Chapter 13 Art Appreciation

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  1. 2 Basic structural types
    • Shell system
    • Skelton/skin system
  2. One building material provides bith structural support and sheathing (outer covering).

    i. e. log cabins
    Shell system
  3. Might be compared to the human body with its rigid bony skeleton to support its basic frame and a more fragile skin for sheathing.

    i.e. modern skyscrapers steel (skeleton) glass (sheath)
    Skeleton/skin system
  4. Two factors to consider in any structural system
    • Weight
    • Tensile strength
  5. Refers to the amount of tensile (stretch) stress a material can withstand before bending or breaking.
    Tensile strength
  6. Simplest method of making a building and is suitable for brick, ice blocks, adobe, stone, etc..

    Also known as stacking and piling
    Load bearing construction
  7. Sun-dried brick
    Adobe
  8. Image Upload
    • Great Friday Mosque
    • Rebuilt in 1907 to its original 13th century structure
  9. Image Upload
    Hypostyle from the courtyard temple of Amon-Mut-Khonso, Luxor

    An example of Post-and-lintel
  10. The most elementary structural  method after stacking and piling.

    It is based on two uprights (posts) supporting a horizontal cross piece.

    i.e. Stonehendge
    Post and Lintel
  11. A large hall erected in post/lintel construction was a virtual forest of columns inside. This created this type of hall.

    From the greek "beneath Columns"
    Hypostyle
  12. The three major acrchitectural styles are known as...
    Greek Orders
  13. Greek orders
    • Doric
    • Ionic
    • Corinthian
  14. The top most part between the shaft of the column and the roof or lintel.
    Capital
  15. The actual column
    Shaft
  16. The bottom most part of the column that separates it from the floor.
    Base
  17. 7th century bce column with no base to separate it from the floor and its capital made of plain stone slab above a rounded stone.
    Doric
  18. 6th century bce column has a stepped ase and a carved capital in the form of two graceful spirals known as volutes.
    Ionic
  19. 4th century bce style which is more elaborate, having a more detailed base and a capital carved as a a stylized bouquet of acanthus leaves.
    Corinthian
  20. Image Upload
    • Temple of Athena Nike (victory)
    • Example of Ionic style
  21. Lentil made of three parts
    Entablature
  22. Three parts of the entablature
    • Architrave
    • Frieze
    • Cornice
  23. The simple unadorned band of lentils just above the columns.
    Architrave
  24. The area above the architrave ornamented with sculpture in relief.
    Frieze
  25. Shelflike projection that caps the frieze
    Cornice
  26. The triangular element supported by the entablature.
    Pediment
  27. Image Upload
    • The Parthenon
    • In honor of Kallikrates
    • Doric Style
  28. Image Upload
    • Sculputre of three Goddesses
    • Originally located in the pediment of the Parthenon.
    • British bought from Turks
    • Greek wants back in Athens
  29. Image Upload
    • Phoenix Hall
    • Bracket system
    • Kyoto, Japan
    • Shrine
  30. Used by the ancient people of mesopotamia but more fully developed by the romans.

    Enables the architect to open up a fairly large space in a wall without risking the building's soundness.
    Rounded Arch
  31. The top most stone of an arch/semicircle.
    Keystone
  32. Wedged shaped pieces of stone
    Voussoir
  33. Image Upload
    • Pont Du Gard
    • Nimes, France
    • 1st century bce
  34. When an arch is extended in depth - when in reality it is many arches flush one behind the other.
    Barrel vault
  35. Use of barrel arches referencing roman like style during the middle ages between 1050 and 1200.
    Romanesque period
  36. Central Aisle of te christian church
    Nave
  37. Where two barrel vaults cross at a 90 degree angel
    Groin Vault
  38. Rectangular segments in which the church is divided with the use of groin vaults and columns along the nave.
    Bays
  39. Image Upload
    • Saint-foy Conques, France
    • example of the rounded arch
  40. Allows for much higher vaults.
    Must be reinforced with ribs.
    Allows for the building to have more windows.
    Must be stregthened.
    Used in the Gothic period
    Pointed Arch
  41. Image Upload
    • Cathedral of Notre Dame de Reims
    • France 1211-1290
  42. Pressing the entire length of your body to support the weight of th wall
    Buttress
  43. Standing away from the wall and pushing against wall with extended arms. Your arms would be...

    Your body would be the...
    The flying butress

    Pier
  44. Image Upload
    • Outer Cathedral de Notre dame.
    • Example of buttresses and flying butresses.
  45. an architectural structure generally in the shape of a hemisphere or half globe.

    an arch rotated 360 degrees on its axis.
    Dome
  46. Image Upload
    • 2nd century Rome
    • Pantheon
    • Deicated to the roman Gods
  47. Image Upload
    Pantheon interior
  48. Ornamented with recessed rectangles, coffers which lessen its weight.
    Coffered
  49. Openeing at very top of a dome thought to be symbolic of the "eye" of heaven.
    Oculus
  50. Porch that is joined incongruously to the dome
    Portico
  51. Round building
    Rotunda
  52. Circular base under the dome making the building round/rotunda
    Drum
  53. Image Upload
    • Hagia Sophia
    • Means Holy Wisdom
    • 6th century christian church
    • 183 feet floor to top
    • Dome on a square base
  54. Image Upload
    Interior of Hagia Sophia
  55. Curved triangular sections between the archs used to make a smooth transition between rectangle and dome.
    Pendentives
  56. Slender Towers
    Minarets
  57. Image Upload
    • Taj Mahal
    • Meant to be viewed from the exterior
    • example of onion dome
    • Constructed over the underground burial chambers of Shah Jahan and his wife
  58. When each row of stones extends slightly beyond the one below until eventually the opening is bridged.

    Technique used by indian architects to create arch, vault, dome forms.
    Corbelling
  59. Image Upload
    • Jain Temple¬†
    • 11th century india
  60. Image Upload
    • Joseph Paxton
    • Crystal Palace
    • London 1851
  61. Image Upload
    Reconstructed Crystal Palace
  62. Example of Skeleton/skin technique.

    Built for Prince Albert's exhibition of latest technology.

    Steel/glass

    Burned to ground in 1936
    Crystal Palace
  63. Image Upload
    • Eiffel Tower
    • Only Skeletal
    • 1000 feet in air
  64. 1833 chicago introduced.
    Mass produced nails
    Better milling for lumber
    Wood frame
    Stucco skin.

    Named because of its light weight
    Balloon Frame Construction
  65. Brought about the construction of sky scraper.
    Allows for numerous stories.
    Skeleton/skin.
    Steel Frame Construction
  66. Image Upload
    • Wainwright building
    • late 19th century
    • 1st modern buildings
  67. Image Upload
    • Lever house
    • New york
    • 1952
    • New International style - minimal ornamentation
  68. Image Upload
    • Golden gate bridge
    • Suspension and cable-stayed structures
  69. imbedding mesh or rods made of iron or steel in concrete before it hardens.

    Increases tensile strength
    Reinforced concrete
  70. Image Upload
    • Sydney Opera House
    • Australia 1950-1970
    • Reinforced concrete
    • Shell Construction
  71. Image Upload
    • Falling Water
    • Residential House
    • Designed by frank lloyd wright
    • Pensylvania 1936
  72. Developed by american architectural engineer R. Buckminster Fuller.

    A bubble formed by a network of metal rods arranged in triangles and further organized into a tetrahedrons.
    Geodesic Dome
Author:
cbgarrison
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Card Set:
Chapter 13 Art Appreciation
Updated:
2013-04-30 14:40:57
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Art Appreciation
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