Positive Psychology

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Positive Psychology
2013-04-25 18:13:33
Positive emotions subjective wellbeing

Slides, articles and the how of happiness
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  1. Ed Dieners 7 myths about happiness?
    • 1.Happiness has an unchanging individual "setpoint"
    • 2.Causes of well-being can be understod as a pie chart of influence 
    • 3.Money does not correlate with happiness
    • 4.Correlations show causation if there are enough of them
    • 5.Context can be ignored 
    • 6.Uncovering the happiest nation is a worthwhile goal
    • 7.Most people need to be happier then they already are
  2. What does VIA stand for?
    Values in action
  3. What is VIA?
    Classification of character strength.
  4. VIA virtues & character strengths:
    Wisdom & knowledge?
    • Creativity
    • curiosity
    • love of learning
    • open-mindnedness
    • perspective
  5. VIA virtues & character strengths:
    • Authenticity
    • bravery
    • persistence
    • zest
  6. VIA virtues & character strengths:
    • Kindness
    • Love
    • Social Intelligence
  7. VIA virtues & character strengths:
    • Fairness
    • Leadership
    • Teamwork
  8. VIA virtues & character strengths:
    • Forgiveness
    • Leadership
    • Prudence
    • Self-regulation
  9. VIA virtues & character strengths:
    • Appreciation of beauty
    • Gratitude 
    • Hope
    • Humor
    • Religiousness/Spirituality
  10. The ABCDE of learned optimism
    • A stands for adversity
    • B for the beliefs you automatically have when it occurs
    • C for the usual consequences of the belief
    • D for your disputation of your routine belief ? using facts and logic, not wasteful thinking on affirmations.
    • E for the energization that occurs when you dispute it successfully (this simply means to pay attention to how you feel (e.g. lighter, more energized) as a result of disputing your negative thoughts)
  11. Cognitive Distortions
    All -or nothing thinking?
    You see things in black and white categories. If your performance falls short of perfect you see yourself as a total failure.
  12. Cognitive Distortions
    You see a single negative event as a never ending pattern of defeat.
  13. Cognitive Distortions
    Mental Filter?
    You pick out a single negative detail and dwell on it exclusively so that your vision of all reality becomes darkened, like the drop of ink that discolors the entire beaker of water.
  14. Cognitive Distortions
    Disqualifying the positive?
    You reject positive experiences by insisting they dont count for some reason or other. In this way you can maintain a negative belief that is contradicted by your everyday experience.
  15. Cognitive Distortions
    Jumping to conclusion?
    You make a negative interpretation even though there are no definite facts that convincingly support your conclusion.
  16. Cognitive Distortions
    Magnification or minimization?
    You exaggerate the importance of things, or you inappropriately shrink things until they appear tiny.
  17. Cognitive Distortions
    Emotional Reasoning?
    You assume that your negative emotions necessarily reflect the way things really are, "i felt it, therefore it must be true."
  18. Cognitive Distortions
    Should statements?
    You try to motivate yourself with should and shouldn't as if you had to be whipped and punished before you could be expected to do anything.
  19. Cognitive Distortions
    Labeling and mislabeling?
    This is an extreme form of over-generalization. Instead of describing your error, you attach a negative label to yourself; "i'm a loser"
  20. Cognitive Distortions
    You see yourself as the cause of some negative event which in fact you were not primarily responsible for.
  21. Learn optimism coping strategies?
    • Problem-focused coping: Resolving the stressful situation.
    • Emotion-focused coping: Decreasing situation-related distress.
  22. What is an emotion?
    Relatively brief, though intense, affective reaction to potentially important events or changes in the external or internal environment. Emotions focus on specific objects and last minutes to a few hours.
  23. What is MOOD?
    Affective state with a lower felt intensity than emotions, that do not have a clear object, and that last much longer than emotions (several hours to days)
  24. What is AFFECT?
    An umbrella term that covers all valenced (i.e positive/negative) states, such as emotions and mood.
  25. Broadening effect of positive emotions? (6)
    (Barbra Fredricksen)
    1. Enhanced creativity 

    2. Increased problem-solving skills

    3. Broadened thought-action repertoires (expanded array of thoughts and actions that come to mind)

    4.Broadened perceptual scope and increased holistic processing

    5.Broadened perception of others

    6.Broadened perception of self
  26. What is the Own-race bias?
    A tendency to be less able to distinguish people of a different race. "they all look the same to me"
  27. What is the relationship of PP and HP?
    Close relationship, in some instances identical and in some other, they can be distinguished.
  28. What is the downward social comparison?
    Att jämföra sig "nedåt" mot folk som har det sämre än en själv = man mår bättre av det.
  29. Ancient views on "happiness"
    Stoics (filosof) view on happiness?
    To be in harmony with the universal reason of nature (logos)

    To be free if suffering through peace of mind (apatheia)

    to become a stoic sage ("wise man") and to reach eupatheia
  30. Ancient views on "happiness"
    Epicureans view on happiness?
    • Selective hedonism; 
    • Satisfy only those desires that will make us happy in the long run 
    • A moderate lifestyle of simple pleasures rather then overindulgences
  31. Ancient views on "happiness"
    Aristotle view on happiness?
    Happiness is an end in itself. 

    Wealth and money as such does not constitue happiness, they are only useful for the sake of something else

    Amusement or pleasure is not essence of happiness: even a slave can have these, but we would not say he is happy or a good life
  32. Ancient views on "happiness"
    Aristotle view on happiness?
    • Happiness is not a state, it is an activity. 
    • Activity directed toward a goal.

  33. Vad är Positive psykologi?
    • Positive psychology is the scientific study of what goes right in life, from birth to death and all stops in between.
    • 1.Things that make life worth living
    • 2. Make life best possible
  34. Vem myntade uttrycket PP och vilket år?
    Martin Seligman - 1998
  35. Vad innebär sjukdoms modellen?
    Att man tidigare hade en patelogisk syn på förståelse för behandling av och i förebyggande av psykiska sjukdomar.
  36. Vad är DMS och ICD?
    • Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 
    • International classification of diseases. 

    Beskrivningar av sjukdomar och pålitliga bedömningsstrategier
  37. The three pillars of PP? (Peterson)
    • 1. Positive subjective experience (happiness, gratification, pleasure, fulfillment)
    • 2.Positive individual traits (strength of character, talents, interests, values)
    • 3. Positive institutions (families, school, business, communities, societies)
  38. What are the three pillars of Theory (Peterson)?
    Positive institutions facilitates the development and displays of positive traits, which in turn facilitates positive subjective experience.
  39. Tal Ben Shahars 4 hamburgare/arketyper som presenterar olika mönster av attityder och beteende?
    • 1. Skräpmatshamburgaren / hedonistiska 
    • present benefit - future detriment 

    2.Vegburgaren, Kapplöpningsburgaren, the ratracer, no pain, no gain, Råttan underordnar sig nuet för framtiden, lider nu med ändamål om förväntad framtida vinst. (present detriment - future benefit)

    3.Den nihilistiska (nihil=ingenting) burgaren, den värsta, varken god eller nyttig. Njuter varken av nuet eller har en känsla av framtida ändamål. Present detriment - future detriment.

    4.Den glada burgaren - den idealistiska burgaren. God och nyttig. Omedelbar njutning som också gynnar framtiden.
  40. Vad sysslar Ellen Langer med?
    • 1.Mindfulness 
    • 2.Flow
    • 3.Spirituality
  41. Philosophical Theories of Happiness (4)?
    • Hedonistic theories 
    • Desire theories
    • Authentic happiness theories 
    • Eudaimonistic theories
  42. How does the hedonistic theory explain happiness?
    A subjects balance of pleasant over unpleasant experience; The overall amount of pleasure should be higher than the overall amount of displeasure. 

    Happiness = pleasure
  43. What problems lies under the hedonistic theories?
    • Reality-problem: the experience machine
    • The happy swine - problem 
    • The happy oyster - problem
    • The miserable hedonist - problem
  44. Explain the reality-problem: the experience machine?
    Does it matter how the pleasure is produced?
  45. Happy swine-problem & shallow pleasures-problem?
    Does it matter what kind of pleasure it is?
  46. What Desire Theories exist?  (2)
    The happy slave problem - Desires adapt to the available possibilities. 

    The cute puppy error - Desire does not guarantee liking it after we got it.
  47. Vad är skillnaden mellan talang och styrka?
    The strength is morally valued in contrast to talents like intelligence perfect pitch, or athletic prowess. The strengths fall into the moral domain. Talents and abilities can be squandered, but strengths and virtues cannot.
  48. Authentic happiness theories
    What is autonomous?
    the happy life reflects values that are truly one's own (and not the result of manipulation or oppression)
  49. What is the couch potato - problem?
    could a passive couch potato living a life of futile (meningslöst), pleasurable consumption reflect on hen's values and decide to choose them as fully informed and autonomous?
  50. Aristoteles is associated with what theory?
    Eudaimonistic Theories; 

    Aristotle: A life of excellent and virtuous activity
  51. Eudaimonistic Theories 
    Problems (2)
    Paternalism; someone else trying to dictate to us what we should be like, or what values we should adopt?

    Perfectionism; being satisfied with only the very best possible solutions might imply that one an be only very rarely if ever truly satisfied.
  52. What is the suffering artist - problem?
    Could a virtuous life fulfilling your potential yet be an unhappy life?
  53. The "happiness equation";
    Overall Happiness or global subjective well-being =
    Affective components + Cognitive components 

    tPA / tNA + (LS & DS)
  54. Hedonic wellbeing includes;
    • Positive emotions
    • Negative emotions
    • Life satisfaction
    • Domain satisfaction
  55. Eudaimonistic well-being includes;
    Engagement + Meaning
  56. A real smile is called?
    Duchenne smile :)
  57. What is Homeostasis?
    A state of equilibrium (balance) in our bodies.
  58. What is a stressor?
    – anything in the external (or internal) world that moves the body out of homeostatic balance
  59. What is a stress response?
    body's reaction to the stressor with an aim to reestablish homeostasis
  60. Hans Selye(1907-1982) is associated with?
    Discovery of the Stress-Response by rats experiment
  61. The stress-response, step by step?
    • Mobilization of energy (from storage sites) and inhibition of further storage
    • Increase in hear rate, blood pressure and breathingrate to transport nutrients (glucose) and oxygen at greater rates
    • Improvement of cognitive skills (eg, memory) and sharpening of senses

    • Inhibition of digestion
    • Inhibition of growth
    • Inhibition of reproduction
    • Inhibited immunity
    • Analgesia – increased painthreshold
  62. The three stages of stress-response?
    Alarm (Inhibition of digestion) - resistance (Successful mobilization of the stress-response system and the reattainment of homeostatic balance) - exhaustion (Prolonged stressresponse leading to stress-related diseases)
  63. Consequences of the Stress Response, step by step?
    • Damage to brain (memory and learning problems; psychological disorders)
    • Diabetes, fatigue 
    • Cardiovascular disease

    • Peptic ulcers
    • Stress dwarfism; Inhibition of tissue repair
    • Reproductive disorders
    • Inhibited immunity
    • Chronic pain
  64. "Happy people are exceptionally good at their friendships, families, and intimate relationships. The happier a person is, the more likely he or she is to have a large circle of friends or companions, a romantic partner, and ample social support“
    Lyubomirsky, 2007, p. 138
  65. „...good relationships with others may be the single most important source of life satisfaction and emotional well-being, across different ages and cultures“
    Peterson, 2006, p. 249
  66. „...my three-word summary of positive psychology: Other people matter.“
    Peterson, 2006, p. 249
  67. „...one of our strongest human motives is to belong – to feel as if we are connected in meaningful ways with other people“
    Snyder & Lopez, 2011, p. 477
  68. What is attachement styles?
    Patterns of expectations, needs, emotions and social behaviour that result from a particular history of attachment experiences, usually beginning in the relationships with parents (Fraley & Shaver, 2000)
  69. Secure attachement style?
    a balance between exploration of the environment and contact with the caregiver
  70. Insecure-resistant/ambivalent attachment?
    a tension between the parent and child, resulting in the child’s passive or active demonstration of hostility toward the caregiver while simultaneously wanting to be held and comforted
  71. Insecure-avoidant attachment?
    a tension between parent and child, resulting in the child’s avoidance of the parent when reintroduced
  72. What is acts of kindness?
    behaviours that benefit other people or make others happy, usually at cost to oneself (e.g., donating blood, helping a friend with a schoolwork, visiting an elderly relative, writing a thank-you note to someone)
  73. A study by Lyubomirsky, Tkach & Sheldon, 2004  on acts of kindness showed that participants who committed acts of kindness experienced what changes in wellbeing?
    Participants who committed acts of kindness experienced significant increases in well-being, BUT... This increase was evident only among those who did all the 5 acts in a single day
  74. The definition of mindfulness by Brown & Ryan, 2003; Brown, Ryan & Creswell, 2007
    A receptive attention to and awareness of present events and experience
  75. What is MAAS?
    Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS)
  76. What is transcendence?
    A connection to the larger universe providing meaning to one's life. ((Peterson & Seligman, 2004))
  77. According to (Peterson & Seligman, 2004) what is spirituality?
    having coherent beliefs about the higher purpose and meaning of the universe
  78. According to Hill et al., 1998; Pargament, 1999, what is spirituality?
    the feelings, thoughts, and behaviours that arise from a search for the sacred
  79. Happiness activities from "the how of happiness" (12)
    • 1.Expressing Gratitude 
    • 2.Cultivating optimism
    • 3.Savoring life's joy
    • 4.Learning to forgive
    • 5.Developing strategies for coping
    • 6.Taking care of your body and soul
    • 7.Committing to your goals
    • 8.Nurturing relationships
    • 9.Practicing acts of kindness
    • 10.Avoiding over-thinking and social comparison 
    • 11.Practicing religion and spirituality 
    • 12.Doing more activities that truly engage you
  80. What is The Miserable Hedonist?
    • Overindulgence in vain sensory pleasures may in the long run lead to a life that seems pointless and without any deeper meaning
    • or it may lead to the addictive craving for more and morehedonistic stimulation but getting less and less pleasure out of it
  81. Predicting Our Future Happiness ?
    we may be mistaken if we believe that the satisfaction of our present desires will make our future selves happy
  82. The Focusing Illusion (”tunnel vision”) is?
    • - we see only one or a few distinctive features about a choice and evaluate the whole thing based on that
    • we ignore other important characteristics, we don’t see the big picture, the context, the long-term effects
  83. The Paradise Fallacy is?
    idealizing a choice (or a place or a person etc.) due to the Focusing Illusion, based on a single conspicuous positive feature
  84. the Hell Fallacy is?
    condemning a choice (or a place or a person etc.) due to the Focusing Illusion based on a single conspicuous negative feature
  85. Explain Maximizers ?
    • Maximizers only accept the very BEST solution
    • They rely on external evaluations and comparisons when looking for it
    • They regret and wonder whether another option would have been even better
    • They believe that only the very best will make them happy
    • They eventually get a bit more but like it a lot less!
  86. Explain satisfiers?
    Satisfiers aim for a good, acceptable solution They rely on an internal standard when evaluating if a solution is ”good enough” for them
  87. The big five of personality are?
    • Openness to experience
    • Conscientiousness
    • Extraversion
    • Agreeableness 
    • Neuroticism
  88. Donald Clifton(1924-2003)
    The grandfather of PP and the father of strength based psychology.
  89. What is a strength?
    • the ability to provide consistent, near perfect performance in a specific given activity.
  90. What is a talent?
    A natural way of thinking, feeling or behaving
  91. Character Strength Criteria:
    • Is ubiquitous: is widely recognized across cultures
    • Is fulfilling: contributes to individual fulfillment, satisfaction, and happiness broadly construed
    • Does not diminish others: elevates others who witness it, producing admiration, not jealosy
    • Is trait-like: is an individual difference with demonstrable generality and stability
    • Is measurable: has been successfully measured by researchers as an individual difference
  92. Character strength Criteria 2
    • Is distinct - is not redundant (conceptually or empirically) with other character strenghts
    • Has paragons: is strikingly emobodied in some individuals
    • Has prodigies: is precociously shown by some children or youth
    • Can be selectively absent: is missing altogether in some individuals
    • Has a nonfelicitous opposite: has obvious antonyms that are “negative"
    • Has enabling insitutions: is the deliberate target of societal practices and rituals that try to cultivate it
  93. The most commonly self described strengths are:
    kindness, fairness, authenticity, gratitude, and judgment
  94. A strength has three core components:
    • Performance: how good we are at doing something
    • Energy: how much energy we get from doing it
    • Use: how often we get to do it
  95. Pessimistic explanatory style:
    • Negative event;
    • Stable
    • Global
    • Internal

    • Positive event;
    • Temporary 
    • Specific 
    • External
  96. Optimistic explanatory style:
    • Negative event;
    • Temporary 
    • Specific
    • External

    • Positive event;
    • Stable
    • Global
    • Internal