Chapter 13 Art Appreciation

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  1. 2 Basic structural types
    • Shell system
    • Skelton/skin system
  2. One building material provides bith structural support and sheathing (outer covering).

    i. e. log cabins
    Shell system
  3. Might be compared to the human body with its rigid bony skeleton to support its basic frame and a more fragile skin for sheathing.

    i.e. modern skyscrapers steel (skeleton) glass (sheath)
    Skeleton/skin system
  4. Two factors to consider in any structural system
    • Weight
    • Tensile strength
  5. Refers to the amount of tensile (stretch) stress a material can withstand before bending or breaking.
    Tensile strength
  6. Simplest method of making a building and is suitable for brick, ice blocks, adobe, stone, etc..

    Also known as stacking and piling
    Load bearing construction
  7. Sun-dried brick
  8. Image Upload 1
    • Great Friday Mosque
    • Rebuilt in 1907 to its original 13th century structure
  9. Image Upload 2
    Hypostyle from the courtyard temple of Amon-Mut-Khonso, Luxor

    An example of Post-and-lintel
  10. The most elementary structural  method after stacking and piling.

    It is based on two uprights (posts) supporting a horizontal cross piece.

    i.e. Stonehendge
    Post and Lintel
  11. A large hall erected in post/lintel construction was a virtual forest of columns inside. This created this type of hall.

    From the greek "beneath Columns"
  12. The three major acrchitectural styles are known as...
    Greek Orders
  13. Greek orders
    • Doric
    • Ionic
    • Corinthian
  14. The top most part between the shaft of the column and the roof or lintel.
  15. The actual column
  16. The bottom most part of the column that separates it from the floor.
  17. 7th century bce column with no base to separate it from the floor and its capital made of plain stone slab above a rounded stone.
  18. 6th century bce column has a stepped ase and a carved capital in the form of two graceful spirals known as volutes.
  19. 4th century bce style which is more elaborate, having a more detailed base and a capital carved as a a stylized bouquet of acanthus leaves.
  20. Image Upload 3
    • Temple of Athena Nike (victory)
    • Example of Ionic style
  21. Lentil made of three parts
  22. Three parts of the entablature
    • Architrave
    • Frieze
    • Cornice
  23. The simple unadorned band of lentils just above the columns.
  24. The area above the architrave ornamented with sculpture in relief.
  25. Shelflike projection that caps the frieze
  26. The triangular element supported by the entablature.
  27. Image Upload 4
    • The Parthenon
    • In honor of Kallikrates
    • Doric Style
  28. Image Upload 5
    • Sculputre of three Goddesses
    • Originally located in the pediment of the Parthenon.
    • British bought from Turks
    • Greek wants back in Athens
  29. Image Upload 6
    • Phoenix Hall
    • Bracket system
    • Kyoto, Japan
    • Shrine
  30. Used by the ancient people of mesopotamia but more fully developed by the romans.

    Enables the architect to open up a fairly large space in a wall without risking the building's soundness.
    Rounded Arch
  31. The top most stone of an arch/semicircle.
  32. Wedged shaped pieces of stone
  33. Image Upload 7
    • Pont Du Gard
    • Nimes, France
    • 1st century bce
  34. When an arch is extended in depth - when in reality it is many arches flush one behind the other.
    Barrel vault
  35. Use of barrel arches referencing roman like style during the middle ages between 1050 and 1200.
    Romanesque period
  36. Central Aisle of te christian church
  37. Where two barrel vaults cross at a 90 degree angel
    Groin Vault
  38. Rectangular segments in which the church is divided with the use of groin vaults and columns along the nave.
  39. Image Upload 8
    • Saint-foy Conques, France
    • example of the rounded arch
  40. Allows for much higher vaults.
    Must be reinforced with ribs.
    Allows for the building to have more windows.
    Must be stregthened.
    Used in the Gothic period
    Pointed Arch
  41. Image Upload 9
    • Cathedral of Notre Dame de Reims
    • France 1211-1290
  42. Pressing the entire length of your body to support the weight of th wall
  43. Standing away from the wall and pushing against wall with extended arms. Your arms would be...

    Your body would be the...
    The flying butress

  44. Image Upload 10
    • Outer Cathedral de Notre dame.
    • Example of buttresses and flying butresses.
  45. an architectural structure generally in the shape of a hemisphere or half globe.

    an arch rotated 360 degrees on its axis.
  46. Image Upload 11
    • 2nd century Rome
    • Pantheon
    • Deicated to the roman Gods
  47. Image Upload 12
    Pantheon interior
  48. Ornamented with recessed rectangles, coffers which lessen its weight.
  49. Openeing at very top of a dome thought to be symbolic of the "eye" of heaven.
  50. Porch that is joined incongruously to the dome
  51. Round building
  52. Circular base under the dome making the building round/rotunda
  53. Image Upload 13
    • Hagia Sophia
    • Means Holy Wisdom
    • 6th century christian church
    • 183 feet floor to top
    • Dome on a square base
  54. Image Upload 14
    Interior of Hagia Sophia
  55. Curved triangular sections between the archs used to make a smooth transition between rectangle and dome.
  56. Slender Towers
  57. Image Upload 15
    • Taj Mahal
    • Meant to be viewed from the exterior
    • example of onion dome
    • Constructed over the underground burial chambers of Shah Jahan and his wife
  58. When each row of stones extends slightly beyond the one below until eventually the opening is bridged.

    Technique used by indian architects to create arch, vault, dome forms.
  59. Image Upload 16
    • Jain Temple¬†
    • 11th century india
  60. Image Upload 17
    • Joseph Paxton
    • Crystal Palace
    • London 1851
  61. Image Upload 18
    Reconstructed Crystal Palace
  62. Example of Skeleton/skin technique.

    Built for Prince Albert's exhibition of latest technology.


    Burned to ground in 1936
    Crystal Palace
  63. Image Upload 19
    • Eiffel Tower
    • Only Skeletal
    • 1000 feet in air
  64. 1833 chicago introduced.
    Mass produced nails
    Better milling for lumber
    Wood frame
    Stucco skin.

    Named because of its light weight
    Balloon Frame Construction
  65. Brought about the construction of sky scraper.
    Allows for numerous stories.
    Steel Frame Construction
  66. Image Upload 20
    • Wainwright building
    • late 19th century
    • 1st modern buildings
  67. Image Upload 21
    • Lever house
    • New york
    • 1952
    • New International style - minimal ornamentation
  68. Image Upload 22
    • Golden gate bridge
    • Suspension and cable-stayed structures
  69. imbedding mesh or rods made of iron or steel in concrete before it hardens.

    Increases tensile strength
    Reinforced concrete
  70. Image Upload 23
    • Sydney Opera House
    • Australia 1950-1970
    • Reinforced concrete
    • Shell Construction
  71. Image Upload 24
    • Falling Water
    • Residential House
    • Designed by frank lloyd wright
    • Pensylvania 1936
  72. Developed by american architectural engineer R. Buckminster Fuller.

    A bubble formed by a network of metal rods arranged in triangles and further organized into a tetrahedrons.
    Geodesic Dome
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Chapter 13 Art Appreciation

Art Appreciation
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