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Le Chatlier's Stresses
1. Addition or removal of a product or reactant 2. Temperature changes 3. Pressure changes (but not if nonreactive gas like He is added)
Chracteristics of an ideal gas
- 1. Molecules have ZERO VOLUME
- 2. Molecules have ZERO ATTRACTION to one another
- 3. Energy is conserved in collisions because molecules collide elastically with one another and walls of the container
- 4. KEavg = 3/2RT
Real vs Ideal Gases
- Vreal > Videal Ideal
- gas molecules are thought to have no volume while real gas molecules obviously have volume
- Preal < Pideal
- Attraction between real gas molecules, causing them to slow down before they hit the walls of the container and exert less force/area The closer together the gas molecules are, more apparent deviations from ideal situations become
What is special about neurons in relation to metabolism?
They use facilitated transport to obtain glucose...but independently of insulin.
Unique distinction of vertebrates?
Only vertebrates have MYLENATED axons!
Where do sensory and motor neurons lie in the spinal cord?
Sensory neurons: dorsally
Motor/somatic NS neurons: ventrally
a) Found ALL throughout the PNS except for sympathetic neuroeffector synapses
b) Nicotinic: muscles
c) Muscarinic: found in the parasympathetic NS
What effect do the contraction/relaxation of ciliary muscles have on the lens and focal point?
Contraction: Bends the lens, makes more spherical, moves focal point CLOSER to lens
Relaxation: straightens lens, flattens, moves focal point AWAY from lens, harder to see closer objects, happens in old age when muscles tire
First place light hits the eye ; nonvascular and made of collagen ; where most bending of light occurs because it is highly refractive
Path of sound
Pinna (outer) --> Tympanic mem. (middle) --> Malleus, incus, stapes --> Cochlea (stereocilia + Organ of Corti)
Lever system in the ear?
Malleus, Incus, and Stapes are 3 small bones acting as levers.
Their displacement from sound is small, making the force from sound much larger and more easily transduced.
What NS control simple reflex arcs?
Somatic - because reflex arcs involve skeletal muscles
Involve CNA - but also involve both the excitation and inhibition of muscle groups.
Remember that they involve CNA because they go through the spinal cord!
Key for hormone questions
Remember that hormones RESPOND to irregularities in the body if they arise --- they don't create them!
Think about the physiological situation and then think about how the body would then respond to it via hormone release to compensate.
Why are viruses so difficult to treat?
They are rapidly mutating...those sneaks.
1. Convert RNA to DNA using host cell machinery
2. Hold RNA code for reverse transcriptase and integrase in genome --- once these are transcribed, they help reverse transcribe the rest of their genome
Immediate production of viral progeny. Latency period, the time between infection and cell bursting, ends with cell death.
Viral nucleid acid is incorporated into host genome and remains dormant until stressed, at which point it enters the lytic cycle.
1. Unicellular fungi
2. reproduce via budding/cell fission
3. Facultative anaerobes
Properties of Fungi:
1. Organization of kingdom?
4. Membrane composition?
5. Energy & Carbon source category?
- 1. Divided into divisions (like plants) instead of phyla
- 2. Multicellular except for yeast
- 3. Have no centrioles (BUT HAVE MITOCHONDRIA)
- 4. Have cells walls made of chitin
- 5. Saprophytes (dead material) ; heterotrops ; eukaryotes ; absorb, rather than ingest food
*Undergo mitosis but not sexual reproduction!!
- 1. Stain purple
- 2. Thick peptidoglycan cell wall
Endospore formation (environmentally and temperature resistant)
- 1. Stain pink
- 2. Thin peptidoglycan cell wall + LPS
- 3. LPS plasma membrane acts as a protective barrier to antibodies and antibiotics
Bacterial reproduction & growth
Binary fission = asexual reproduction
1. No spindle fibers to allow for full separation
2. Parent divided into 2 identical daughter cells
Describe the state of the system and tell of certain properties
- U = internal energy
- T = temperature
- P = pressure
- V = volume
- H = enthalpy
- S = entropy
- G = free energy
All of these values can be reversed in the opposite direction beacuse path doesn't matter. I.e. fwdH= -fwdH
Completely isolated from the world
Saturated Fatty Acids vs. Unsaturated Fatty Acids
Saturated = SINGLE double C=C bond
Unsaturated = One or more C=C bonds
How are lipids transported in the blood stream?
- Via lipoproteins & Albumin
- Classification: VLDL(bad) --- HDL (good)
Bonds found in nucleis acids
Nonpolar amino acids - I saw Lucy methodically probe and feel Alan, then Val tripped glycine
- Methionine (start amino acid)
- Proline (turn-inducing & affects tertiary structure)
Forces creating tertiary structure
- 1. Disulfide bonds
- 2. Ionic interactions between side chains
- 3. H-bonding
- 4. Van der Waals
- 5. Hydrophobic side chains being pushed away from protein center
What kind of cells can absorb glucose in the absence of insulin?
Neurons and hepatic cells
Where are the largest amounts of glucose found?
The mucles and liver (hepatocytes don't need insulin to uptake glucose)
Components of a nucleotide
- 1. 5C pentose sugar
- 2. Nitrogenous base
- 3. Phosphate group
Types of enzymatic regulation (4)
- 1. Proteolytic cleavage (zymogen-->active enzyme)
- 2. Covalent modification (phosphorylation)
- 3. Protein subunit regulation (GPCRs)
- 4. Allosteric modulation (positive cooperativity)
- **Allosteric modulation results in a conformational change
Kinases vs. Phosphatases
Kinases phosphorylate & usually deactivate Phosphatases dephosphorylate
Importance of cofactors?
Not all enzymes need cofactors They are metal ions that activate an exzyme by binding to it
NADPH is a COENZYME, not COFACTOR
They help out enzyme catalyzed reaction by carrying/delivering electrons and being oxidized or reduced
Include: NADH, FADH2 etc.
What establishes the proton gradient in the intermembrane space?
The oxidation of NADH, which allows protons to be pumped into the intermembrane space
Membrane transport requiring energy
**Need ATP because molecules are moved against their gradientActive transport (secondary and primary)
Do enzymes change the free energy of a reaction?
Nope! They also only affect the kinetics of the reaction...not the thermodynamics
Net reaction of aerobic respiration and source of products
C6H12O6 + O2 --> CO2 + H2O (unbalanced).
Each half of a glucose molecule forms 18 ATP to give a net of 36ATP per glucose
What is the net reaction of glycolysis?
Glucose + 2ADP + 2Pi + 2NAD+ --> 2Pyruvate + 2ATP + 2NADH
No O2 should be present because remember that glycolysis is independent of O2
Do saturated or unsaturated fats have more energy?
Saturated fats have the greatest heat of combustion. More so than unsaturated fatty acids
What kind of sugar is glucose? What about fructose?
Glucose is an ALDOHEXOSE
Fructose is a KETOHEXOSE
How does nmr work?
Requires atom with unever atomic or mass number.
Such unevenly numbered species' protons experience nuclear spin. - Spin aligned with external magnetic field.
When photon shone, the proton will absorb the photon's energy and FLIP/RESONATE to align itself AGAINST the external magnetic field.
Field of EM = constant, while the magnitude of the magnetic field is varied
How does IR work?
Every bond has a resonance frequency.
When this resonance frequency is matched by the frequency of IR radiation...the IR energy is absorbed.
How does UV spec work?
Pi electrons in conjugated (alternating) bonds can absorb energy and jump to a higher energy level orbital.
The initial sample beam intensity will be greater than the reference beam intensity because energy is absorbed by the pi electrons
The longer the chains of conjugated bonds, the greater the wavelength of absorption When a certain wavelength is absorbed, the remaining light will assume the COMPLEMENTARY color to the wavelength absorbed.
If a compound has 8+ double bonds..
The absorbance will move into the visible spectrum
Which vessel carries the most deoxygenated blood in the entire body?
The pulmonary artery
Forms in which CO2 is carried in the body?
- 1. Dissolved in blood
- 2. Bicarbonate ion
- 3. Carbamino compounds bound of Hb and other proteins
Rxn catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase
CO2 + H2O <---> HCO3- + H+
Remember that carbonic anhydrase is only an enzyme and does not actually prevent this reaction from happening if inhibited...just slows down
Which is the only part of the body not drained by the lymph system?
Pressure in the lymph system
Pressure is typically negative in regard to the other vessels it's surrounded by, which is what pushes fluid into the system.
Lymph system has valves and smooth muscle
Blood is composed of...?
1. Plasma - blood matrix (contain urea, proteins, etc.)
2. Buffy coat - white blood cells
3. Read blood cells = hematocrit (greater in men)
Important contents of plasma
- 1. Albumin
- 2. Immunoglobulins
- 3. Clotting factors (fibrinogen)
What is serum
Plasma from which the clotting factors such as fibrinogen have been REMOVED
How are RBCs different from other cells?
- 1. They have no nucleus
- 2. Do not undergo mitosis
- 3. Do not reproduce
Develops after initial exposure to toxin
1. Humoral-immunity: B-cell mediated ((bone marrow and liver) ; assisted by T helper cell ; differentiates into plasma and memory B cells ; secondary response, directed against exogenous stimuli
2. T-cell mediated immunity: mature in thymus, HIV attacks T-helper cells, infected cells & cancer
Where does thermoregulation in the cardiovascular system happen?
In the arterioles!
Vasoconstriction - heat conserved when cold, constriction of arterioles to limit blood flow and thus heat loss from the skin
Vasodilation - cool-down mechanism, dilation of arterioles feeding skin to increase heat loss at skin surface
What is different between Plasma cells and Memory B cells?
Plasma cells, need T cells to be activated
Memory B cell, does NOT rely on T cell to make antibodies
Role of immune cells:
CD8 T cells
Eosinophils: Parasitic infections
Basophils: Release inflammatory agents
CD8:kills cancer cells, cells that are infected (particularly with viruses), or cells that are damaged in other ways.
How can colloids be separated?
- 1. Dialysis (i.e. use of semipermeable membrane)
- 2. Charge separation
- 3. Filtration AFTER heating
4 cells in stomach and their actions
- 1. Mucous cells - lubrication+protection from pH
- 2. Chief cells - secrete pepsinogen
- 3. Parietal cells - secrete HCl
- 4. G cells - secrete gastrin (stimulate parietal cells to secrete HCl)
Surface of small intestinal wall
Brush border (contains enzymes to break down carbs, proteins, and nucleotides)--> microvilli --> Villi (increase surface area for absorption) --> lacteal capillary network (site of nutrient absorption) -->Exocrine glands within villi = secrete 7.6 intestinal juice
What composes healthy poop?
- 1. Water
- 2. Dead bacteria
- 3. Fat
- 4. Inorganic matter
- 5. Protein
- 6. Roughage
- 1. Broken down into monomers glucose, fructose, galactose
- 2. Absorbed via secondary active transport glucose absorbed into enterocyte with Na+)
- 3. Glucose move out of cell via facilitated transport from intestinal lumen --> enterocyte ... but passive/facilitated diffusion from enterocyte --> blood
- 4. Carried to liver
- 5. If max [glycogen] reached by cells, converted to fatty acids
- 1. Absorbed into enterocytes via active or facilitated transport
- 2. Cells immediately make protein from amino acids to keep amino acid  low
- 1. Separated by bile micells and broken down by lipase and brush border enzymes
- 2. Once in cell, fats re-converted into triglycerides at sER
- 3. Attached to apoproteins = chylomicrons
- 4. Exocytosed by cells
- 5. Move into lacteal of lymph system
- 6. Enter thoracic duct
- 7. Jugular Vein
- 8. Absorbed into liver and other cells
osmoregulatory factor, binds to lipids to transport through blood
Path of excretion
Urine created by kidney and emptied into --> renal pelvis --> ureter --> bladder --> urethraglomerulus --> Bowman's capsule --> PCT --> Loop of henle --> DCT --> collecting duct --> ureter
Renin secreted by kidney - acts as a catalyst because it's an enzyme
Adrenal cortex stimulated to secrete aldosterone
How do most fats enter circulation?
First converted to chylomicrons and shipped to lacteal lymph system to be deposted in thoracic duct
Most of the mainstomach cells have extensive rough ER except for the parietal cells, which havetons of mitochondria to help make the energy to maintain the high proton gradient