Chapter 13 Art Appreciation
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2 Basic structural types
- Shell system
- Skelton/skin system
One building material provides bith structural support and sheathing (outer covering).
i. e. log cabins
Might be compared to the human body with its rigid bony skeleton to support its basic frame and a more fragile skin for sheathing.
i.e. modern skyscrapers steel (skeleton) glass (sheath)
Two factors to consider in any structural system
Refers to the amount of tensile (stretch) stress a material can withstand before bending or breaking.
Simplest method of making a building and is suitable for brick, ice blocks, adobe, stone, etc..
Also known as stacking and piling
Load bearing construction
- Great Friday Mosque
- Rebuilt in 1907 to its original 13th century structure
Hypostyle from the courtyard temple of Amon-Mut-Khonso, Luxor
An example of Post-and-lintel
The most elementary structural method after stacking and piling.
It is based on two uprights (posts) supporting a horizontal cross piece.
Post and Lintel
A large hall erected in post/lintel construction was a virtual forest of columns inside. This created this type of hall.
From the greek "beneath Columns"
The three major acrchitectural styles are known as...
The top most part between the shaft of the column and the roof or lintel.
The bottom most part of the column that separates it from the floor.
7th century bce column with no base to separate it from the floor and its capital made of plain stone slab above a rounded stone.
6th century bce column has a stepped ase and a carved capital in the form of two graceful spirals known as volutes.
4th century bce style which is more elaborate, having a more detailed base and a capital carved as a a stylized bouquet of acanthus leaves.
- Temple of Athena Nike (victory)
- Example of Ionic style
Lentil made of three parts
Three parts of the entablature
The simple unadorned band of lentils just above the columns.
The area above the architrave ornamented with sculpture in relief.
Shelflike projection that caps the frieze
The triangular element supported by the entablature.
- The Parthenon
- In honor of Kallikrates
- Doric Style
- Sculputre of three Goddesses
- Originally located in the pediment of the Parthenon.
- British bought from Turks
- Greek wants back in Athens
- Phoenix Hall
- Bracket system
- Kyoto, Japan
Used by the ancient people of mesopotamia but more fully developed by the romans.
Enables the architect to open up a fairly large space in a wall without risking the building's soundness.
The top most stone of an arch/semicircle.
Wedged shaped pieces of stone
- Pont Du Gard
- Nimes, France
- 1st century bce
When an arch is extended in depth - when in reality it is many arches flush one behind the other.
Use of barrel arches referencing roman like style during the middle ages between 1050 and 1200.
Central Aisle of te christian church
Where two barrel vaults cross at a 90 degree angel
Rectangular segments in which the church is divided with the use of groin vaults and columns along the nave.
- Saint-foy Conques, France
- example of the rounded arch
Allows for much higher vaults.
Must be reinforced with ribs.
Allows for the building to have more windows.
Must be stregthened.
Used in the Gothic period
- Cathedral of Notre Dame de Reims
- France 1211-1290
Pressing the entire length of your body to support the weight of th wall
Standing away from the wall and pushing against wall with extended arms. Your arms would be...
Your body would be the...
The flying butress
- Outer Cathedral de Notre dame.
- Example of buttresses and flying butresses.
an architectural structure generally in the shape of a hemisphere or half globe.
an arch rotated 360 degrees on its axis.
- 2nd century Rome
- Deicated to the roman Gods
Ornamented with recessed rectangles, coffers which lessen its weight.
Openeing at very top of a dome thought to be symbolic of the "eye" of heaven.
Porch that is joined incongruously to the dome
Circular base under the dome making the building round/rotunda
- Hagia Sophia
- Means Holy Wisdom
- 6th century christian church
- 183 feet floor to top
- Dome on a square base
Curved triangular sections between the archs used to make a smooth transition between rectangle and dome.
- Taj Mahal
- Meant to be viewed from the exterior
- example of onion dome
- Constructed over the underground burial chambers of Shah Jahan and his wife
When each row of stones extends slightly beyond the one below until eventually the opening is bridged.
Technique used by indian architects to create arch, vault, dome forms.
- Jain Temple
- 11th century india
- Joseph Paxton
- Crystal Palace
- London 1851
Reconstructed Crystal Palace
Example of Skeleton/skin technique.
Built for Prince Albert's exhibition of latest technology.
Burned to ground in 1936
- Eiffel Tower
- Only Skeletal
- 1000 feet in air
1833 chicago introduced.
Mass produced nails
Better milling for lumber
Named because of its light weight
Balloon Frame Construction
Brought about the construction of sky scraper.
Allows for numerous stories.
Steel Frame Construction
- Wainwright building
- late 19th century
- 1st modern buildings
- Lever house
- New york
- New International style - minimal ornamentation
- Golden gate bridge
- Suspension and cable-stayed structures
imbedding mesh or rods made of iron or steel in concrete before it hardens.
Increases tensile strength
- Sydney Opera House
- Australia 1950-1970
- Reinforced concrete
- Shell Construction
- Falling Water
- Residential House
- Designed by frank lloyd wright
- Pensylvania 1936
Developed by american architectural engineer R. Buckminster Fuller.
A bubble formed by a network of metal rods arranged in triangles and further organized into a tetrahedrons.
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