PSY201[1].txt

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PSY201[1].txt
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Psychology 201
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University of Phoenix (Psychology 201) class
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  1. Behavioral neuroscience
    Subfield of psychology - examines the brain and nervous System.
  2. experimental psychology
    Study the processes of sensing, perceiving, learning and thinking about the world.
  3. cognitive psychology
    higher mental processes (thinkin, reasoning, problem solving, language, and decision making.
  4. developmental psychology
    studies how people grow and change from conception to death.
  5. personality psychology
    consistency in people's behavior over time. Traits that make us different.
  6. health psychology
    exploring the relationship between psychological factors and physical ailment.
  7. Clinical Psychology
    The study, diagnosis, and treatment of psychological disorders.
  8. Counseling Psychologist
    Dealing with peoples psychological problems. Focusing on educational, social, and career adjustments.
  9. Forensic Psychology
    Applies psychology to the criminal justice system and legal issues.
  10. Social psychology
    How people's thoughts, feelings, and actions are affected by others.
  11. Cross-cultural psychology
    Similarities and differences in psychology in various cultures and ethic groups.
  12. Evolutionary psychology
    Considering how behavior is influenced by genetic inheritance.
  13. Behavioral genetics
    Seeks to understand how we might inherit certain behavioral traits and how the environment influenced whether we display those traits.
  14. Clinical Neuropsychology
    Focuses on the origin of psychological disorders in biological factors. Building on the understanding of the structure of the brain.
  15. Ph.D (doctor of philosophy)
    A researched degree that requires a dissertation based on original investigation.
  16. Psy.D (doctor of psychology)
    Obtained by psychologists who focus on the treatment of psychological disorders.
  17. Structuralism
    Focuses on uncovering the mental components of consciousness, thinking, and other mental states.
  18. Introspection
    A procedure used to study the structure of the mind in which subjects describe what they are experiencing when exposed to a stimulus.
  19. Functionalism
    What the mind does - functions of mental activity - the role of behavior in allowing people to adapt to their environments.
  20. Gestalt Psychology
    Focuses on the organization of perception and thinking in a ''whole'' rather than on individual elements of perception.
  21. Neuroscience Perspective
    Views behavior from the perspective of the brain, the nervous system, and other biological functions.
  22. Psychodynamic Perspective
    The view that behavior is motivated by unconscious inner forces.
  23. Behavioral perspective
    Approach that suggests that observable, measurable behavior should be the focus of study.
  24. Cognitive perspective
    The approach that focuses on how people think, understand, and know about the world.
  25. Humanistic perspective
    The approach that suggests that all individuals naturally strive to grow, develop, and be in control of their lives and behavior.
  26. Determinism
    The Idea that people's behavior is produced primary by factors outside of their willful control.
  27. Scientific method
    The approach through which psychologist systematically acquired knowledge and understanding about behavior and other phenomena of interest.
  28. Theories
    Broad explanations and predictions concerning phenomena of interest.
  29. Hypothesis
    A prediction, stemming from a theory, stated in a way that allows it to be tested.
  30. Operational definition
    The translation of a hypothesis into specific, testable procedures that can be measured and observed.
  31. Descriptive research
    Research designed to systematically investigate a person, group, or patterns of behavior.
  32. Archival research
    Research in which existing data, such as census documents, college records, and newspaper clippings, are examined to test a hypothesis.
  33. Naturalistic observation
    Research in which an investigator simply observes some naturally occuring behavior and does not make a change in the situation.
  34. Survey research
    Research in which people chosen to represent a larger population are asked a series of questions about their behavior, thoughts, or attitudes.
  35. Case study
    An in-depth, intensive investigation of an individual or small group of people.
  36. Variables
    Behaviors, events, or other characteristics that can change, or vary, in some way.
  37. Correlation research
    Research in which the relationship between two sets of variables is examined to determine whether they are associated, or "correlated."
  38. Experiment
    The investigation of the relationship between two (or more) variables by deliberately producing a change in one variable in a situation and observing the effects of that change on the other aspects of the situation.
  39. Experimental manipulation
    The change that an experimenter deliberately produces in a situation.
  40. Treatment
    The manipulation implemented by the experimenter.
  41. Experimental group
    Any group participating in an experiment that receives a treatment.
  42. Control group
    A group participating in an experiment that receives no treatment.
  43. Independent variable
    The variable that is manipulated by the experimenter.
  44. Dependent variable
    The variable that is measured and is expected to change as a result of changes caused by the experimenter's manipulation of the independent variable.
  45. Random assignment to condition
    A procedure in which participants are assigned to different experimental groups or "conditions" on the basis of chance and chance alone.
  46. Replication
    Research that is repeated, sometimes using other procedures, settings, and groups of participants, to increase confidence in prior findings.
  47. Informed consent
    A document signed by participants affirming that they have been told the basic outlines of the study and are aware of what their participation will involve.
  48. Experimental bias
    Factors that distort how the independent variable affects the dependent variable in an experiment.
  49. Placebo
    A false treatment, such as pill, "drug," or other substance, without any significant chemical properties or active ingredient.
  50. Electroencephalogram (EEG)
    Records electrical activity in the brain through electrodes placed on the outside of the skull. Traditional the EEG produce a graph of electrical wave patterns.
  51. Positron emission tomog
    raphy (PET)
    Scans show biochemical activity within the brain at a given moment. Scans begin with the injection of a radioactive liquid into the bloodstream, which makes its way to the brain.
  52. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI)
    Scans provide a detailed, three-dimensional computer-generated of brain structures and activity by aiming a poweful magnetic field at the body.
  53. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
    By exposing a tiny region of the brain to a strong magnetic field, TMS causes a momentary intertuption of electrical activity.
  54. Central core
    The "old brain," which controls basic functions such as eating and sleeping and is common to all vertebrates.
  55. Cerebellum
    The part of the brain that controls bodily balance.
  56. Reticular formation
    The part of the brain extending from the medulla through the pons and made up of groups of nerve cells that can immediately activate other parts of the brain to produce general bodily arousal.
  57. Thalamus
    The part of the brain located in the middle of the central core that acts primarily to relay information about the senses.
  58. Hypothalamus
    A tiny part of the brain, located below the thalamus, that maintains homeostasis and produces and regulates vital behavior, such as eating, drinking, and sexual behavior.
  59. Limbic system
    The part of the brain that includes the amygdala and hippocampus, and controls eating, agression, and reproduction.
  60. Cerebral cortex
    The " new brain," responsible for the most sophisticated information processing in the brain.
  61. Lobes
    The four major sections of the cerebral cortex: frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital.
  62. Motor area
    The part of the cortex that is largely responsible for the body's voluntary movement.
  63. Sensory area
    The site in the brain of the tissue that corresponds to each of the senses, with the degree of sensitivity related to the amount of tissue allocated to that sense.
  64. Association areas
    One of the major regions of the cerebral cortex; the site of the higher mental processes, such as thought, language, memory, and speech.
  65. Neuroplasticity
    Changes in the brain that occur throughout the life span relating to the addition of new neurons, new interconnections between neurons, and the reorganization of information-processing areas.
  66. Hemispheres
    Symmetrical left and right halves of the brain that control the side of the body opposite to their location.
  67. Lateralization
    The dominance of one hemisphere of the brain in specific functions, such as language.
  68. Biofeedback
    A procedure in which a person learns to control through conscious thought internal physiological processes such as blood pressure, heart and respiration rate, skin temperature, sweating, and the constriction of particular muscles.
  69. Corpus collosum
    Bridge of fibers passing information between the two cerebral hemispheres.
  70. Sensation
    The activation of the sense organs by a source of physical energy.
  71. Perception
    The sorting out, interpretation, analysis, and integration of stimuli by the sense organs of the brain.
  72. Stimulus
    Energy that produces a response in a sense organ.
  73. Psychophysics
    The study of the relationship between the physical aspects of stimuli and our psychological experience of them.
  74. Absolute threshold
    The smallest intensity of a stimulus that must be present for the stimulus to be detected.
  75. Difference threshold
    The smallest level of added or reduced stimulation required to sense that a change in stimulation has occurred.
  76. Weber's law
    A basic law of psychophysics stating that a just noticeable difference is a constant proportion to the intensity of an initial stimulus. Explains why a person in a quiet room is more startled by a noise then a person in a noisy room.
  77. Adaptation
    An adjustment in sensory capacity after prolonged exposure to unchanging stimuli. Adaptation occurs as people become acustomed to a stimulus and change their frame of reference.
  78. Gestalt laws of organization
    A series of principles that describe how we organize bits and pieces of information into meaningful wholes.
  79. Top-down processing
    Perception that is guided by higher-level knowledge, experience, expectations, and motivations.
  80. Bottom-up processing
    Perception that consists of the progression of recognizing and processing information from individual components of a stimuli and moving to the perception of the whole.
  81. Depth perception
    The ability to view the world in three dimensions and to perceive distance. The brain integrates two images into one composite view, but it also recognizes the difference in images and uses it to estimate the distance of an object from us.
  82. Binocular disparity
    The difference in images seen by the left and right eye.
  83. Visual illusions
    Physical stimuli that consistently produce errors in perception.
  84. Perceptual constancy
    Permits us to perceive stimuli as unvarying in size, shape, and color despite changes in the environment or the appearance of the objects being perceived.
  85. Motion perception
    Depends on cues such as the perceived movement of an object across the retina and information about how the head and eyes are moving.
  86. Consciousness
    The awareness of the sensations, thoughts, and feelings being experienced at a given moment.
  87. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep
    Sleep occupying 20 percent of an adult's sleeping time, characterized by increased heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing rate; erections; eye movements; and the experience of dreaming.
  88. Unconscious wish fulfillment theory
    Sigmund Freud's theory that dreams represent unconscious wishes that dreamers desire to see fulfilled.
  89. Latent content of dreams
    According to Freud, the "disguised" meanings of dreams, hidden by more obvious subjects.
  90. Manifest content of dreams
    According to Freud, the apparent story line of dreams.
  91. Dreams-for-survival theory
    The theory suggesting that dreams permit information that is critical for our daily survival to be reconsidered and reprocessed during sleep.
  92. Activation-synthesis theory
    Hobson's theory that the brain produces random electrical energy during REM sleep that stimulates memories stored in the brain.
  93. Insomnia
    Difficulty sleeping, a problem that afflicts as many as one-third of all people
  94. Apnea
    A condition in which a person has difficulty breathing while sleeping. The result is disturbed, fitful sleep, as the person is constantly reawakened when the lack of oxygen becomes great enough to trigger a waking response.
  95. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
    A mysterious killer of seemingly normal infants who die while sleeping.
  96. Night terrors
    Sudden awakenings from non-REM sleep that are accompanied by extreme fear, panic, and strong physiological arousal.
  97. Narcolepsy
    Uncontrollable sleeping that occurs for short periods while a person is awake. No matter the activity- holding a heated conversation, exercising, or driving- a narcoleptic will fall asleep.
  98. Circadian rhythms
    Biological processes that occur regularly on a 24-hour cycle. Sleeping and waking, for instance, occur naturally to the beat of an internal pacemaker that works on a cycle of about 24 hours.
  99. Alteted states of consciosness
    Naturally occuring sleep and dreaming, as well as hypnotic and drug-induced states.
  100. Meditation
    A learned technique for refocuses attention that brings about an altered state. It typically consists of the repetition of a mantra - a sound, word, or syllable - over and over.
  101. Hypnosis
    A trancelike state of heightened susceptibility to the suggestions of others. Despite their compliance when hypnotized, people do not lose all will of their own.
  102. Classical conditioning
    A type of learning in which a neutral stimulus (such as the experimentor's footsteps) comes to elicit a response after being paired with a stimulus (such as food) that naturally brings about that response.
  103. Habituation
    The decrease in response to a stimulus that occurs after repeated presentations of the same stimulus.
  104. Neutral stimulus
    A stimulus that before conditioning, does not naturally bring about the response of interest.
  105. Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
    A stimulus that naturally brings about a particular response without having been learned.
  106. Unconditioned response (UCR)
    A response that is natural and needs no training (e.g., salivation at the smell of food).
  107. Conditioned stimulus (CS)
    A once-neutral stimulus that has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus to bring about a response formerly caused only by the unconditioned stimulus.
  108. Conditioned response (CR)
    A response that, after conditioning, follows a previously neutral stimulus (e.g., salivation at the ringing of a bell).
  109. Extinction
    Occurs when a previously conditioned response decreases in frequency and eventually disappears.
  110. Spontaneous recovery
    The reemergence of an extinguished conditioned response after a period of rest and with no further conditioning.
  111. Stimulus generalization
    A process in which, after a stimulus has been conditioned to produce a particular response, stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus produce the same response.
  112. Stimulus discrimination
    The process that occurs if two stimuli are sufficiently distinct from one another that one evokes a conditioned response but the other does not; the ability to differentiate between stimuli.
  113. Operant conditioning
    Learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened, depending on its favorable or unfavorable consequences.
  114. Reinforcement
    The process by which a stimulus increases the probability that a preceding behavior will be repeated.
  115. Reinforcer
    Any stimulus that increases the probability that a preceding behavior will occur again.
  116. Positive reinforcer
    A stimulus added to the environment that brings about an increase in a preceding response.
  117. Negative reinforcer
    An unpleasant stimulus whose removal leads to an increase in the probability that a preceding response will be repeated in the future.
  118. Punishment
    A stimulus that decreases the probability that a previous behavior will occur again.
  119. Schedules of reinforcement
    Different patterns of frequency and timing of reinforcement following desired behavior.
  120. Continuous reinforcement schedule
    Reinforcing of a behavior every time it occurs.
  121. Partial (or intermittent) reinforcement schedule
    Reinforcing of a behavior some but not all of the time.
  122. Fixed-ratio schedule
    A schedule by which reinforcement is given only after a specific number of responses are made.
  123. Variable-ratio schedule
    A schedule by which reinforcement occurs after a varying number of responses rather than after a fixed number.
  124. Fixed-interval schedule
    A schedule that provides reinforcement for a response only if a fixed time period has elapsed, making overall rates of response relatively low.
  125. Variable-interval schedule
    A schedule by which the time between reinforcements varies around some average rather than being fixed.
  126. Shaping
    The process of teaching a complex behavior by rewarding closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior. You start by reinforcing any behavior that is at all similar to the behavior you want the person to learn.
  127. Behavior modification
    A formalized technique for promoting the frequency of the desirable behaviors and decreasing the incidence of the unwanted ones.
  128. Cognitive learning theory
    An approach to the study of learning that focuses on the thought processes that underlie learning.
  129. Latent learning
    Learning in which a new behavior is acquired but is not demonstrated until some incentive is provided for displaying it.
  130. Observational learning
    Learning by observing the behavior of another person, or model.
  131. Encoding
    The initial process of recording information in a form of usable memory, is the first stage in remembering something.
  132. Storage
    The maintenance of material saved in memory.
  133. Retrieval
    Material in memory storage has to be located and brought into awareness to ne useful.
  134. Memory
    The process by which we encode, store, and retrieve information.
  135. Sensory memory
    The initial, momentary storage of information, lasting only an instant.
  136. Short-term memory
    Memory that holds information for 15 to 25 seconds.
  137. Long-term memory
    Memory that stores information on a relatively permanent basis, although it may be difficult to retrieve.
  138. Chunk
    A meaningful grouping of stimuli that can be stored as a unit in short-term memory.
  139. Rehearsal
    The repetition of information that has entered short-term memory. Ad long as the imformation is repeated, it is maintained in short-term memory. More important, however, is that this repetition allows us to transfer the information into long-term memory.
  140. Declarative memory
    Memory for factual information; names, faces, dates, and the like.
  141. Procedural memory
    Memory for skills and habits, such as riding a bike or hitting a baseball, sometimes referred to as nondeclaritive memory.
  142. Semantic memory
    Memory for general knowledge and facts about the world, as well as memory for the rules of logic that are used to deduce other facts. It is why we remember zip codes or that Mumbai is on the Arabian Sea.
  143. Episodic memory
    Memory for events that occur in a particular time, place, or context. For example, recal of learning to ride a bike or our first kiss.
  144. Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
    The inability to recall information that one realizes one knows - a result of the difficulty of retrieving information from long-term memory.
  145. Recall
    Memory task in which specific information must be retrieved.
  146. Recognition
    Memory task in which individuals are presented with a stimulus and asked whether they have been exposed to it in the past or to identify it from a list of alternatives.
  147. Levels-of-processing theory
    The theory of memory that emphasizes the degree to which new material is mentally analyzed.
  148. Explicit memory
    Intentional or conscious recollection of information.
  149. Implicit memory
    Memories of which people are not consciously aware, but which can affect subsequent performance and behavior.
  150. Flashbulb memories
    Memories centered on a specific, important, or surprising event that are so vivid it is as if they represented a snapshot of the event.
  151. Constructive processes
    Processes in which memories are influenced by the meaning we give events.
  152. Schemas
    Organized bodies of information stored in memory that bias the way new information is interpreted, stored, and recalled.
  153. Autobiographical memories
    Our recollections of circumstances and episodes from our own lives.
  154. Memory traces
    The physical changes that take place in the brain when new material is learned.
  155. Interference
    Information in memory disrupts the recall of other information.
  156. Decay
    The loss of information in memory through its nonuse.
  157. Cue-dependent forgetting
    Forgetting that occurs when there are insufficient retrieval cues to rekindle information that is in memory.
  158. Proactive interference
    Interference in which information learned earlier disrupts the recall of newer material.
  159. Retroactive interference
    Interference in which there is difficulty in the recall of information learned earlier because of later exposure to different material.
  160. Motivation
    The factors that direct and energize the behavior of humans and other organisms. Biological, cognitive, and social aspects
  161. Instincts
    Inborn patterns of behavior that are biologically determined rather than learned. People and animals are born preprogrammed with sets of behaviors essential to their survival.
  162. Drive-reduction approaches to motivation
    Theories suggesting that a lack of a basic biological requirement such as water produces a drive to obtain that requirement.
  163. Drive
    Motivational tension, or arousal, that energizes behavior to fulfill a need.
  164. Primary drives
    Many basic drives, such as hunger, thirst, sleep, and sex, are related to biological needs of the body or of the species of a whole.
  165. Secondary drives
    Prior experience and learning bring about needs. For instance, some people have strong needs to achieve academically and professionally.
  166. Homeostasis
    The body's tendency to maintain a steady internal state, underlies primary drives.
  167. Arousal approaches to motivation
    The belief that we try to maintain certain levels of stimulation and activity, increasing or reducing them as necessary.
  168. Incentive approaches to motivation
    Theories suggesting that motivation stems from the desire to obtain valued external goals, or incentives. In this view, the desirable properties of external stimuli account for a petson's motivation.
  169. Cognitive approaches to motivation
    Theories suggesting that motivation is a product of people's thoughts and expectations - their cognitions. For instance, the degree to which people are motivated to study for a test is based on their expectation of doing well on the test or get good grades.
  170. Intrinsic motivation
    Causes us to participate in an activity for our own enjoyment rather than for any concrete, tangible reward that it will bring us.
  171. Extrinsic motivation
    Causes us to do something for money, a grade, or some other concrete, tangible reward.
  172. Self-actualization
    A state of self-fulfillment in which people realize their highest potential, each in his or her own unique way. People feel at ease with themselves and satisfied that they are using their talents to the fullest.
  173. Maslow's hierarchy
    Suggests that there are five basic needs: physiological, safety, love and belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization. Only after the more basic needs are fulfilled can a person move toward meeting higher order needs.
  174. Obesity
    Body weight that is more than 20 percent above the average weight for a person of a particular height.
  175. Body mass index (BMI)
    Based on a ratio of weight to height. People with a BMI greater than 30 are considered obese, whereas those with a BMI between 25 and 30 are overweight.
  176. Weight set point
    The particular level of weight that the body strives to maintain, which in turn regulates food intake.
  177. Metabolism
    The rate at which food is converted to energy and expended by the body.
  178. Anorexia nervosa
    A severe eating disorder in which people may refuse to eat while denying that their behavior and appearance are unusual.
  179. Bulimia
    A disorder in which a person binges on large quantities of food, followed by efforts to purge the food through vomiting or other means.
  180. Androgens
    Male sex hormones secreted by the testes. They produce secondary sex characteristics, such as the growth of body hair and deepening of the voice, they also increase the sex drive.
  181. Genitals
    The male and female sex organs.
  182. Estrogens
    Class of female sex hormones.
  183. Progesterone
    A female sex hormone secreted by the ovaries.
  184. Ovulation
    The point at which an egg is released from the ovaries.
  185. Heterosexuality
    Sexual attraction and behavior directed to the other sex.
  186. Double standard
    The view that premarital sex is permissible for males but not for females
  187. Extramarital sex
    Sexual activity between a married person and someone who is not his or her soouse.
  188. Bisexuals
    Persons who are sexually attracted to people of the same sex and the other sex.
  189. Transexuals
    People who believe they were born with the body of the other gender.
  190. Intersex person
    Someone who is born with an atypical combination of sexual organs or chromosomal or gene patterns.
  191. Need for achievement
    A stable, learned characteristic in which a person obtains satisfaction by striving for and attaining a level of excellence.
  192. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
    A test consisting of a series of pictures about which a person is asked to write a story.
  193. Need for affiliation
    An interest in establishing and maintaining relationship with other people.
  194. Need for power
    A tendency to seek impact, control, or influence over others, and to be seen as a powerful individual.
  195. Emotions
    Feelings that generally have both physiological and cognitive elements and that influence behavior.
  196. James-Lange theory of emotion
    The belief that emotional experience is a reaction to bodily events occurring as a result of an external situation ("I feel sad because I am crying").
  197. Cannon-Bard theory of emotion
    The belief that both physiological arousal and emotional experience are produced simultaneously by the same nerve stimulus.
  198. Schachter-Singer theory of emotion
    The belief that emotions are determined jointly by a nonspecific kind of physiological arousal and its interpretation, based on environmental cues.
  199. Amygdala
    In the brain's temporal lobe, is important in the experience of emotions, for it provides a link between the perception of an emotion-producing stimulus and recal of that stimulus later.
  200. Facial-affect program
    Activation of a set of nerve impulses that make the face display the appropriate expression
  201. Facial-feedback hypothesis
    The hypothesis that facial expressions not only reflect emotional experience but also help determine how people experience and label emotions.
  202. Primary emotions
    Surprise, sadness, happiness, anger, disgust, and fear.
  203. Developmental psychology
    The branch of psychology that studies the patterns of growth and change that occur throughout life.
  204. Nature-nurture issue
    The issue of the degree to which environment and heredity influence behavior.
  205. Cross-sectional research
    A research method that compares people of different ages at the same point in time. Studies provide information about differences in development between different age groups.
  206. Longitudinal research
    A research method that investigates behavior as participants age. By examining changes at several points in time, we can clearly see how individuals develop.
  207. Sequential research
    A research method that combines cross-sectional and longitudinal research by considering a number of different age groups and examining them at several points in time.
  208. Chromosomes
    Rod-shaped structures that contain all basic hereditary information.
  209. Genes
    The parts of the chromosomes through which genetic information is transmitted. They produce each person's unique characteristics. They are composed of sequences of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecules.
  210. Zygote
    The new cell formed by the union of an egg and sperm
  211. Embryo
    A developed zygote that has a heart, a brain, and other organs.
  212. Fetus
    A developing individual, from eight weeks after conception until birth.
  213. Age of viability
    The point at which a fetus can survive if born prematurely.
  214. Teratogens
    Environmental agents such as a drug, chemical, virus, or other factor that produce a birth defect.
  215. Neonate
    A newborn child. The skin secretes vernix, a white greasy covering for protection before birth.
  216. Reflexes
    Unlearned,, involuntary responses that occur automatically in the presence of certain stimuli.
  217. Atachment
    The positive emotional bond that develops between a child and a particular individual.
  218. Authoritarian parents
    Parents who are rigid and punitive and value unquestioning obedience from their children.
  219. Permissive parents
    Parents who give their children relaxed or inconsistent direction and, although they are warm, require little of them.
  220. Authoritative parents
    Parents who are firm, set clear limits, reason with their children, and explain things to them.
  221. Uninvolved parents
    Parents who show little interest in their children and are emotionally detached.
  222. Temperament
    Basic, innate disposition.
  223. Psychosocial development
    Development of individuals' interactions and understanding of each other and of their knowledge and understanding of themselves as members of society.
  224. Trust-versus-mistrust stage
    According to Erikson, the first stage of psychosocial development, occuring from birth to age 1 and a half years, during which time infants develop feelings of trust or lack of trust.
  225. Autonomy-versus-shame-and-doubt stage
    The period during which, according to Erikson, toddlers (ages 1 and a half to 3 years) develop independence and autonomy if exploration and freedom are encouraged, or shame and self-doubt if they are restricted and overprotected.
  226. Initiative-versus-guilt stage
    According to Erikson, the period during which children ages 3 to 6 years experience conflict between independence of action and the sometimes negative results of that action.
  227. Industry-versus-inferiority stage
    According to Erikson, the last stage of childhood, during which children ages 6 to 12 years may develop positive social interactions with others or may feel inadequate and become less social.
  228. Cognitive development
    The process by which a child's understanding of the world changes as a function of age and experience.
  229. Sensorimotor stage
    According to Piaget, the stage from birth to 2 years, during which a child has little competence in representing the environment by using images, language, or other symbols.
  230. Object permanence
    The awareness that objects - and people - continue to exist even if they are out of sight.
  231. Preoperational stage
    According to Piaget, the period from 2 to 7 years of age that is characterized by language development.
  232. Egocentric thought
    A way of thinking in which a child views the world entirely from his or her own perspective.
  233. Principle of conservation
    The knowledge that quanity is unrelated to the arrangement and physical appearance of objects.
  234. Concrete operational stage
    According to Piaget, the period from 7 to 12 years of age that is characterized by logical thought and a loss of egocentrism.
  235. Formal operational stage
    According to Piaget, the period from age 12 to adulthood that is characterized by abstract thought.
  236. Information processing
    The way in which people take in, use, and store information.
  237. Metacognition
    An awareness and understanding of one's own cognitive processes.
  238. Zone of proximal development (ZPR)
    According to Vygotsky, the level at which a child can almost, but not fully, comprehend or perform a task on his or her own.
  239. Adolescence
    The developmental stage between childhood and adulthood. Important social, emotional, and cognitive changes occur as adolescents strive for independence and move toward adulthood.
  240. Puberty
    The period at which maturation of the sexual organs occurs, beginning at about age 11 or 12 for girls and 13 or 14 for boys.
  241. Identity-versus-role-confusion stage
    According to Erikson, a time in adolescense of major testing to determine one's unique qualities.
  242. Identity
    The distinguishing character of the individual: who each of us is, what our roles are, and what we are capable of.
  243. Intimacy-versus-isolation stage
    According to Erikson, a period during early adulthood that focuses on developing close relationships.
  244. Generativity-versus-stagnation stage
    According to Erikson, a period in middle adulthood during which we take stock of our contributions to family and society.
  245. Ego-integrity-versus-despair stage
    According to Erikson, a period from late adulthood until death during which we review life's accomplishments and failures.
  246. Emerging adulthood
    The period beginning in the late teenage years and extending into the mid-twenties.
  247. Menopause
    The period during which woman stop menstruating and are no longer fertile.
  248. Genetic preprogramming theories of aging
    Theories that suggest that human cells have a built-in time limit to their reproduction, and that after a certain time they are no longer able to divide.
  249. Wear-and-tear theories of aging
    Theories that suggest that the mechanical functions of the body simply stop working efficiently.
  250. Fluid intelligence
    Involves information-processing skills such as memory, calculations, and analogy solving.
  251. Crystallized intelligence
    Intelligence based on the accumulation of information, skills, and strategies learned through experience.
  252. Alzheimer's disease
    A progressive brain disorder that leads to a gradual and irreversible decline in cognitive abilities.
  253. Disengagement theory of aging
    A theory that suggests that aging produces a gradual withdrawal from the world on physical, psychological, and social levels.
  254. Activity theory of aging
    A theory that suggests that the elderly who are most successful while aging are those who maintain the interest and activities they had during middle age.
  255. Trait theory
    A model of personality that seeks to identify the basic traits necessary to describe personality.
  256. Traits
    Consistent personality characteristics and behaviors displayed in different situations.
  257. Factor analysis
    A statistical method of identifying associations among a large number of variables to reveal more general patterns.
  258. Eysenck's three dimensions
    • Extraversion: sociable, lively, active, assertive, sensation-seeking.
    • Neuroticism: anxious, depressed, guilt feelings, low self-esteem, tense.
    • Psychoticism: aggressive, cold, egocentric, impersonal, impulsive.
  259. Big five personality traits
    Openess to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism.
  260. Social cognitive approaches to personality
    Theories that emphasize the influence of a person's cognitions - thoughts, feelings, expectations, and values - as well as observation of others' behavior, in determining personality.
  261. Self-efficacy
    Belief in one's personal capabilities. People's faith in their ability to carry out a particular behavior or produce a desired outcome.
  262. Self-esteem
    The component of personality that encompasses our positive and negative self evaluations.
  263. Biological and evolutionary approaches to personality
    Theories that suggest that important components of personality are inherited. Building on the work of behavioral geneticists, researchers argue that personality is determined at least in part by our genes.
  264. Humanistic approaches to personality
    Theories that emphasize people's innate goodness and desire to achieve higher levels of functioning.
  265. Self-actualization
    A state of self-fulfillment in which people realize their highest potential, each in a unique way.
  266. Unconditional positive regard
    An attitude of acceptance and respect on the part of an observer, no matter what a person says or does. This acceptance, gives people the opportunity to evolve and grow cognitively and emotionally.
  267. Psychological tests
    Standard measures devised to assess behavior objectively; used by psychologists to help people make decisions about their lives and understand more about themselves.
  268. Self-report measures
    A method of gathering data about people by asking them questions about a sample of their behavior; these are then used to infer the presence of particular personality characteristics.
  269. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2)
    A widely used self-report test that identifies people with psychological difficulties and is employed to predict some everyday behaviors.
  270. Test standardization
    A technique used to validate questions in personality tests by studying the responses of people with known diagnoses.
  271. Projective personality test
    A test which a person is shown an ambiguous stimulus and asked to described it or tell a story about it.
  272. Rorschach test
    A test that involves showing a series of symmetrical visual stimuli to people who then are asked what the figures represented to them.
  273. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
    A test consisting of a series of pictures about which a person is asked to write a story. The stories are then used to draw inferences about the writer's personality characteristics.
  274. Behavioral assessment
    Direct measures of an individual's behavior used to describe personality characteristics.
  275. Intelligence
    The capacity to understand the world, think rationally, and use resources effectively when faced with challenges.
  276. G or g-factor
    The single, general factor for mental ability assumed to underlie intelligence in some early theories of intelligence.
  277. Theory of multiple intelligences
    Gardner's intelligence theory that proposes that there are eight distinct spheres of intelligence. Musical, bodily kinesthetic, logical-mathematical, linguistic, spatial, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalist.
  278. Practical intelligence
    According to Sternberg, intelligence related to overall success of living.
  279. Emotional intelligence
    The set of skills that underlie the accurate assessment, evaluation, expression, and regulation of emotions. It is the basis of empathy for others, self-awareness, and social skills.
  280. Intelligence tests
    Tests devised to quantify a person's level of intelligence.
  281. Mental age
    The age for which a given level of performance is average or typical.
  282. Intelligence quotient (IQ)
    A score that takes into account an individual's mental and chronological ages.
  283. Intellectual disability (or mental retardation)
    A condition characterized by significant limitations in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior involving conceptual, social, and practical skills.
  284. Fetal alcohol syndrome
    The most common cause of mental retardation in newborns, occurring when the mother uses alcohol during pregnancy.
  285. Familial retardation
    Mental retardation in which no apparent biological defect exists but there is a history of retardation in the family.
  286. Intellectually gifted
    The 2 to 4 percent of the population who have IQ scores greater than 130.
  287. Culture-fair IQ test
    A test that does not discriminate against the members of any minority group, psychologists have tried to devise test items that assess experiences common to all cultures or emphasize questions that do not require language usage.
  288. Heritability
    A measure of the degree to which a characteristic is related to genetic, inherited factors.

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