motile stage
    • cell division different than plants
  3. 8 phyla of algae
    • euglenophyta
    • dinoflagellata
    • phaeophyta
    • chrysophyta
    • bacillariophyta
    • rhodophyta
    • chlorophyta
    • charophyta
  4. 3 heterokont algae
    • phaeophyta
    • chrysophyta
    • bacillariophyta
  5. 3 of the super group archaeplastida
    • rhodophyta
    • chlorophyta
    • charophyta
  6. heterokont algae examples
    stramenophiles
  7. lineages of algae based on 4 primary features
    • chloroplast type and photosynthetic pigments
    • carbohydrate reserve compounds
    • type, number and position of flagella
    • cell wall compounds
  8. the four chloroplast types of algae are based on these two
    • ultrastructure
    • chemistry
  9. 3 chloroplast and photosynthetic pigments of stramenophile and dinoflagellates
    • chlorophylls
    • thylakoids in stacks of three
    • three chloroplast membranes
  10. 4 chlorophylls of stramenopile and dinoflagellates
    • chlorophylls A & C
    • carotenoids
    • xanthophylls
    • fucoxanthin
  11. the three chloroplast membranes of stramenopiles and dinoflagellates outermost membrane
    is often an endoplasmic reticulum studded with ribosomes
  12. 3 chloroplast type and photosynthetic pigments of rhodophyta
    • chlorophylls
    • single thylakoids
    • two chloroplast membranes
  13. 4 chlorophylls of rhodophyta
    • chlorophylls A & D
    • carotenoids
    • phycobilins
    • phycoerythrin
  14. 3 chloroplast type and photosynthetic pigments of green algae
    • chlorophylls
    • thylakoids in 2-6 (grana)
    • two chloroplast membranes
  15. 3 chloroplast type and photosynthetic pigments of eugleniphytes
    • chlorophylls
    • thylakoids 2-6 (grana)
    • 3 chloroplast membranes
  16. 3 chlorophylls of green algae
    • A&B
    • carotenoids
    • xanthophylls
  17. why does the euglenophytes have three chloroplast membranes
    result of endosymbiosis of green algae
  18. beta 1-3 glucose polymers 
    laminarin
    chrysolaminarin
    leucosin
    paramylon
    • phaeophyta
    • chrysophyta
    • bacillariophyta
    • euglenophyta
  19. alpha 1-4 glucose polymer
    floridean starch
    rhodophyta
  20. alpha 1-4, 1-6 glucose polymer
    plant starch
    • chlorophyta
    • charophyta
    • dinoflagellata
  21. type - 4
    number - 2
    position of flagella - 2
    presence - 3
    • whiplash/tinsel/equal/unequal
    • 1/2
    • apical/lateral
    • asexual spores/gametes/or both
  22. 6 cell wall compounds
    • cellulose
    • alginic acid
    • mucilaginous compounds
    • CaCO3
    • silicon
    • proteins
  23. present in all algae except euglenoids and some diatoms
    cellulose
  24. cell wall found in brown algae
    alginic acid
  25. cell wall compound mucilaginous
    red algae
  26. mucilaginous compounds found in red algae
    • agar
    • carageenan
  27. CaCO3 cell wall found in
    red algae
  28. silicon cell wall compound is found in
    diatoms
  29. cell wall compound proteins 
    all algae
  30. the largest and most complex algae, are multicellular, and marine
    brown algae
  31. where are most brown algae found
    temperate coasts in areas of cool water
  32. where does the characteristic brown color of brown algae come from
    fucoxanthins
  33. this algae produces alginic acids and edible species
    brown algae
  34. phaeophyta
    brown algae
  35. type of flagella of brown algae
    heterokont flagella
  36. chrysophyta
    golden algae
  37. two reasons why golden algae color
    • yellow and brown carotene
    • xanthophyll pigments
  38. 3 features of the golden algae
    • unicellular
    • colonial
    • freshwater and marine plankton
  39. how does a golden algae react to high denisities
    they form resistant cysts that remain viable for decades
  40. have a unique glass like walls silica embedded in an organic matrix
    diatoms
  41. the walls of silica are found in the walls of this organism
    diatoms
  42. diatom cell division
    Wall is divided into two parts that overlap like a petri dish. When cell division occurs each daughter cell receives half of the parental cell wall and regenerates the other half
  43. 5 features of diatoms
    • unicellular
    • live in colonies
    • reproduce sexually and asexually
    • members of freshwater and marine plankton
    • silica shells
  44. they reproduced asexually most of the time
    diatoms
  45. sexual reproduction of diatoms is rare
  46. have motile heterokont gametes
    diatoms
  47. 4 features of red alage
    • large complex algae
    • multicellular
    • lack flagella
    • CaCO3 in walls
  48. most common seaweed is red algae and is found where
    warm coastal waters
  49. the red color of red algae is from these 2
    • phycobilin pigments
    • phycoerythrin
  50. red algae produce emulsifiers like agar and carageenan and is edible like nori
  51. most morphologically diverse group of algae
    green algae
  52. 3 features of green algae
    • all environments
    • live symbiotically with fungi and lichens
    • diversity of life cycles
  53. 3 life cycles of green algae
    • gametic meiosis
    • zygotic meiosis
    • sporic meiosis
  54. 5 features of green algae and land plants
    • chlorophyll a & B
    • store starch
    • cellulose cell wall
    • 2+ anterior whiplash
    • stellate structure in flagellar base
  55. sister group of land plants that also includes green algae as a lineage
    charophyceans
  56. one body produces both types of gametes (bi)
    homothallic
  57. two bodies producing the gametes (uni), male and female body
    heterothallic
  58. haploid, gamete producing body
    gametophyte
  59. diploid spore producing body
    sporophyte
  60. structure that produces gametes
    "    " spore
    • gametangium
    • sporangium
  61. a male gamteangium with protective walls
    female "    "
    • antheridium
    • archegonium
  62. 3 types of sexual life cycles
    • gametic meiosis
    • zygotic meiosis
    • sporic meiosis
  63. alternation of generations
    sporic meiosis
  64. how was the earth like 500 mya
    • CO2 concentration high
    • O2 conc low
    • Thin ozone layer due to low O2
    • high ultraviolent radiation
    • northern hemisphere sea covering half the earth
    • band of seperate smaller continents
    • period of glaciation and mass extinction
    • land masses lack soil
    • all life was aquatic
  65. 6 advantages of moving onto land
    • two new niches (land and air)
    • no competition for space
    • more light for photosyn
    • more CO2 for photo
    • facilitated gas exchange
    • high conc of mineral
  66. 3 problems associated with moving onto land
    • dessication
    • mutagenesis
    • gravity
  67. how dessication is a problem for moving onto land
    • dry environment with little H2O available
    • evaporation
  68. why mutagenesis is a prblem for moving plants onto land
    high light environment with high uv radiation
  69. how gravity was a problem with plants that moved onto land
    • stronger forces
    • directional growth become important
  70. first plants were descended from
    green algae lineage
  71. plants evolved in the littoral zone
    areas of brackish water with periodic inundation and dessication
  72. 4 features of green algae that are different from those found in plants
    • cell division 
    • photosynthetic enzyme system
    • linear arrays of proteins in plasma membrane that synthesize cellulose
    • flagellated sperm ultrastructure 
  73. two ways cell division of green algae is different than that of land plants
    • form a phycoplast
    • intracellular mitosis/meiosis
  74. a set of microtubulus oriented parallel to the plan of the new cell wall
    phycoplast
  75. closed spindle occurs in
    intracellular cell division
  76. green algae lack an effective photorespiration system 
    lack glycolate oxidase that aids in recycling carbon otherwise lost to the plant
  77. besides green algae the lineage that most closely resembles plants
    charophyceans
  78. a set of microtubules oriented perpendicular to the plane of the new cell wall and involved in the wall formation
    phragmoplast
  79. nuclear membrane breaks down in prophase of nuclear division
    open spindle
  80. glycolate oxidase formed in peroxisomes occurs in charophyceans photosynthetic enzyme system
  81. important in recycling carbon otherwise lost during photorespiration in charophyceans
    glycolate oxidase
  82. 4 features that charophyceans
    • cell divison (plants)
    • photosynthesis enzyme system (plants)
    • rosette shaped proteins in plasma membrane that synthesize cellulose
    • flagellated sperm unltrastructure similar to land plants
  83. 5 features of the extant charophyceans
    • multicellular body
    • gametangia protected
    • zygote retained on parent
    • oogamous
    • zygote with protective wall
  84. 2 ways a multicellular body helps the charophyceans
    • low surface area/volume ratio
    • reduces water loss because few cells are directly exposed to air
  85. how did a charophycean like ancestor overcome the problems associated with life on land? 3
    • dessication
    • mutagenesis
    • gravity
  86. 1 way protected gametangia helps charophyceans
    inhibits dessication of the gamete producing cells
  87. how are gametangia protected in charophyceans
    the gamete producing cells are surrounded by a layer of protective cell
  88. 2 features associated with the ooagmous of charophyceans
    • non motile egg, motile sperm
    • egg is retained, protected, and fed by parent before being fertilized
  89. 2 ways that are beneficial to the zygote being retained on the parent in charophyceans
    • assures developing zygote receives needed nutrition
    • insures the product is released in a suitable habitat for gemination and growth
  90. 2 ways the zygote with a protective wall is beneficial in charophyceans
    • zygote wall is thick and darkly pigmented (avoid muta and dessi)
    • wall impregnated with sporopollenin to aid in long term survival
  91. the features of charophyceans help them to adapt to periodic drying, but land plants display a number of derived traits not present in charophyceans
  92. all charophyceans undergo what kind of meiosis?
    land plants undergo?
    • zygotic meiosis
    • sporic meiosis
  93. oldest lineages of land plants are the bryophytes 3
    • liverwort
    • hornmort
    • mosses
  94. 5 primitive land plant features
    • sporic meiosis
    • embryo
    • apical meristem
    • cuticle
    • multicellular gametangia
  95. 6 other primitive features of bryophyte
    • non vascular
    • no true roots
    • gametophyte generation dominant
    • all homosporous
    • sporophyte retained on gametophyte
    • water for sexual repro
  96. liverwort example
    hornwort example
    mosses example
    • marchantia
    • anthoceros
    • polytrichum
  97. vascular tissues evolved in a plant called
    cooksonia
  98. primitive conducting tissues are present in the sporophyte of moss ancestors
  99. 6 features of the earliest vascular plants
    • vascular tissue
    • sporophyte dominant
    • dichotomously branched
    • all stem
    • terminal sporangia
    • stomata
  100. two major lineages evolved from earliest vascular plants
    • numerous terminal sporangia
    • single terminal sporangia
  101. numerous terminal sporangia lineage leads to
    • lycopods
    • club mosses
  102. single terminal sporangia lineage leads to
    most vascular plants
  103. 4 lineages that gave rise to the seedless vascular plants
    • lycopods
    • horsetails
    • whisk ferns
    • ferns
  104. 4 features of the seedless vascular plants
    • sporophyte generation dominant
    • vascular tissue
    • motile sperm
    • spore dispersers
  105. dominant plants in the carboniferous period
    seedless vascular plants
  106. zosterophyllum like ancestor evolved into
    lycopods
  107. was a dominant somponent of ecosystems in carboniferous period
    lycophyta
  108. have two major lineages of lycopods
    lychophyta
  109. the two major lineages of lycopods have 3 features
    • tree sized group extinct
    • herbacious group extant
    • homo and heterosporous species
  110. heterosporous lycopods
    selaginella
  111. 3 features of the heterosporous selaginella
    • two types of sporangia
    • megasporangia
    • microsporangia
  112. gives rise to megaspore
    gives rise to microspores
    • megasporangia
    • microsporangia
  113. all heterosporous plants are heterothallic
  114. megaspores germinate to form
    microspores germinate to form
    • megagametophytes
    • microgametophytes
  115. sphenophytes example of
    horsetails
  116. one existing genus of horsetails
    equisetum
  117. 4 ways horsetails are a dominant component of ecosystems in carboniferous period
    • once tree sized extinct
    • herbaceous
    • homosporous
    • silica in cell walls
  118. psilophytes example of
    whisk ferns
  119. only have a couple of extint genera
    whisk ferns
  120. 2 features of whisk ferns
    • evolved from fern ancestor
    • shows primitive vascular plant features
  121. 4 ways whisk ferns show primitive vascular plant features
    • thought to be related to vascular plants
    • dichotomous branching
    • sporangia fused in threes
    • stem 
    • homosporous
  122. pterophytes example of
    ferns
  123. most diverse group of ferns
    pterophytes
  124. 5 features of the pterophytes
    • small, rhizome formers
    • some tree sized
    • sporangia forcibly discharged
    • first group with true leaves and roots
    • homo/heterosporous
  125. evolutionary trends
    spore dispersal
    resistant over wintering spores
    homospory
    embryo developed on gametophyte
    large free living gametophyte
    small dependant sporophyte
    • seed dispersal
    • resistant over wintering seeds
    • heterospory
    • embryo developed in seed
    • small dependant gametophyte
    • large free living sporophyte
  126. 5 derived traits of land plants
    • sporic meiosis
    • embryo
    • apical meristem
    • cuticle
    • better protected multicellular gametangia
  127. difference between charophyceans meiosis and land plant meiosis
    charophyceans undergo zygotic meiosis and land plants undergo sporic meiosis
  128. sporic meiosis evolved in a charophycean like ancestor of land plants
  129. newly developed young sporophyte in charophyceans
    embryo
  130. 4 features of the charophycean embryo
    • retained on parent gametophyte
    • fed and protected by parent
    • initially dependant on parent
    • provide ability to form and produce more spores
  131. regions of actively dividing cells that add to the length of the organisms
    apical meristemn
  132. in terrestrial habitats, plants find resources in 2 places
    light and CO2 in the air
  133. apical meristems require gravity sensing hormones to help determine direction of growth
  134. apical meristems have structural specialization for areial and subterranean growth
  135. waxy covering over the epidermal layers of aerial portions of plants
    cuticle
  136. 4 features of cuticles
    • developed in leaves and stems
    • acts as water proof barrier to inhibit water loss
    • acts as a barrier to help inhibit microbial attack
    • present on most terrestrial plants
  137. 5 features of layers of cells surrounding the gamete producing cells
    • protective cell layer pigmented
    • gametangia embedded in parent tissue
    • acts as waterproof barrier
    • inhibits microbial attack
    • barrier to inhibit uv rays
  138. caboniferous period
    360-290 mya
  139. 3 features of the carboniferous period
    • pangea
    • warm and wet climate
    • land dominated by seedless plants
  140. seeds evolved how long ago
    370 mya
  141. 3 features in the climate seeds evolved in
    • beginning of carboniferous
    • drier habitats
    • fern like ancestor lineage (progymnosperms)
  142. permian period
    290-245 mya
  143. 5 features of the permian climate
    • interior regions become dry
    • swamps dry up
    • favored plants adapted to these conditions
    • promoted radiation of early seed plants
    • initiated extinction of large seed plants
  144. mesozoic era
    345-65 mya
  145. 3 features of the mesozoic era
    • age of dino
    • age of gymno
    • forrest dominated by conifers
  146. 5 modifications that contributed to the diversification and success of seed plants
    • all seed plants are heterosporous
    • gametophytes develop on parent
    • sperm is no longer motile
    • vascular tissue evolved cambium layer
    • seed evolves
  147. sperm nuclei carried inside male gametophyte
    pollen grain
  148. the evolution of cambium on vascular plants that results in wood allowed for
    larger more structurally solid plants that lived longer
  149. a structure that develops in the plant ovary and contains the female gametophyte
    ovule
  150. a region of the flower containing ovules
    ovary
  151. male gametophytes
    pollen
  152. multilayered propagule containing an embryo and stored nutrients
    seed
  153. 3 evolutionary advantages of seeds
    • multicellular
    • contain baby plant (embryo)
    • contain stored nutrients
  154. in spore dispersing plants, the spores are unicellular
  155. in seed plants, a multicellular seed coat provides added protection from these 3
    • dessication
    • uv mutations
    • other environmental pressures
  156. spore dispersing plants have spores that germinate to form gamete producing body whose gametes must mate to produce offspring
  157. in seed plants, mating has occured and is ready to germinate and grow into an adult
  158. spore dispersing plants contain little nutrition
  159. naked seed
    gymnosperms
  160. seed formed exposed on the surface of a modified leaf
    sporophyll
  161. 4 phyla of gymnosperms
    • ginkgophyta
    • cycadophyta
    • gnetophyta
    • coniferophyta
  162. living fossil with only one species still in existance today
    ginkgo
  163. 3 features of ginkgo
    • source of herbal medicine
    • deciduous
    • dioecious
  164. 5 features of cycads
    • plant like compound leaves
    • circinate vernation
    • cone producers
    • common in tropical and dry forrests
    • everygreen and dioecious
  165. 3 features of gnetophytes
    • woody vine like
    • used in foods
    • mono/dioecious
  166. 3 examples of gnetum`
    • gnetum
    • ephedra
    • welwitschia
  167. 6 features of ephedra
    • shrubs with long branches
    • grows in dry areas
    • used in medicine
    • dangerous dietary supplements
    • dioceous
  168. 4 features of welwitschia
    • large tap root below ground
    • 2 wide strap shapred leaves
    • found in deserts
    • dioecious
  169. 7 features of conifers
    • produce woody stems
    • oldest fossils
    • male/female cones
    • mono/dioecious
    • important economically
    • largest and oldest plants on earth
  170. 2 ways conifers adapted to dry environments
    • needle shaped/scale like leaves
    • sunken stomata
  171. 3 ways conifers adapted to fire
    • thick bark
    • closed cones
    • stump sprouts
  172. function of megagametophyte of conifer
    source of stored nutrition for developing embryo and young seedling
  173. seed coat of conifer is derived from these two
    the function of the seed coat is to
    • integument
    • remnant megasporangium

    serves to protect
  174. seed plants lack a motile sperm so what was the adaption to the dry environment and what does it do
    pollen (from male gametophyte) carries the male nuclei to the female reproductive structure
  175. flagellated gymnosperms still exist, they swim down a pollen tube to meet the egg cell
  176. enclosed sperm
    angiosperm
  177. flowering plants phylum
    anthophyta
  178. angiosperms possibly evolved from what lineage?
    gymnosperms (gnetophytes)
  179. 3 features of early cretaceous environment
    • large northern and southern land masses
    • speration of continents
    • cooling period
  180. major continents formed during this era
    late cretaceous
  181. creatceous era event
    65 mya meteorite hit earth causing an extinction event
  182. extensive adaptive radiations of angiosperms following cretaceous extinctions
  183. angiosperms differ from gymnosperms in forming their seeds. Their seeds are enclosed in layers of tissue called
    carpel
  184. seeds being enclosed in the carpel adaptations function as
    protection dessication and preditation
  185. the enclosed seed in the carpel allowed for
    rapid speciation
  186. 4 reasons for the carpel in angiosperms
    • new means of seed dispersal (fruit)
    • more establishment of isolated populations
    • entails germination of pollen on a new structure (stigma)
    • provides new source for potential isolating mechanisms
  187. the movement of pollen from stamens to the stigma of compatible flowers
    pollenation
  188. gymnosperms ancestors were wind pollinated
  189. is non selective random movement of pollen
    wind pollenation
  190. 4 features of when gymnosperm ancestors were wind pollenated
    • non selective random mating
    • many individuals needed in a population
    • high probability of not being fertilized
    • metabolically expensive to produce pollen
  191. first angiosperms were pollinated by
    beetles
  192. animals visited for food of angiosperms; they ate what 3 things
    • pollen
    • ovary tissue
    • nutritious tissues
  193. 4 evolutions of angiosperms
    • nectars and extra floral parts as food sources
    • odors as attractants
    • visual cues (petals,pigments,shapes, patterns)
    • radiation in flower morphology for attraction for certain animals
  194. the 1st whorl of angiosperms contains
    sepals
  195. the sepals on the 1st whorl form
    calyx
  196. function of the sepals of angiosperms 2
    • protection of the bud
    • attraction
  197. 2nd whorl of angiosperms has this
    petals
  198. petals of 2nd whorl form
    corolla
  199. function of petals on the 2nd whorl is 2
    • attraction
    • nectaries at base
  200. 3rd whorl of angiosperms contains
    stamen
  201. 3 features of the stamen
    • male reproductive organs for pollen production
    • anthers w/ microsporidia
    • filaments
  202. function of filaments in 3rd whorl of angiosperm
    elevate the anthers for efficent pollen dispersal
  203. 4th whorl of angiosperms contains
    carpels
  204. 4 features of the carpel of the 4th whorl
    • female reproductive organs for seed production
    • ovary with ovules
    • style
    • stigma
  205. style of the 4th whorl function
    elevates stigma for efficent pollen collection
  206. stigma function in 4th whorl
    pollen collection
  207. pollen development is called
    microgametogenesis
  208. initiation of double fertilization process 4 steps
    • pollen transferred to stigma
    • tube cell develops a pollen tube that grows down the style
    • generative cell nucleus divides to form 2 sperm nuclei
    • sperm nuclei migrate down pollen tube ti initiate double fertilization
  209. ovule development
    megagametogenesis
  210. 6 steps to double fertilization and seed development
    • one sperm nucleus fuses with egg nucleus
    • one sperm nucleus fuses with 2 central cell nuclei
    • endosperm nucleus divide to form triploid endosperm tissue
    • endosperm and megagametophyte nourishes developing embryo
    • seed coat formed from outer integument layers and remnant megasporangium
    • seed stored enough to support seedling until it can photosynthesize
  211. 6 distinct features of angiosperms
    • ovules enclosed in ovary
    • further reduction of gametophytes
    • unique double fertilization
    • seeds develop and mature in few months
    • animals pollinate
    • well developed vessels in xylen
  212. ovules and seeds are exposed in gymnosperms
  213. male gametophyte has how many cells at maturity in angiosperms
    # of cells in gymnosperms
    • 2
    • 3
  214. female gametophyte in angiosperms contains how many cells with how many nuclei
    # of cells in gymnosperm
    • 7,8
    • 1000's
  215. in double fertilization of angiosperms how many sperms are necessary in angiosperms? gymnosperms?
    • both sperm nuclei
    • only one
  216. nutritive tissue in angiosperms
    gymnosperms?
    • endosperm
    • megagametophyte
  217. 4 adaptive/evolutionary features of as to seeds develop and mature in only a few months
    • evolution of herbaceous habitat (non-woody)
    • annual plants
    • shorter life span have adaptive value
    • seeds take 1-2 years to mature
  218. 3 reasons why animal pollination in many angiosperms is good
    • fewer individuals needed for success
    • more metabolically efficient
    • evolution of diverse flower morphology
  219. most gymnosperms are wind pollinated
  220. since gymnosperms lack vessels what do they have present
    tracheids
  221. 2 reasons for well developed vessels in the xylem
    • more efficient water conduction
    • keep stomata open longer (higher photosynthesis rates)
  222. gymnosperms were ancestors of
    angiosperms
  223. sticky sap (pollination droplet) exuded from micropyle of ovule served to
    catch pollen grains and draw them against the female gametophyte
  224. when did beetles evolve
    250 mya
  225. beetles returned to plants to do what
    specifically to provide these sugar and protein treats
  226. when beetles would visit selectively for sugary sap and protein rich pollen this would
    increase the efficiency of passive pollen transfer from plant to plant becoming more efficient than wind pollination
  227. the more attractive plants were to beetles the more often
    they would visit for sugar and protein and more pollen passively transferred
  228. more pollen transferred from beetles meant these 3
    • more ovules fertilized
    • more seeds formed
    • potentially more offspring
  229. 4 selection favored phenotype changes to increase visits by animals were
    • flowers developed special food resources
    • numerous carpels clustered in one location
    • stamens clustered in one location
    • bisexual flowers evolved
  230. 2 features as to when flowers developed special food resources
    • edible floral parts (petals)
    • nectars evolved to provide sugar
  231. 2 features as to when numerous carpels clustered in one location
    • homologous to female strobilus
    • provides more ovules to be fertilized and extras for food
  232. 2 features as to when numerous stamens clustered in a group
    • homologous to male strobilus
    • provides more resources of pollen for fertilization and extra food
  233. 3 features as to when bisexual flowers evolved
    • pollen formed where receptive ovules formed
    • each animal visit can pick up and deliver pollen
    • more efficient passive pollinations
  234. if a plant species is pollinated by a few insects it tends to become specialized for the insect
  235. the evolution of pollinating insect groups is intimately tied to the evolution of angiosperms
    coevolution
  236. flowers are designed specifically for 4
    • transfer pollen to pollinator
    • receive pollen from pollinator
    • attract pollinator
    • reward pollinator
  237. passive pollen trasport means it isnt done on purpose but on accident by means of animals water and wind
  238. 4 kinds of animals pollinate flowers
    • arthropods
    • mammals
    • birds
    • molluscs
  239. 3 reasons animals visit flowers
    • food
    • lay eggs
    • sex
  240. 3 flower foods for animals
    • nectar
    • pollen
    • floral parts
  241. 3 ways flowers attract animals
    • scent
    • form
    • color and color pattern
  242. 3 scents that help with flowers to attract animals
    • food (sweet, spicy)
    • egg laying (rotten)
    • sexual instincts (sex hormones)
  243. 2 forms used to attract animals to flowers
    • shape (geometric patterns)
    • radial/bilateral symmetry
  244. lines and patterns on petals or specific color patterns point to nectaries
    honey guide
  245. 3 humming bird requirements for pollinating
    • hover while feeding
    • require lots of sugar
    • long beaks
  246. 3 characteristics of humming bird flowers
    • red, tubular
    • lots of nectar
    • nectar sacks
  247. 5 bat pollination requirments
    • hover while feeding
    • require lots of sugar and protein
    • feed on nectar and pollen
    • nocturnal
    • direction by echolocation
  248. 5 characteristics of bat flowers
    • white
    • open at night
    • lots of nectar and pollen
    • numerous stamen
    • exposure on plants
  249. 5 fly requirements for pollinating
    • lay eggs in food source
    • larvae mature on host
    • prefer dead meat
    • shape and odor attract
    • prefer foul smells
  250. 6 features of flowers for flies
    • thick petals
    • extra floral parts
    • sunken ovaries
    • brown
    • carrion smelling
    • distinctive shape
  251. 2 areas in which air pollination occurs
    • plants are leafless during flowering
    • open areas
  252. 5 flower designs for wind pollinating plants
    • no petals
    • no nectaries
    • unisex flowers
    • lots of pollen on projecting stamen
    • feathery or thick stigmas on projecting styles
  253. water pollation is effective for these kind of plants
    aquatic
  254. 6 flower designs of water pollination plants
    • pollen floats
    • pollen often filamentous or broad
    • pollen tolerates excess water
    • pollen produced at water level for efficient transfer
    • stigmas elevated at water level for efficient reception
    • unisex
  255. 4 process of fertilization of plants
    • pollen germination
    • pollen tubes fuses with female gametophyte
    • nuclear fusion
    • self fertilization vs cross fertilization
  256. 5 features of pollen germination
    • pollen germinates only on stigma of same species
    • pollen imbibes water to initiate germination'
    • pollen tube grows down style
    • generative cell nucleus divides to form 2 sperm nuclei
    • sperm nuclei migrate down pollen tube
  257. what directs the pollen tube to grow down the style
    tube cell nucleus
  258. 2 features of pollen tube that fuses with female gametophyte
    • fuses near egg
    • 2 sperm nuclei enter into female gametophyte
  259. how nuclear fusion works in the fertilization of the plant
    2 sperms enter into the ovary. One sperm fuses with the egg to form a zygote while the other sperm fuses with 2 polar nuclei to form a 3n endosperm nucleus
  260. self fertilization vs cross fertilization alternate names
    interbreeding vs outbreeding
  261. 3 prezygotic isolation mechanisms for flowers
    • mechanical
    • temporal
    • chemical
  262. 2 mechcanical prezygotic mechanisms for flowers
    • flower shape
    • placement fo anthers and stigma
  263. 2 temporal prezygotic isolating mechanisms for flowers
    • protandry
    • protogyny
  264. protandry
    male matures first
  265. 3 features of prezygotic isolating mechanisms
    • self recognition molecules
    • species recognition molecules
    • style issues toxic to pollen tube growth
  266. 2 ways seedless plants disperse
    • spores
    • vegatative propagules
  267. spores of seedless plants have these 2 species
    • homothallic species
    • heterothallic species
  268. usually assured reproduction but potential inbreeding
    homothallic species
  269. reproduction not assured but outbreeding promoted
    heterothallic species
  270. clonal propagation, assured reproduction but limited genetic variability
    vegatative propagules
  271. gymnosperms plant disperal way
    seeds
  272. 3 ways angiosperms plants disperse
    • seeds
    • fruits
    • vegatative propagules
  273. 3 diverse morphologies of angiosperms
    • seeds
    • vegatative propagules
    • fruits
  274. 4 functions of seeds
    • provide protection for embryo
    • provide nutrition for embryo
    • dormancy mechanism
    • dispersal unit in seed plants
  275. when do seeds provide nutrition for the embryo
    • during development
    • during growth into a seedling
  276. germination often requires these 2 when the seeds serve as a dormancy mechanism
    • scarification (mechanical abrasion)
    • stratification (cold period)
  277. 4 features of cotyledons
    • first leaves in the embryos of angiosperms
    • form bulk of embryo
    • consume much of endosperm in dicot seeds
    • provide nutrition for developing seed
  278. 4 functions of the fruit
    • ovary wall
    • provide protection of seeds
    • dispersal unit in many angiosperms
    • fruits may be fleshy or dry
  279. ripened mature ovary
    fruit
  280. 4 layers of fruit
    • pericarp-ovary wall
    • exocarp-outer layer
    • mesocarp-middle layer
    • endocarp-inner layer
  281. 3 ways fruits protect the seed from
    • dessication during development
    • predation
    • mechanical damage due to environment
  282. when entire fruit is dispersed it usually remains closed containing the seeds
    indehiscent fruit
  283. when seeds are dispersed the fruit often remains attatched to parent and opens at maturity
    dehiscent fruit
  284. products of asexual reproduction, clones of parent
    vegetative propagules
  285. 3 features of wind dispersal of fruit and seeds
    • tiny,dust like seeds
    • seeds have hairs and wings on seeds or fruits
    • whole plant dispersed
  286. 3 features of water dispersal of fruits and seeds
    • ability to float
    • air chambers in fruits or seeds
    • oil deposits in seeds
  287. 2 mechanical dispersals of fruits and seeds
    • exploding fleshy fruits
    • spring loaded dry fruits
  288. how exploding fleshy fruits work
    hydrostatic pressure builds up causing fruits to explod and propel seeds away from parent. the seeds usuallu have a sticky surface
  289. how spring loaded dry fruits work
    coiled and cocked, shoots seeds away from parent when touched
  290. 2 laws of thermodynamics
    • E cannot be created nor destroyed
    • disorder is continously increasing
  291. law of thermodynamics
    physics meaning
    ecology meaning
    • all actions have opp or = reactions'
    • all living organisms are interdependent
  292. how are all living organisms interdependent
    changes in the population structure of one organism perturb the population structure of dependent organisms
  293. planet earth is a closed biosphere
    water for growth, development, and reproduction
    life
  294. 8 abiotic components of the biosphere
    • wind
    • water
    • temp
    • light
    • ph
    • geology
    • space
    • time
  295. 6 biotic components of the biosphere
    • individuals
    • populations
    • biotic communities
    • ecosystems
    • biomes
    • biosphere
  296. individual members of a species
    a group of individuals of the same species in a particular area
    • individuals
    • populations
  297. an assemblage of populations of many different species that inhabit a particular area
    biotic communities
  298. all of the abiotic and biotic components associated with community structure
    ecosystems
  299. an assemblage of ecosystems that occupy broad geographic area
    biomes
  300. the sum of all the planets ecosystems
    biosphere
  301. interrelationships and interactions among components of an ecosystem
    balance of nature
  302. humans are the only organisms on earth that can adversely perturb this balance of nature beyond normal fluctuations in cycles
  303. 5 ways humans act in the biosphere
    • overpopulation
    • impact on N and P cycles
    • impact on the C and H2O cycles, food web and biodiversity
    • impact on the atmopshere (greenhouse effect)
    • impact on the rhizosphere and limnosphere (acid rain,garbage)
  304. overpopulation
    cause
    results
    solutions
    too many humans on the planet

    • limited resources, space, tolerance
    • could lead to famine,homelessness, disease

    take care of ourselves or let NS do it for us
  305. where does excess CO2 come from 2
    • burning fossil fuels
    • deforestation
  306. 6 examples of burning fossil fuels
    • industry
    • automobiles
    • electric plants
    • cooking and heating
    • burning oil wells
    • burning deforested land
  307. excess methane comes from these 3 things
    • cattle/sheep
    • organic garbage
    • termites
  308. how does organic garbage
    termintes produce excess methane
    • as a product of decomposition
    • from wood digesting bacteria and protozoans in gut
  309. this is based on physiological systems and processes
    animal behavior
  310. nervous system's response to a stimulus and is carried out by the muscular or hormonal system
    behavior
  311. 4 ways behavior helps an animal
    • obtain food (energy is the limiting factor)
    • find a mate
    • maintain social bonds
    • maintain homeostasis
  312. behavior is subject to change due to NS
  313. when observing behavior we need to look at these 2
    • proximate cause
    • ultimate cause
  314. mechanism that allows organisms to do something
    proximate cause
  315. how and why did this behavior arise in an evolutionary sense
    ultimate cause
  316. proximate cause for the mouthless jelly fish
    when thee sun rises it floats to the top and when it is night it sinks down
  317. ultimate cause for mouthless jelly
    • adapted with photosynthetic symbionts to feed, maximize nitrogen required for PSN
    • more energy,more offspring, more success
  318. costs of reflexive behavior 3
    • locked in
    • no variability
    • all or nothing response
  319. benefits of reflexive behavior 3
    • no thinking about it
    • always appropriate response
    • cheap to program wiring
  320. costs and benefits of reflexive behavior are survival related behaviors
  321. developmentally fixed, can be exhibited, will have some environmental influences
    innate
  322. modified by experience
    learned
  323. a process that occurs when an animal learns to make a particular response to only one type of animal or object
    imprinting
  324. environmental conditions influence the evolution of life history characteristics
  325. is population growth rate
    r
  326. these selected species have traits that increase pop growth rate
    r selected species
  327. is a populating carrying capacity
    k
  328. selected species that have traits that increase carrying capacity and competitive ability when populations fill the environment
    k selected species
  329. 4 features of r selection
    • density independent
    • high growth rate
    • many offspring (most don't make it)
    • large population fluctuations
  330. 4 features of k selection
    • density dependent
    • low growth rate
    • few offspring
    • populations at carrying capacity
  331. 4 benefits of r and k
    • simplification
    • continuum
    • nice generalization
    • equal payoff
  332. in many species mating is promiscuous meaning
    no strong pair bonds or lasting relationships
  333. one male mates with one female
    monogamous
  334. monogamous males and females have similar external morphologies
  335. an individual of one sex mates with several individuals of another sex
    polygamous relationships
  336. 2 types of polygamous relationships
    • polygynous
    • polyandry
  337. species with polygamous relations are usually sexually dimorphic
  338. one male mates with many females
    polygyny
  339. example of polygyny
    peacock
  340. a male maximizes his reproductive success by
    seeking additional mates
  341. certainty of paternity influences these two (think in birds)
    • parental care
    • mating behavior
  342. hauled out for months without feeding and rely on stored fat for energy
    e-seal
  343. male and female energy sink in e-seal
  344. conservation issues associated with reproduction of the e-seal
    loss of heterogeneity
  345. one female mates with many males
    polyandry
  346. polyandry is a rare mating system
  347. is relatively low in species with internal fertilization because mating and birth are separated over time
    paternal certainty
  348. certainty of paternity is much higher when
    egg laying and mating occur together (external fertilization)
  349. external fertilization parental care is likely to be by males
  350. female choice in finding a mate is considered
    intersexual competition
  351. females drive sexual selection by choosing mates with
    • specific behaviors
    • features of the anatomy
  352. individuals in a population copy the mate choice of others
    mate choice copying
  353. male competition for mates is a source of
    intrasexual selection
  354. this an reduce variation among males
    male competition for mates (intrasexual selection)
  355. male competition for mates make involve
    agonistic behavior
  356. ritualized contest that determines which competitor gains access to a resource
    agonistic behavior
  357. inclusive fitness can account for the evolution of altruistic social behavior
  358. NS favors behaviors that maximizes an individuals survival and reproduction
    these behaviors are selfish
  359. animals behave in ways that reduce their fitness to help increase another individuals fitness
    altruism
  360. altruistic example
    beldings ground squirrel will make an alarming call to warn other squirrels that a predator is near even though there is a chance the caller can get killed
  361. is the total effect an individual has on proliferating its genes by producing offspring and helping close relatives produce offspring
    inclusive fitness
  362. hamilton's rule experiment
    William Hamilton proposed a quantitative measure for predicting when NS would favor altruistic acts among related individuals
  363. 3 key variables in an altruistic act of hamiltons rule
    • benefit to recipient
    • cost to the altruist
    • coefficient of relatedness (fraction of genes that are shared)
  364. NS favors altruism when
    rB > C
  365. hamiltons rule
    rB>C
  366. NS that favors this kind of altruistic behavior by enhancing reproductive success of relatives
    kin selection
  367. example of kin selection
    beldings ground squirrel
  368. nonreproductive individuals increase their inclusive fitness by helping the reproductive kings and queens pass on their genes
  369. altruistic behavior towards unrelated individuals can be adaptive if aided individuals return the favor
    reciprocal altruism
  370. reciprocal altruism is limited to species with stable social groups where individuals meet repeatedly and cheaters are punished
  371. is learning through the observation of others and forms the roots of culture
    social learning
  372. is a system of information transfer through observation or teaching that influences individuals of a population
    culture
  373. can alter behavior and influence the fitness of individuals
    culture
  374. social learning of alarm calls
    vervet monkeys produce alarm calls for different predators, infant monkeys learn the calls and learn to fine tune them as the mature
  375. 5 causes of the human impact on the N and P cycles
    • clear grassland or forest to replace with crop
    • average crop removes 25lb of N
    • not enough N to support crops
    • add inorganic fertilizers to compensate
    • fungicides and insecticides reduce competition for crops
  376. 5 results of the human impact on the N and P cycles
    • inorganic fertilizers change structure of the soil
    • hard pans facilitate erosion and loss of top soil
    • inorganics can enter water system
    • fungicides kill fungi that add N P
    • insecticides kill beneficial insects
  377. solution to human impact on the N and P cycles
    revise farming practices
  378. location and cause of human impact on C and H2O cycles, food web, and biodiversity (deforestation)
    • forests
    • removal of naturally established planst
  379. 6 results of human impact on C and H2O cycles, food web, and biodiversity
    • loss of natural community structure
    • loss of biodiversity
    • disrupts soil structure
    • removes food sources and shelters
    • climate and diversity change
    • removes CO2 absorbers
  380. 6 solutions of human impact on C and H2O
    • limit deforestation
    • better forestry practices
    • sustainable forest products
    • farmed forest
    • alternatives to grazing and firewood
    • ecotourism
  381. how does ocean acidification work
    • excess atm CO2 lowers ph in the ocean by binding with sea water to form carbonic acid and free H+
    • these bind to form bicarbonate (less carbonate ions available to use)
  382. the global rise in temperature
    greenhouse effect
  383. cause of human impact greenhouse effect
    excessive accumulation of CO2 and methane
  384. 5 results of human impact on greenhouse effect
    • earths atmosphere is warmer
    • changes in global weather patterns
    • ocean temp rises
    • loss of terrestrial biodiversity
    • changes in area able to sustain agriculture
  385. 5 solutions to the human impact: greenhouse effect
    • use less fossil fuels
    • limited rampant deforestation
    • dietary changes
    • limit organic wastes
    • control pop size
  386. dietary changes meaning for solutions
    eat less meat, raise less cattle
  387. cause of acid rain
    burning fossil fuels
  388. 5 results of acid rain
    • releases SO2 and NO CO2
    • sunlight and rain convert to H2SO4 HNO3
    • lower ph inhibits growth rate of plants
    • lowers ph of rain
    • lowers ph of freshwater that kills animals 
  389. 3 solutions to acid rain
    • burn less fossil fuels
    • more renewable energy sources
    • more fuel efficient vehicles
  390. cause of garbage
    too many people disposing of too much waste
  391. 4 results of garbage
    • dumps and landfills over filled
    • garbage sent elsewhere
    • land, air, water pollution
    • nuclear and toxic chemical waste
  392. 3 solution to garbage
    • dispose of less garbage
    • recycle more
    • bioremediation
  393. population growth rate equation
    b
    d
    • r=b-d
    • births
    • deaths
  394. 4 to what affects births and deaths
    • environment
    • inter/intra specific interactions
    • human interactions
    • random stuff
  395. population bomb
    intrinsic rate of increase
    how much a population changes
  396. 6N/6t=rN
    numerator meaning
    denominator meaning
    r meaning
    N meaning
    • change in population size
    • change in time
    • population growth rate
    • population size
  397. exponential growth exquation
    Nt=No(e^rt)
  398. Nt+1=Nt + r(Nt)(K-Nt/K)
    meaning
    • logistic growth rate
    • pop size next year
    • pop this year
    • growth rate
    • pop this year
    • carrying capacity
  399. 3 biologies behind the allele affect
    • reproductive challenges
    • increased predation risk at low density
    • cooperative behavior suffers at low density
  400. 2 reproductive challenges at low density
    • males and females rarely meet
    • inbreeding depression
  401. increased population risk at low density
    losing the safety numbers
  402. 3 cooperative behavior suffers at low density
    • 10 eyes see more than 2
    • no one to hunt with
    • no one to look after the kids
  403. genetic diversity in small populations is lower than for larger population

    in each generation a proportion of neutral genetic diversity is lost

    such effects occur every generation and losses accumulate with time
  404. the predicted heterozygosity at generation any time is
    Ht=(1-1/2Ne)^t(Ho)=e^(-t/2xNe)
  405. 2 important points of predicted heterozygosity at generation any time
    • loss of genetic diversity depends upon the effective population size rather than the census size
    • hetero is lost at a greater rate in smaller than larger populations
  406. mating of related individuals
    inbreeding
  407. often results in a chnage in the mean of a trait
    inbreeding
  408. inbreeding is practiced for these 2
    • create genetic uniformity of laboratory stocks
    • produce stocks for crossing
  409. inbreeding is unintentionally generated 3
    • by keeping small populations 
    • during selection
    • causes the loss of heterozygosity
  410. genetic variance for fitness is caused by loci at which heterozygosity are more fit than both homozygotes. Inbreeding decreases the frequency of heterozygotes, increases the frequency of homozygotes so fitness is reduced
    overdominance hypothesis
  411. genetic variance for fitness is caused by rare deleterious alleles that are recessive or partly recessive; such alleles persist in populations because of recurrent mutation. Most copies of deleterious alleles in the base population are in heterozygotes. Inbreeding increases the frequency of homozygotes for deleterious alleles so fitness is reduced
    dominance hypothesis

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