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The Scramble for Africa
- Put many European powers against one another as they partitioned Africa among themselves in about 25 years (1875-1900).
- These included France, Britain, Belgium, Germany, Portugal, and Spain.
- This second wave of European colonial conquests was conditioned by Europe's Industrial Revolution. European motives and activities were shaped by the military capacity and economic power that the Industrial Revolution conveyed.
- They wanted to spread the 3 C's (Civilization, Christianity, Commerce).
- Geographically, if Europe had access to Africa, they had access to many other places.
Indian Rebellion, 1857-1858
- Indians thought that the British were trying to convert them to Christianity (from Islam and Hinduism).
- Indian troops began the rebellion by trying to overthrow the British.
- The rebellion greatly widened the racial divide in colonial India.
- Before European colonization of Asia and Africa, people grew crops for family consumption.
- After, plantations were made for mass production of cash crops.
- Many worked for wages or sold what they produced for cash income. Others were forced to work unpaid.
- Cocoa was a huge cash crop in Ghana, Ivory Coast, and Nigeria.
- Others were rubber, tea, tobacco, and cotton.
- These were sold overseas.
Atrocities committed during colonialism
- The most infamous cruelties of forced labor occurred during the early 20th century in the Congo Free State, governed by King Leopold II of Belgium. Villagers were starved and if they failed to meet their quota of rubber, body parts would be cut off or they would be killed.
- Germany annexed German South-West Africa (modern-day Namibia) and started the first genocide of the 20th century on the Herero tribe. The vast majority of the Herero were killed or died from starvation.
- Acquisition of Western education, obtained through missionary or government schools, generated a new identity.
- The knowledge of reading and writing meant access to better paying positions in government bureaucracies, mission organizations, or business firms.
Africanization of Christianity
- Converts to Christianity continued using protective charms and medicines and consulting local medicine men.
- Continued to believe in their own gods and spirits but now deemed them evil and sought their destruction.
- Separatist movements established wide array of independent churches under African rather than missionary control (incorporated African cultural practices and modes of worship).
- One of 19th century India's most influential religious figures.
- Believed that a revived Hinduism, without distortions, could uplift the country's village communities.
The Rivalry of the European Imperial Powers
- Europe was split up into two rival alliances in the interests of national security.
- Triple Entente: Britain, France, Russia
- Triple Alliance: Germany, Italy, Austria-Hungary
- A Serbian nationalist assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austrian throne.
- A system of alliances intended to keep peace created obligations that drew the Great Powers of Europe into a general war by 1914.
The End of WWI and the Peace Treaty
- With the collapse of the German, Russian, and Austrian empires, new states (Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, and others) were based on the principle of "national self-determination" (Woodrow Wilson).
- Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
- Germany was blamed for the war.
- They had to pay reparations to Triple Entente countries.
- They couldn't have a standing army.
- They lost a lot of land.
- The League of Nations was created.
Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points
- Supported a new kind of international life, one based on moral principles rather than secret deals and imperialist machinations.
- Among his ideas was the League of Nations.
The League of Nations
- Created after WWI.
- International peacekeeping organization based on the principle of "collective security" and intended to avoid any repetition of these horrors.
Totalitarian Regimes in Europe and Asia
- Italy: Benito Mussolini
- Germany: Adolf Hitler
- Russia: Joseph Stalin
- Spain: Francisco Franco
- Intensely nationalistic
- Seeking to revitalize and purify the nation and to mobilize its people for some grand task
- Violence against enemies was praised as a renewing force in society
- Placed faith in a charismatic leader
Consequences of the Rise of Totalitarian Regimes in Europe and Asia
- The rise of a fascist movement led to civil war and a dictatorial regime in Spain.
- Fascism in Germany led to thoughts of racial superiority and a bitter hatred for Jews as an alien presence.
The Failures and Violations of the League of Nations
- Germany ignored many economic sanctions placed on them.
- Japan invaded Manchuria. This started WWII in Asia.
- Italy invaded Ethiopia.
- Germany invaded Poland. This started WWII in Europe, as Britain and France declared war on Germany.
- This showed that the League of Nations was not capable of keeping war from happening.
The Great Depression
- Started with the stock market crash of 1929.
- Banks closed
- Many people lost their life savings
- Investment dried up
- World trade dropped by 62%
- Businesses contracted when they were unable to sell their products
- Unemployment soared
Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal
- Response to the Great Depression
- An experimental combination of reforms seeking to restart economic growth and prevent similar calamities in the future.
- Through public spending, it sought to prime the pump of the economy and reduce unemployment.
- Longer-term reforms like the Social Security system, minimum wage, and relief and welfare programs attempted to create economic safety net to sustain poor, unemployed, and elderly.
The Nature of WWII and Atrocities Committed
- It was the most destructive conflict in world history, with about 60 million deaths (6 times the deaths in WWI).
- This was partly because of the new technologies of warfare (heavy bombers, jet fighters, missiles, and atomic weapons).
- It was also because of the blurring of the traditional line between civilian and military targets.
- The Holocaust (implementing the Nazi dream of ridding Germany of its Jewish population) was one of the most haunting outcomes of the war.
The End of Colonialism
- Asian and African colonies achieved independence because Europe didn't have the money to keep the colonies and the war emboldened nationalist and anti-colonial movements everywhere.
- Woodrow Wilson and the US were preaching national self-determination.
- Powers had the organizational skills to do everything themselves at home.
- Funneled into Europe about $12 billion to rebuild and reshape shattered European economies.
- Motivated by combination of genuine humanitarian concern, desire to prevent another depression by creating overseas customers for American industrial goods, and an interest in undermining the growing appeal of European communist parties.
- Required its European recipients to cooperate with one another.
European Economic Community
- Also known as the Common Market and was renamed the European Union.
- Members reduced their tariffs and developed common trade policies.
- Adopted common currency (Euro).
- North Atlantic Treaty Organization
- Committed the US and its nuclear arsenal to the defense of Europe against the Soviet Union, and it firmly anchored West Germany within the Western alliance.
The Cold War Rivalry
- Psychological war between US and Soviet Union arising from the expansion of Communism.
- The Soviet Union and the US were the major political/military powers after WWII.
- Soviet insistence on security and control in Eastern Europe clashed with American and British desires for open and democratic societies.
- Resulting were rival military alliances (NATO and the Warsaw Pact), largely voluntary American sphere of influence in Western Europe, and an imposed Soviet sphere in Eastern Europe.
- Heavily fortified border between Eastern and Western Europe was known as the Iron Curtain.
- Cuban Missile Crisis
- Didn't fire on each other because it would have caused the "end" of the world.
Cuban Missile Crisis
- Fidel Castro came to power in 1959.
- His nationalization of American assets provoked great US hostility and efforts to overthrow his regime.
- This pushed Castro closer to the Soviet Union and they had been waiting for another country to go Communist.
- Khrushchev deployed nuclear-tipped Soviet missiles to Cuba to keep the US away.
Communism in Cuba and the Challenges to the Castro State
- The fall of the Soviet Union caused for no more funding in Cuba.
- US embargo against Cuba (no more trade).
- Tourism created inequality in Cuba, which was against the ideology of Communism.
African Independence and the Challenges of Post-Independence
- Reforms and independence itself occurred only under considerable pressure from mounting nationalist movements.
- The people of Africa were used to being dependent on the colonial rulers of European countries.
- There was a lack of structure after independence.
- Mixed ethnic groups in the face of explosive population growth proved economic development difficult.
- Newly independent nations had low rates of literacy, few people with managerial experience, a weak private economy, and transportation systems oriented to export rather than national integration.
The Indian Economic and Industrial "Miracle" (Causes and Consequences)
- India was self-sufficient after independence unlike Africa who had to import.
- They manufactured cars, trains, airplanes, ships, and more.
- The consequences included a rise in prices globally and a higher demand for products in India due to a population growth.
- Ghana's nationalist leader.
- Believed that only in union could the African continent achieve genuine and substantial economic development.
- Three goals
- 1) Have an overall economic plan on a continental basis and build up a Common Market of a United Africa and not be lured by the advantages of association with the European Common market.
- 2) Establishment of a unified military and defense strategy.
- 3) Adopt a unified foreign policy and diplomacy to give political direction for protection and economic development.
- Personally experienced overt racism for the first time in South Africa and became involved in organizing Indians, mostly Muslims, to protest that country's policies of racial segregation.
- Used the strategy of satyagraha.
- Truth force
- This was a confrontational, though nonviolent, approach to political action.
Someone who has fled their country because of persecution based on race, religion, nationality, social group, or political opinion.
Largest Refugee-producing Countries
- Democratic Republic of Congo
Largest Refugee-accepting Countries
- United States
World economies becoming connected through the exchange of products, ideas, world views, and other cultural aspects.
Spreading of American culture worldwide along with capitalism, popular culture, food, technology, business practices, and political techniques.
The Impact of Globalization on the Third World
- Bigger countries tended to take advantage of Third World countries.
- Developed countries would lower their prices and introduce competition for Third World countries.
A practice used by different companies to reduce costs by transferring portions of work to outside suppliers rather than completing it internally.
The Diversity of Islam
- It is internally conflicting.
- Some believed that the Quran and the sharia (Islamic law) provided a guide for all of life (political, economic, and spiritual) and a blueprint for a distinctly Islamic modernity not dependent on Western ideas.
- Others believed in a more modern Islam, with influences from the West, and believed that politics should be separate from Islam.
Leaders of Islamic Countries
- Mustafa Kemal Ataturk: President of Turkey
- Hassan al-Banna: founder of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood
- Ayatollah Khomeini: first supreme leader of Iran
- Benazir Bhutto: Prime Minister of Pakistan
Mustafa Kemal Ataturk
- President of Turkey
- Built a secular state in a largely Muslim Turkey
- Abolished the caliphate
- Believed that Islam should not be the basis of politics
- Founder of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood
- Believed that Egypt's many problems (poverty, political factionalism, and social unrest) came from the neglect of Islamic principles following British colonial rule and the penetration of Western values.
- Believed that government should be completely based on Islam.
- First supreme leader of Iran
- More radical version of Hassan al-Banna and the Muslim Brotherhood.
- More radical ideas towards keeping politics based on Sharia law.
- Believed that misdeeds must be punished by the law of retaliation (cut off hands of thief, kill the murder, flog adulterous people).
- Prime Minister of Pakistan
- She said that there is reactionary Islam (hold status quo) and progressive Islam (moves with the changing world).
- Believed that women's seclusion in Muslim countries had nothing to do with the religion, but very much to do with material or man-made considerations.