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2013-05-02 01:55:44

Chapter 14 cards
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  1. Models of Abnormality
    • Statistical Model
    • Consensual Model
    • Subjective Discomfort Model
    • Maladaptive Functioning Model
  2. Statistical Model
    • • criteria: statistical infrequency, rarity
    • • being different from average by some amount; being rare
    • • example: mental retardation (an IQ of 70 or below)
  3. Consensual Model
    • • criteria: violation of social norms, deviance
    • • society (or mental health professionals) say the condition is abnormal
    • • example: homosexuality before 1972 (in 1972, homosexuality was removed from theDSM as a disorder because the consensus among psychiatrists had changed)
  4. Subjective Discomfort Model
    • • criterion: personal distress
    • • person's discontent with own functioning; the personal suffering the condition causes
    • • examples: anxiety disorders; depression; suicidal thoughts
  5. Maladaptive Functioning Model
    • • criteria: disability, dysfunction, danger
    • • interference with person's ability to function independently and responsibly in societyand to get along well with others
    • • most disorders involve both subjective discomfort and maladaptive functioning, buthere are two examples of problems involving dysfunction without personal distress:
    • • an alcoholic in denial (social dysfunction even if person doesn’t see the problem)
    • • mental retardation (deficits in adaptive behavior are required in addition to low IQ)
  6. Models for Explaining the Causes of Abnormality
    • Psychoanalytic Model-unconscious unresolved
    • Behavioral Model-faulty conditioning
    • Humanistic Model-Blocked personal growth
    • Cognitive Model-Faulty thinking
    • Biological Model-Problems with brain function
    • Evolutionary Model-exaggerated form or adaptive reaction
    • Sociocultural Model-problems reflect cultural values and beliefs
  7. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
    • • long-term (chronic) anxiety not focused on any particular object or situation
    • • usually accompanied by physical symptoms (e.g. headaches, chest pain, etc.)
  8. Panic disorder
    • severe attacks of extreme anxiety and strong physical symptoms (e.g. shortness of breath, dizziness, heart palpitations, etc.)
  9. Phobias
    • extreme and unrealistic fear of particular objects or situations
  10. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
    • • obsession - recurring, intrusive, thoughts
    • • compulsion - ritualistic behavior the person feels compelled to repeat
  11. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
    • anxiety disorder resulting from experiencing an overwhelming traumatic event
  12. Major depressive disorder (MDD)
    • chronic, severe episodes of depression with no external cause that greatly interferes with the person's functioning
  13. Bipolar disorder
    • • also known as manic-depression
    • • episodes of mania (excitable, impulsive, euphoric,etc.) alternating with normal and depressed periods
  14. Schizophrenia
    • Episodes of severe loss of contact with reality
  15. Dissociative amnesia
    • loss of memory for a period of one's life due to stress rather than physical trauma
  16. Dissociative fugue
    • amnesia where the person leaves home and assumes a new identity elsewhere
  17. • Dissociative identity disorder (DID)
    • • previously known as multiple personality
    • • the presence of two or more distinct personality patterns in the same individual
  18. Antisocial personality disorder
    • • also known as psychopath, sociopath
    • • self-centered and selfish, insensitive to the needs of others
  19. Borderline personality disorder (BPD)
    • impulsive, emotionally unstable, has difficulty in relationships, exhibits distortions inself-image, often self-destructive
  20. Paranoid personality disorder
    • overly untrusting and suspicious of others
  21. Narcissistic personality disorder
    • exaggerated sense of self-importance, egotistical, overly "in love" with oneself
  22. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR)
    uniform classifi cation system
  23. Insanity
    a person cannot be held responsible for his or her actions
  24. Neurosis
    Outmoded term for disorders characterized by unrealistic anxiety and other associated problems; less severe disruptions than in psychosis
  25. Psychosis
    Serious mental disorders characterized by extreme mental disruption and defective or lost contact with reality
  26. common myths about mental illness.
    • Myth #1: People with psychological disorders act in bizarre ways and are very different from normal people.(very small portion)
    • Myth #2: Mental disorders are a sign of personal weakness.False
    • Mentally ill people are often dangerous and unpredictable. Only a few disorders, such as some psychotic and antisocial personalities, are associated with violence.
    • m4. A person who has been mentally ill never fully recovers. they do
    • Myth #5: Most mentally ill individuals can work at only low-level jobs. depend on their particular talents,abilities, experience, and motivation,
  27. comorbidity
    Substance-related disorders commonly coexisting with other mental disorders