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  1. Le Chatlier's Stresses
    1. Addition or removal of a product or reactant 2. Temperature changes 3. Pressure changes (but not if nonreactive gas like He is added)
  2. Chracteristics of an ideal gas
    • 1. Molecules have ZERO VOLUME
    • 2. Molecules have ZERO ATTRACTION to one another 
    • 3. Energy is conserved in collisions because molecules collide elastically with one another and walls of the container 
    • 4. KEavg = 3/2RT
  3. Real vs Ideal Gases
    • Vreal > Videal Ideal
    • gas molecules are thought to have no volume while real gas molecules obviously have volume 

    • Preal < Pideal 
    • Attraction between real gas molecules, causing them to slow down before they hit the walls of the container and exert less force/area The closer together the gas molecules are, more apparent deviations from ideal situations become
  4. What is special about neurons in relation to metabolism?
    They use facilitated transport to obtain glucose...but independently of insulin.
  5. Unique distinction of vertebrates?
    Only vertebrates have MYLENATED axons!
  6. Where do sensory and motor neurons lie in the spinal cord?
    Sensory neurons: dorsally 

    Motor/somatic NS neurons: ventrally
  7. ACh receptors
    a) Found ALL throughout the PNS except for sympathetic neuroeffector synapses 

    b) Nicotinic: muscles 

    c) Muscarinic: found in the parasympathetic NS
  8. What effect do the contraction/relaxation of ciliary muscles have on the lens and focal point?
    Contraction: Bends the lens, makes more spherical, moves focal point CLOSER to lens

    Relaxation: straightens lens, flattens, moves focal point AWAY from lens, harder to see closer objects, happens in old age when muscles tire
  9. Cornea
    First place light hits the eye ; nonvascular and made of collagen ; where most bending of light occurs because it is highly refractive 
  10. Path of sound
    Pinna (outer) --> Tympanic mem. (middle) --> Malleus, incus, stapes --> Cochlea (stereocilia + Organ of Corti)
  11. Lever system in the ear?
    Malleus, Incus, and Stapes are 3 small bones acting as levers. 

    Their displacement from sound is small, making the force from sound much larger and more easily transduced.
  12. What NS control simple reflex arcs?
    Somatic - because reflex arcs involve skeletal muscles
  13. Reflex arcs
    Involve CNA - but also involve both the excitation and inhibition of muscle groups. 

    Remember that they involve CNA because they go through the spinal cord!
  14. Key for hormone questions
    Remember that hormones RESPOND to irregularities in the body if they arise --- they don't create them! 

    Think about the physiological situation and then think about how the body would then respond to it via hormone release to compensate.
  15. Why are viruses so difficult to treat?
    They are rapidly mutating...those sneaks.
  16. Retroviruses
    1. Convert RNA to DNA using host cell machinery 

    2. Hold RNA code for reverse transcriptase and integrase in genome --- once these are transcribed, they help reverse transcribe the rest of their genome
  17. Lytic cycle
    Immediate production of viral progeny. Latency period, the time between infection and cell bursting,  ends with cell death.
  18. Lysogenic cycle
    Viral nucleid acid is incorporated into host genome and remains dormant until stressed, at which point it enters the lytic cycle.
  19. Yeast
    1. Unicellular fungi 

    2. reproduce via budding/cell fission

    3. Facultative anaerobes
  20. Properties of Fungi: 
    1. Organization of kingdom?
    2. Cellularity?
    3. Organelles? 
    4. Membrane composition?
    5. Energy & Carbon source category?
    • 1. Divided into divisions (like plants) instead of phyla
    • 2. Multicellular except for yeast
    • 3. Have no centrioles (BUT HAVE MITOCHONDRIA) 
    • 4. Have cells walls made of chitin 
    • 5. Saprophytes (dead material) ; heterotrops ; eukaryotes ; absorb, rather than ingest food

    *Undergo mitosis but not sexual reproduction!!
  21. Gram-positive bacteria
    • 1. Stain purple 
    • 2. Thick peptidoglycan cell wall 

    Endospore formation (environmentally and temperature resistant)
  22. Gram-negative bacteria
    • 1. Stain pink 
    • 2. Thin peptidoglycan cell wall + LPS
    • 3. LPS plasma membrane acts as a protective barrier to antibodies and antibiotics
  23. Bacterial reproduction & growth
    Binary fission = asexual reproduction 

    1. No spindle fibers to allow for full separation

    2. Parent divided into 2 identical daughter cells

  24. State functions
    Describe the state of the system and tell of certain properties 

    • U = internal energy 
    • T = temperature 
    • P = pressure 
    • V = volume 
    • H = enthalpy
    • S = entropy 
    • G = free energy 

    All of these values can be reversed in the opposite direction beacuse path doesn't matter. I.e. fwdH= -fwdH
  25. Adiabatic
    Completely isolated from the world 

    • No heat transfer 
    • U = w
  26. Saturated Fatty Acids vs. Unsaturated Fatty Acids
    Saturated = SINGLE double C=C bond

    Unsaturated = One or more C=C bonds
  27. How are lipids transported in the blood stream?
    • Via lipoproteins & Albumin 
    • Classification: VLDL(bad) --- HDL (good)
  28. Bonds found in nucleis acids
    Phosphodiester bonds
  29. Nonpolar amino acids - I saw Lucy methodically probe and feel Alan, then Val tripped glycine
    • Glycine
    • Alanine 
    • Valine 
    • Laucine
    • Isoleucine
    • Phenylalanine 
    • Tryptophan
    • Methionine (start amino acid)
    • Proline (turn-inducing & affects tertiary structure)
  30. Forces creating tertiary structure
    • 1. Disulfide bonds 
    • 2. Ionic interactions between side chains 
    • 3. H-bonding
    • 4. Van der Waals
    • 5. Hydrophobic side chains being pushed away from protein center
  31. What kind of cells can absorb glucose in the absence of insulin?
    Neurons and hepatic cells
  32. Where are the largest amounts of glucose found?
    The mucles and liver (hepatocytes don't need insulin to uptake glucose)
  33. Components of a nucleotide
    • 1. 5C pentose sugar 
    • 2. Nitrogenous base 
    • 3. Phosphate group
  34. Types of enzymatic regulation (4)
    • 1. Proteolytic cleavage (zymogen-->active enzyme)
    • 2. Covalent modification (phosphorylation)
    • 3. Protein subunit regulation (GPCRs)
    • 4. Allosteric modulation (positive cooperativity)
    • **Allosteric modulation results in a conformational change
  35. Kinases vs. Phosphatases
    Kinases phosphorylate & usually deactivate Phosphatases dephosphorylate
  36. Importance of cofactors?
    Not all enzymes need cofactors They are metal ions  that activate an exzyme by binding to it

    NADPH is a COENZYME, not COFACTOR
  37. Coenzymes?
    They help out enzyme catalyzed reaction by carrying/delivering electrons and being oxidized or reduced 

    Include: NADH, FADH2 etc.
  38. What establishes the proton gradient in the intermembrane space?
    The oxidation of NADH, which allows protons to be pumped into the intermembrane space
  39. Membrane transport requiring energy
    **Need ATP because molecules are moved against their []gradientActive transport (secondary and primary)
  40. Do enzymes change the free energy of a reaction?
    Nope! They also only affect the kinetics of the reaction...not the thermodynamics
  41. Net reaction of aerobic respiration and source of products
    C6H12O6 + O2 --> CO2 + H2O (unbalanced).

    Each half of a glucose molecule forms 18 ATP to give a net of 36ATP per glucose
  42. What is the net reaction of glycolysis?
    Glucose + 2ADP + 2Pi + 2NAD+ --> 2Pyruvate + 2ATP + 2NADH

    No O2 should be present because remember that glycolysis is independent of O2
  43. Do saturated or unsaturated fats have more energy?
    Saturated fats have the greatest heat of combustion. More so than unsaturated fatty acids
  44. What kind of sugar is glucose? What about fructose?
    Glucose is an ALDOHEXOSE 

    Fructose is a KETOHEXOSE
  45. How does nmr work?
    Requires atom with unever atomic or mass number. 

    Such unevenly numbered species' protons experience nuclear spin. - Spin aligned with external magnetic field. 

    When photon shone, the proton will absorb the photon's energy and FLIP/RESONATE to align itself AGAINST the external magnetic field. 

    Field of EM = constant, while the magnitude of the magnetic field is varied
  46. How does IR work?
    Every bond has a resonance frequency. 

    When this resonance frequency is matched by the frequency of IR radiation...the IR energy is absorbed.
  47. How does UV spec work?
    Pi electrons in conjugated (alternating) bonds can absorb energy and jump to a higher energy level orbital. 

    The initial sample beam intensity will be greater than the reference beam intensity because energy is absorbed by the pi electrons 

    The longer the chains of conjugated bonds, the greater the wavelength of absorption When a certain wavelength is absorbed, the remaining light will assume the COMPLEMENTARY color to the wavelength absorbed.
  48. If a compound has 8+ double bonds..
    The absorbance will move into the visible spectrum
  49. Which vessel carries the most deoxygenated blood in the entire body?
    The pulmonary artery
  50. Forms in which CO2 is carried in the body?
    • 1. Dissolved in blood 
    • 2. Bicarbonate ion 
    • 3. Carbamino compounds bound of Hb and other proteins
  51. Rxn catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase
    CO2 + H2O <---> HCO3- + H+

    Remember that carbonic anhydrase is only an enzyme and does not actually prevent this reaction from happening if inhibited...just slows down
  52. Which is the only part of the body not drained by the lymph system?
    CNS
  53. Pressure in the lymph system
    Pressure is typically negative in regard to the other vessels it's surrounded by, which is what pushes fluid into the system. 

    Lymph system has valves and smooth muscle
  54. Blood is composed of...?
    1. Plasma - blood matrix (contain urea, proteins, etc.)

    2. Buffy coat - white blood cells 

    3. Read blood cells = hematocrit (greater in men)
  55. Important contents of plasma
    • 1. Albumin
    • 2. Immunoglobulins 
    • 3. Clotting factors (fibrinogen)
  56. What is serum
    Plasma from which the clotting factors such as fibrinogen have been REMOVED
  57. How are RBCs different from other cells?
    • 1. They have no nucleus 
    • 2. Do not undergo mitosis 
    • 3. Do not reproduce
  58. Acquired immunity
    Develops after initial exposure to toxin 

    1. Humoral-immunity: B-cell mediated ((bone marrow and liver) ; assisted by T helper cell ; differentiates into plasma and memory B cells ; secondary response, directed against exogenous stimuli 

    2. T-cell mediated immunity: mature in thymus, HIV attacks T-helper cells, infected cells & cancer
  59. Where does thermoregulation in the cardiovascular system happen?
    In the arterioles! 

    Vasoconstriction - heat conserved when cold, constriction of arterioles to limit blood flow and thus heat loss from the skin 

    Vasodilation - cool-down mechanism, dilation of arterioles feeding skin to increase heat loss at skin surface
  60. What is different between Plasma cells and Memory B cells?
    Plasma cells, need T cells to be activated 

    Memory B cell, does NOT rely on T cell to make antibodies
  61. Role of immune cells: 
    Eosinophils
    Basophils 
    CD8 T cells
    Eosinophils: Parasitic infections

    Basophils: Release inflammatory agents 

    CD8:kills cancer cells, cells that are infected (particularly with viruses), or cells that are damaged in other ways.
  62. How can colloids be separated?
    • 1. Dialysis (i.e. use of semipermeable membrane)
    • 2. Charge separation 
    • 3. Filtration AFTER heating
  63. 4 cells in stomach and their actions
    • 1. Mucous cells - lubrication+protection from pH
    • 2. Chief cells - secrete pepsinogen 
    • 3. Parietal cells - secrete HCl 
    • 4. G cells  - secrete gastrin (stimulate parietal cells to secrete HCl)
  64. Surface of small intestinal wall
    Brush border (contains enzymes to break down carbs, proteins, and nucleotides)--> microvilli --> Villi (increase surface area for absorption) --> lacteal capillary network (site of nutrient absorption) -->Exocrine glands within villi = secrete 7.6 intestinal juice
  65. What composes healthy poop?
    • 1. Water 
    • 2. Dead bacteria
    • 3. Fat 
    • 4. Inorganic matter 
    • 5. Protein 
    • 6. Roughage
  66. Carbohydrate absorption
    • 1. Broken down into monomers glucose, fructose, galactose 
    • 2. Absorbed via secondary active transport glucose absorbed into enterocyte with Na+) 
    • 3.  Glucose move out of cell via facilitated transport from intestinal lumen --> enterocyte ... but passive/facilitated diffusion from enterocyte --> blood
    • 4.  Carried to liver 
    • 5. If max [glycogen] reached by cells, converted to fatty acids
  67. Protein absorption
    • 1. Absorbed into enterocytes via active or facilitated transport 
    • 2. Cells immediately make protein from amino acids to keep amino acid [] low
  68. Fat absorption
    • 1. Separated by bile micells and broken down by lipase and brush border enzymes 
    • 2. Once in cell, fats re-converted into triglycerides at sER 
    • 3. Attached to apoproteins = chylomicrons 
    • 4. Exocytosed by cells 
    • 5. Move into lacteal of lymph system 
    • 6. Enter thoracic duct  
    • 7. Jugular Vein 
    • 8. Absorbed into liver and other cells
  69. Albumin
    osmoregulatory factor, binds to lipids to transport through blood
  70. Path of excretion
    Urine created by kidney and emptied into --> renal pelvis --> ureter --> bladder --> urethraglomerulus --> Bowman's capsule --> PCT --> Loop of henle --> DCT --> collecting duct --> ureter
  71. RAA system
    Renin secreted by kidney - acts as a catalyst because it's an enzyme

    Adrenal cortex stimulated to secrete aldosterone
  72. How do most fats enter circulation?
    First converted to chylomicrons and shipped to lacteal lymph system to be deposted in thoracic duct
  73. Most of the mainstomach cells have extensive rough ER except for the parietal cells, which havetons of mitochondria to help make the energy to maintain the high proton []gradient

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