PSY 318

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PSY 318
2013-04-25 20:48:49
PSY 318

Exam 1
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  1. age effects
    one of the three fundamental effects examined in developmental research, along with cohort and time-of-measurement effects, which reflects the influence of time-dependent processes on development
  2. ageism
    the untrue assumption that chronological age is the main determinant of human characteristics and that one age is better than another
  3. biological forces
    one of four basic forces of development that includes all genetic and health-related factors
  4. biopsychosocial framework
    way of organizing the biological, psychological, sociocultural forces on human development
  5. case study
    an intensive investigation of individual people
  6. cohort
    a group of people born at the same point or specific time span in historical time
  7. cohort effects
    one of the three basic influences examined in developmental research, which reflects differences caused by experiences and circumstances unique to the historical time in which one lives
  8. confounding
    any situation in which one cannot determine which of two or more effects is responsible for the behaviors being observed
  9. continuity-discontinuity controversy
    the debate over whether a particular developmental phenomenon represents smooth progression over time (continuity) or a series of abrupt shifts (discontinuity)
  10. correlational study
    an investigation in which the strength of association between variables is examined
  11. cross-sectional study
    a developmental research design in which people of different ages and cohorts are observed at one time of measurement to obtain information about age differences
  12. dependent variable
    behaviors or outcomes measured in an experiment
  13. experiment
    a study in which participants are randomly assigned to experimental and control groups and in which an independent variable is manipulated to observe its effects of a dependent variable so that cause-and-effect relations can be established
  14. gerontology
    the study of aging from maturity through old age
  15. independent vairable
    the variable variableated in an experiment
  16. life-cycle forces
    one of the 4 basic forces of development that reflects differences in how the same event or combination of biological, psychological, and sociocultural forces affects people at different points in their lives
  17. life-span perspective
    a view of the human life span that divides it into two phases: childhood/adolescence and young/middle/late adulthood
  18. meta-analysis
    a technique that allows researchers to synthesize the results of many studies to estimate relations between variables
  19. microgenetic study
    a special type of longitudinal design in which participants are tested repeatedly over a span of days or weeks, typically with the aim of observing change directly as it occurs
  20. nature-nurture controversy
    a debate over the relative influence of genetics and the environment on development
  21. nonnormative influences
    random events that are important to an individual but do not happen to most people
  22. normative age-graded influences
    experiences caused by biological, psychological, and sociocultural forces that are closely related to a person's age
  23. normative history-graded influences
    events experienced by most people in a culture at the same time
  24. plasticity
    the belief that capacity is not fixed, but can be learned or improved with practice
  25. psychological forces
    one of 4 basic forces of development that includes all internal perceptual, cognitive, emotional, and personality factors
  26. reliability
    the ability of a measure to produce the same value when used repeatedly to measure the identical phenomenon over time
  27. secondary aging
    developmental changes that are related to disease, lifestyle, and other environmental changes that are not inevitable
  28. sequential designs
    types of developmental research designs involving combinations of cross-sectional and longitudinal designs
  29. sociocultural forces
    one of the 4 basic forces of development that includes interpersonal, societal, cultural and ethnic factors
  30. stability-change controversy
    a debate over the degree to which people remain the same over time as opposed to being different
  31. tertiary aging
    rapid losses occurring shortly before death
  32. time-of-measurement effects
    one of the 3 fundamental effects examined in developmental research, along with age and cohort effects, which result from the time at which the date are collected
  33. universal vs context-specific development controversy
    a debate over whether the is a single pathway of development, or several
  34. activation imaging approach
    attempts to directly link functional brain activity with cognitive behavioral data
  35. Alzheimer's disease
    a disease commonly found in the elderly that is characterized by a decline in memory and a progressive destruction of brain cells
  36. amygdala
    the region of the brain, located in the medial-temporal love, believed to play a key role in emotion
  37. anterior cingulate
    located in the front part of the cingulated cortex, this region of the brain plays a role in autonomic functions, cognitive functions, and emotion
  38. basal ganglia
    a group of nuclei interconnected with the cerebral cortex. they are associated with motor control, cognition, and emotions
  39. bilateral activation
    involves activation of a specific brain structure in both lateral hemispheres of the brain
  40. cerebellum
    the part of the brain that is associated with motor functioning and balance equilibrium
  41. compensatory
    involves the use of a behavior or function to aid in performance that has been otherwise compromised
  42. controlled self-generated encoding
    when individuals elaborate on  information by relating it to themselves and rehearse the information in this way
  43. correlational approach
    attempts to link measures of cognitive performance to measures of brain structure or functioning
  44. default network
    the regions of the brain that are most active at rest
  45. diffusion tensor imaging
    the measurement of the diffusion of water molecules in tissue in order to study connections of neural pathways in the brain
  46. dopaminergic system
    involves dopamine neurotransmission. dopamaine is a neurotransmitter and is critically implicated in multiple cognitive functions
  47. environmental enrichment
    in animal studies, involves raising animals in large groups filled with changing arrangements of toys/objects
  48. executive functions
    include the ability to make and carry out plans, switch between tasks, and maintain attention and focus
  49. functional imaging (fMRI)
    examines how changes in brain activity occur in correspondence to changes in task demands and the type of cognitive functioning under investigation
  50. hippocampus
    located in the medial-temporal love, this part of the brain plays a major role in memory and learning
  51. lateral occipital complex
    a highly specialized neural site involved in processing the face, place, and object areas
  52. method of loci
    a memory technique for remembering things by linking them to places
  53. neostriatum
    receives input form the cerebral cortex and other brain areas and provides output to the basal nuclei
  54. neural stem cells
    those that give life to new neurons throughout the life span
  55. neuropsychological approach
    compares brain functioning of healthy older adults with adults displaying various pathological disorders in the brain
  56. over-recruitment
    occurs when additional neurons fire and shore up declining brain structures that are inefficient
  57. Parkinsons's disease
    a brain disease caused by an extreme drop in the neurotransmitter dopamine
  58. plasticity
    involves the interaction between the brain and the environment and is mostly used to describe the effects of experience on the structure and functions of the neural system
  59. positivity effect
    when an individual remembers more positive information relative to negative information
  60. prefrontal cortex (PFC)
    part of the frontal lobe that is inolved in executive funtioning
  61. selective allocation of attention
    when something in the environment capture one's attention and the individual allocates more resources in the attention to that item
  62. supplementary processes
    when different brain regions are activated to compensate for lacking processing resources
  63. under-recruitment
    occurs when neuronal firing is limited when the brain is activated
  64. ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC)
    part of the prefrontal cortex, this may be involved in decision making and processing risk
  65. white matter hyperintensities (WMH)
    abnormalities found in older adults; correlated with cognitive decline
  66. working memory performance
    holding and manipulating information in consciousness