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2013-05-06 01:00:37

Sociology Final
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  1. Control Theory
    Inner and outer controls work against tendencies to deviate
  2. Corporate Crime
    Crimes committed by executives to benefit the corporation
  3. Crime
    Violation of norms written into law
  4. Differential Association
    Edwin Sutherland

    people who associate with some groups learn "excess of definitions" of deviance

    increases likelihood that they will become deviant
  5. Illegitimate Opportunity Structure
    Opportunities for crime that are woven into the texture of life
  6. Institutionalized Means
    Approved ways of reaching cultural goals
  7. Labeling Theory
    Labels given to people affect their own and others' perceptions of them, thus channeling behavior into deviance or conformity
  8. Medicalization of Deviance
    Making deviance a medical matter

    A symptom of an underlying illness to be treated by a physician
  9. Negative Sanction
    An expression of disapproval for breaking a norm
  10. Police Discretion
    The practice of the police, in the normal course of their duties, to either ticket someone for an offense or overlook the matter
  11. Recidivism Rate
    The proportion of released convicts who are rearrested
  12. Serial Murder
    The killing of several victims in three or more separate events
  13. Social Control
    A group's formal and informal means of enforcing its norms
  14. Social Order
    A group's usual and customary social arrangements
  15. Strain Theory
    Robert Merton

    The engendered stain that forms when society socializes large numbers of people to a desired cultural goal, but withholds some of the means to achieve it.

    One adaptation to the strain is crime
  16. Emile Durkheim
    Deviance is functional for society

    Investigated world religions and identified elements common to all.

    Sacred from the profane
  17. Apartheid
    Enforced separation of racial-ethnic groups
  18. Class Consciousness
    Common identity based on one's position in means of production (Marx)
  19. Colonialism
    One nation takes over another nation, usually for exploiting labor and natural resources
  20. Culture of Poverty
    Assumption that the values and behaviors of the poor make them fundamentally different from other people
  21. Endogamy
    Marrying within one's group
  22. Estate Stratification System
    Medieval Europe - estates:  nobility, clergy, commoners
  23. False Class Consciousness
    Workers identifying with the interests of capitalists (Marx)
  24. Neocolonialism
    Economic and political dominance of the Least Industrialized Nations by the Most Industrialized Nations
  25. Proletariat
    The exploited class, the mass of workers who do not own the means of production (Marx)
  26. W.E.B. DuBois
    Sociologist who wrote about slavery in the U.S.
  27. Anomie
    People become detached from the norms that guide behavior
  28. Horation Alger myth
    The belief that due to limitless possibilities, anyone can get ahead if he or she tries hard enough
  29. Intergenerational mobility
    The change that family members make in social class from one generation to the next
  30. Poverty Line
    The official measure of poverty
  31. Authoritarian personality
    Theodor Adorno

    People who are prejudice and rank high on scales of conformity, intolerance, insecurity and respect for authority
  32. Internal colonialism
    The policy of exploiting minority groups for economic gain.
  33. Pan-Indianism
    Common elements in the culture of Native Americans in order to develop a cross-tribal self-identity
  34. Pluralism
    The diffusion of power among many interest groups that prevent any single group from gaining control of the government
  35. WASP
    White Anglo-Saxon Protestant
  36. Activity theory
    The view that satisfaction during old age is related to a person's amount and quality of activity
  37. Dependency ratio
    The number of workers required to support each dependent person (those 65+ and under 15)
  38. Gender age
    Relative value place on men and women's ages
  39. Egalitarian
    Authority more or less equally divided between people of a group
  40. Exogamy
    Marrying outside of one's group
  41. Homogamy
    The tendency of people with similar characteristics to marry one another
  42. Gateskeeping
    Education opens and closes doors of opportunity. 

    Another term for social placement function of society.
  43. Animism
    The belief that all objects in the world have spirits.
  44. Ecclesia
    • A religious group so integrated into the dominant culture that it is difficult to tell where one begins and the other leaves off.
    • State religion