CDO 439 Goals and Objectives

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CDO 439 Goals and Objectives
2013-04-25 11:15:22
Goals Objectives

Goals and Objectives
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  1. Behavioral Terminology
    • describes the condition under which a behavior should occur
    • states how often the behavior is expected to occur
    • states how the behavior will be evaluated relative to
    •   frequency of occurrence
    •   quality of performance
  2. LTG considerations
    • required
    • concluding behaviors expected within a specified period of time
    • provides framework for logically sequenced STOs
    • represents your insight and understanding of client's needs
  3. LTGs are the foundation of treatment
    • rationale
    • knowledge of severity of the disorder
    • consideration of associated behaviors
    • attainable within specified time frame
    • written using behavior terminology
  4. LTG Summary
    • Long term goal development must include consideration of
    •   rationale (why doing?)
    •     no rationale leads to disaster
    •   severity
    •   associated behaviors
    •   time frame for attainment
    •   written using behavioral terminology
  5. LTGs
    • LTGs are the concluding behaviors that you expect the client to achieve over a specified but typically expanded period of time
    • development of LTGs is necessary for development of logically sequential STOs.
    • this is the first opportunity to demonstrate professional insight and understanding of the client's needs relative to an identified disorder
    • LTGs must be comprehensive and appropriate for the client as well as the disorder (INDIVIDUALIZED)
    • anything out of the ordinary should be acknowledge and justified in writing (eg not working on/delayed and identifies problem is resolved/concluded)
  6. LTGs are the foundation of treatment
    development or construction of theis foundation requires
    • 1. development of a rationale
    • 2. establishment of the severity of the disorder
    • 3. consideration of the associated behaviors
    • 4. should be attainable within a specified time frame
    • 5. written using behavioral terminology
  7. behavioral terminology
    • describes the condition
    • describes how often the behavior is desired
    • describes the criteria of how it will be evaluated relative to frequency of occurrence and quality of performance
  8. STOs
    • reflective of heirarchal system  which should
    •  provide an outline or roadmap
    •  use clear and concise behavior terminology
    •  appropriate for the disorder, age, interests, environment, etc.
    •  attainable in specified time frame
    •  support client interest and motivation
  9. Objectives must be functional
  10. Session objectives
    • related to STOs and previous performance
    • provides ongoing data collection
    • promotes clinician sensitivity
    • indicators of effective and efficient interventions
  11. indicators for change
    • client plateau
    • ineffective clinical approach
    • status of client changes (environment,. medicines, illness, emotional, etc.)
  12. Clinician problems
    • differentiating between
    •   clinical procedures (clinician)
    •   behavior objectives (client)
  13. Clinician Procedures - you
    • the objective "specify the type/frequency of the response from the client"
    •   verbal/non-verbal
    •   given 100 response opportunities
  14. behavioral objectives - client
    • the behavioral objective -
    • "participate in play activities" or "increase verbal/non-verbal responses during play activities"
  15. Mager definition of objective
    a description of a performance you want learners to be able to exhibit before you consider them competent
  16. Mowrer definition of objective
    one which is stated in terms of behaviors which can be observed and measured
  17. Mager Importance of Objectives
    • must be clearly defined otherwise one does not have a basis for selecting materials, content, or procedures. reduces confusion
    • must be clearly stated. otherwise one does not know that has been accomplished. identifies completion
    • enable the client to participate meaningfully. no secrets about targeted behaviors. allows the client to take ownership. tell them what you want them to do
  18. important that the "reader" and "writer" of the objective share a common unerstanding of the behavior to be targeted and evaluation of the skill.
  19. Behavioral Objectives
    • states what the learner is expected to do or perform in order to demonstrate mastery of the objecive.
    • the DOING or VERB part of the objective must be countable.
  20. slippery or vague which can not be measured or require additional explanation
    • know
    • understand
    • appreciate
    • demonstrate
    • perform
    • select
  21. Performance Covert Verb Indicators
    • Mager
    • whenever the performance stated in an object is covert, add an indicator behavior to the objective
    • ex) be able to identify (underline or circle) misspelled words on a given page of news copies
  22. Acceptable verbs : OVERT
  23. Behavioral Objectives
    Condition Component
    • states the condition imposed on the client under which the performance is to occur or be completed. the demonstration of achievement of the targeted behavior
    • This "terminal behavior" should be "detailed enough to be sure the desired performance would be recognized by another competent individual, and detailed so that others understand your intent and YOU understand it"
    • conditions should specify what you will provide to the client to help or assist in doig the task, or it may describe what you will deny the client
    • the condition can also pinpoint where the behavior will be performed, when it will be performed, and in whose presence it will be performed (mowrer)
    • condition aspects are not always necessary but recommended
  24. Common SLP Condition Examples
    • in all word positions
    • in isolation
    • with his mouth open at least 1 inch
    • in consonant-vowel combinations
    • during spontaneous conversation
    • during reading
    • without a model
  25. Common SLP Condition Examples
    • on spontaneously produced monosyllabic target words
    • without a pause between the 2 consonants
    • in bisyllabic words
    • when preceding vowels
    • of all appropriate contexts
  26. Common SLP Condition Examples
    • in a children's dictionary
    • of common objects
    • given a field of three
    • while describing pictures
    • during conversation
  27. Common SLP Condition Examples
    • when 8 choices are presented
    • one session after the clinician's explanation
    • on the vowels /o/ and /i/
    • on vowel-consonant combinations
    • on vowels
  28. Common SLP Condition Examples
    • consisting of prolongations lasting longer than 2 seconds
    • in front of his class
    • for 5 minutes
    • while talking on the phone
  29. Common SLP Condition Examples
    • which is out of reach
    • when a familiar joint action routine is initiated by SO
    • during communication episodes
    • upon seeing the clinician
  30. Common SLP Condition Examples
    Problem Behavior
    • without yanking the clinician's arm
    • after the removal of constraints
    • when a desirable toy is within reaching distance
    • without throwing a temper tantrum
    • within a 2 second period of time
  31. Behavioral Objectives
    • states how well the learner is expected to perform. Mager states " criterion is the standard by which performance is evaluated, the yardstick by which achievement of the objective is assessed."
    • The criterion resemble an adverb statement int aht it states HOW or WHEN the objective is to be met (mowrer)
  32. Behavioral Objectives
    commonly stated in terms of
    • speed - a time limit with whicha given performance must occur
    • accuracy - a more mathematical/scientific feature
    • quality - the desired quality of performance of the amount of deviation would be defined; not common feature for SLP
  33. if there is no criterion stated then you must assume it is 100%
  34. Common criterion
    • in 90% of his attempts
    • in 90% of all appropriate contexts
    • in 8 of 10 attempts
  35. Summary
    The behavioral model is not only used by SLPs.
  36. importance of lesson plans
    • the session/lesson plan may be developed for each session or for a block of time such as a week
    • the frequency of the developemnt of session plans may be influenced by the length of the sessions, the frequency of treatment, and the client's rate of progress
  37. Short-Range Objectives / Short-Term Objectives
    • concerned with small unit of behavior and should be attainable in a short period of time
    • the outline or plan for achieving the long range goals
  38. Procedures
    statement of procedures used to meet each objective listed, typically include a rationale
  39. Long Term Goals
    accomplishment of identified behaviors in time sensitive
  40. relationship between long and short
    • must be consistent
    • assist in the overall instructional process
    • short term must be attainable before accomplishment of long term
    •   progress will determine adding or deleting steps
    • mastery of short term leads to mastery of long term