Chapter 15 The Special Senses (TB)

Card Set Information

Author:
lonelygirl
ID:
215903
Filename:
Chapter 15 The Special Senses (TB)
Updated:
2013-05-18 00:48:54
Tags:
Biology Anatomy Physiology
Folders:

Description:
Biology 103A
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user lonelygirl on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. What is the main function of the rods in the eye?

    A) depth perception
    B) vision in dim light
    C) accommodation for near vision
    D) color vision
    B) vision in dim light
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. What structure regulates the amount of light passing to the visual receptors of the eye?

    A) aqueous humor
    B) lens
    C) cornea
    D) iris
    D) iris
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. Receptors for hearing are located in the ________.

    A) vestibule
    B) tympanic membrane
    C) cochlea
    D) semicircular canals
    C) cochlea
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. Which of the follow types of neurons are replaced throughout adult life?

    A) olfactory receptor cells
    B) retinal bipolar cells
    C) retinal ganglion cells
    D) auditory outer and inner hair cells
    A) olfactory receptor cells
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. The oil component found in tears is produced by the ________.

    A) conjunctiva
    B) lacrimal glands
    C) ciliary gland
    D) tarsal glands
    D) tarsal glands
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. The receptor for static equilibrium is the ________.

    A) macula
    B) cochlear duct
    C) semicircular canals
    D) utricle
    A) macula
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. Farsightedness is more properly called ________.

    A) hyperopia
    B) myopia
    C) hypopia
    D) presbyopia
    A) hyperopia
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. Seventy percent of all sensory receptors are located in the ________.

    A) nose
    B) skin
    C) eye
    D) ears
    C) eye
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. Which of the following structures is not part of the external ear?

    A) external acoustic meatus
    B) pinna
    C) pharyngotympanic tube
    D) tympanic membrane
    C) pharyngotympanic tube
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. Nerve fibers from the medial aspect of each eye ________.

    A) go to the superior colliculus only
    B) divide at the chiasma, with some crossing and some not crossing
    C) pass posteriorly without crossing over at the chiasma
    D) cross over to the opposite side at the chiasma
    D) cross over to the opposite side at the chiasma
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. Ordinarily, it is not possible to transplant tissues from one person to another, yet corneas canbe transplanted without tissue rejection. This is because the cornea ________.

    A) does not contain connective tissue
    B) has no nerve supply
    C) is not a living tissue
    D) has no blood supply
    D) has no blood supply
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. The oval window is connected directly to which passageway?

    A) external acoustic meatus
    B) scala vestibuli
    C) pharyngotympanic tube
    D) scala tympani
    B) scala vestibuli
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. There are three layers of neurons in the retina. The axons of which of these neuron layersform the optic nerves?

    A) bipolar cells
    B) cone cells
    C) ganglion cells
    D) rod cells
    C) ganglion cells
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. The first "way station" in the visual pathway from the eye, after there has been partialcrossover of the fibers in the optic chiasma, is the ________.

    A) temporal lobe
    B) visual cortex
    C) superior colliculi
    D) lateral geniculate body of the thalamus
    D) lateral geniculate body of the thalamus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. As sound levels increase in the spiral organ (of Corti), ________.

    A) inner hair cells bend the cilia away from the kinocilium
    B) outer hair cells bend the cilia away from the kinocilium
    C) inner hair cells stiffen the basilar membrane
    D) outer hair cells stiffen the basilar membrane
    D) outer hair cells stiffen the basilar membrane
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. Which of the following is true about gustatory receptors?

    A) All gustatory receptors have the same threshold for activation.
    B) The receptors generate an action potential in response to chemical stimuli.
    C) Complete adaptation occurs in about one to five minutes.
    D) In order for a chemical to be sensed, it must be hydrophobic.
    C) Complete adaptation occurs in about one to five minutes.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. Taste buds are not found ________.

    A) in circumvallate papillae
    B) lining the buccal cavity
    C) in fungiform papillae
    D) in filiform papillae
    D) in filiform papillae
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. Select the correct statement about olfaction.

    A) Substances must be volatile and hydrophobic in order to activate olfactory receptors.
    B) Olfactory adaptation is only due to fading of receptor cell response.
    C) Some of the sensation of olfaction is actually one of pain.
    D) Olfactory receptors have a high degree of specificity toward a single type of chemical.
    C) Some of the sensation of olfaction is actually one of pain.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. What prevents the eyelids from sticking together when the eyes close?

    A) ciliary gland secretions
    B) conjunctival fluid
    C) lacrimal fluid
    D) tarsal gland secretions
    D) tarsal gland secretions
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. Which of the following taste sensations is incorrectly matched to the chemicals that produceit?

    A) saltymetal ions
    B) umamiamino acids glutamate and lysine
    C) bitteralkaloids
    D) souracids
    E) sweetorganic substances such as sugar and some lead salts
    B) umamiamino acids glutamate and lysine
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. U.S. employees must wear hearing protection at ________ dB or above.

    A) 100
    B) 90
    C) 80
    D) 70
    B) 90
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. What is a modiolus?

    A) bone around the cochlea
    B) bone in the center of a semicircular canal
    C) a bony area around the junction of the facial, vestibular, and cochlear nerves
    D) a bone pillar in the center of the cochlea
    D) a bone pillar in the center of the cochlea
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. Which statement about malnutrition-induced night blindness is most accurate?

    A) The most common cause is vitamin D deficiency.
    B) Visual pigment content is reduced in both rods and cones.
    C) The impaired vision is caused by reduced cone function.
    D) Vitamin supplements can reverse degenerative changes.
    D) Vitamin supplements can reverse degenerative changes.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. Dark adaptation ________.

    A) results in inhibition of rod function
    B) involves accumulation of rhodopsin
    C) is much faster than light adaptation
    D) involves improvement of acuity and color vision
    B) involves accumulation of rhodopsin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. Conscious perception of vision probably reflects activity in the ________.

    A) thalamus
    B) occipital lobe of the cortex
    C) chiasma
    D) superior colliculus
    B) occipital lobe of the cortex
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. In the visual pathways to the brain, the optic radiations project to the ________.

    A) lateral geniculate body
    B) medial retina
    C) primary visual cortex
    D) optic chiasma
    C) primary visual cortex
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. Visual inputs to the ________ serve to synchronize biorhythms with natural light and dark.

    A) superior colliculi
    B) suprachiasmatic nucleus
    C) lateral geniculate body
    D) pretectal nuclei
    B) suprachiasmatic nucleus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. Information from balance receptors goes directly to the ________.

    A) visual cortex
    B) back muscles
    C) brain stem reflex centers
    D) motor cortex
    C) brain stem reflex centers
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. Motion sickness seems to ________.

    A) respond best to medication that "boosts" vestibular inputs
    B) result from activation of nausea centers in the brain stem
    C) respond best to medication taken after salivation and pallor begins
    D) result from mismatch between visual and vestibular inputs
    D) result from mismatch between visual and vestibular inputs
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. In the uterus ________.

    A) despite the fact that the fetus cannot see, functional visual cortical connections are established
    B) scanty visual connections are made that proliferate greatly during infancy
    C) the fetus can see only light and shadow, but not forms, so partial visual connections are made
    D) the fetus cannot see and therefore visual cortical connections are not made
    A) despite the fact that the fetus cannot see, functional visual cortical connections are established
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. Most newborns ________.

    A) often use only one eye at a time
    B) cry with copious tears
    C) see in tones of red and green only
    D) are myopic
    A) often use only one eye at a time
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. The blind spot of the eye is where ________.

    A) more rods than cones are found
    B) the optic nerve leaves the eye
    C) the macula lutea is located
    D) only cones occur
    B) the optic nerve leaves the eye
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. The first vestiges of eyes in the embryo are called ________.

    A) optic discs
    B) optic vesicles
    C) mesenchyme
    D) optic cups
    B) optic vesicles
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. Which pairing of terms is incorrectly related?

    A) frequency: loudness
    B) frequency: wavelength number
    C) quality: frequency number
    D) amplitude: sound intensity
    A) frequency: loudness
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. Olfactory cells and taste buds are normally stimulated by ________.

    A) movement of a cupula
    B) substances in solution
    C) the movement of otoliths
    D) stretching of the receptor cells
    B) substances in solution
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. Which of the following could not be seen as one looks into the eye with an ophthalmoscope?

    A) macula lutea
    B) optic disc
    C) fovea centralis
    D) optic chiasma
    D) optic chiasma
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. The cells of the retina in which action potentials are generated are the ________.

    A) ganglion cells
    B) amacrine cells
    C) bipolar cells
    D) rods and cones
    A) ganglion cells
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. During dark adaptation ________.

    A) the sensitivity of the retina decreases
    B) the rate of rhodopsin breakdown is accelerated
    C) the cones are activated
    D) rhodopsin accumulates in the rods
    D) rhodopsin accumulates in the rods
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. Tinnitis, vertigo, and gradual hearing loss typify the disorder called ________.

    A) strabismus
    B) motion sickness
    C) Ménière's syndrome
    D) conjunctivitis
    C) Ménière's syndrome
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. Which of the following is not a characteristic of olfactory receptor cells?

    A) They are unipolar neurons.
    B) They have a short life span of about 60 days.
    C) They are chemoreceptors.
    D) They are ciliated.
    A) They are unipolar neurons.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  41. An essential part of the maculae involved in static equilibrium is (are) the ________.

    A) scala media
    B) otoliths
    C) spiral organ (of Corti)
    D) cupula
    B) otoliths
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. Which of the following is true about light and vision?

    A) Human photoreceptors respond to light in the 100-300 nm range.
    B) The greater the incident angle of light striking a refractive surface, the less the amount of lightbending.
    C) Light is a form of electromagnetic radiation that slows down as it enters a medium ofrelatively less density.
    D) When we see the color of an object, all light is being absorbed by that object except for thecolor being experienced.
    D) When we see the color of an object, all light is being absorbed by that object except for thecolor being experienced.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. The tarsal plate of the eyelid ________.

    A) is connected to the levator palpebrae
    B) is connected to the superior rectus muscle
    C) is composed of connective tissue surrounding a thin cartilage plate
    D) assists in the act of winking
    A) is connected to the levator palpebrae
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. Which of the following is true about photoreceptors?

    A) Rods absorb light throughout the visual spectrum but confer only gray tone vision.
    B) Three types of color-sensitive photoreceptors exist: red, green, and yellow.
    C) If all cones are stimulated equally, all colors are absorbed by the cones and the colorperceived is black.
    D) In dim light, images are focused directly on the rods in the fovea centralis.
    A) Rods absorb light throughout the visual spectrum but confer only gray tone vision.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  45. Select the correct statement about equilibrium.
    A) Hair cells of both types of equilibrium hyperpolarize only, resulting in an increased rate ofimpulse transmission.
    B) Due to dynamic equilibrium, movement can be perceived if rotation of the body continues ata constant rate.
    C) The weight of the endolymph contained within the semicircular canals against the maculae isresponsible for static equilibrium.
    D) Cristae respond to angular acceleration and deceleration.
    D) Cristae respond to angular acceleration and deceleration.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  46. The eye muscle that elevates and turns the eye laterally is the ________.

    A) superior oblique
    B) lateral rectus
    C) inferior oblique
    D) medial rectus
    C) inferior oblique
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  47. The receptor membranes of gustatory cells are ________.

    A) fungiform papillae
    B) basal cells
    C) gustatory hairs
    D) taste buds
    C) gustatory hairs
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  48. Light passes through the following structures in which order?

    A) cornea, aqueous humor, lens, vitreous humor
    B) vitreous humor, lens, aqueous humor, cornea
    C) cornea, vitreous humor, lens, aqueous humor
    D) aqueous humor, cornea, lens, vitreous humor
    A) cornea, aqueous humor, lens, vitreous humor
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  49. Damage to the medial recti muscles would probably affect ________.

    A) convergence
    B) accommodation
    C) pupil constriction
    D) refraction
    A) convergence
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  50. Which statement about sound localization is not true?

    A) It requires input from both ears.
    B) It is difficult to discriminate sound sources in the midline.
    C) It uses time differences between sound reaching the two ears.
    D) It requires processing at the cortical level.
    D) It requires processing at the cortical level.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  51. Which of the following is not a possible cause of conduction deafness?

    A) cochlear nerve degeneration
    B) middle ear infection
    C) impacted cerumen
    D) otosclerosis
    A) cochlear nerve degeneration
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  52. Visual processing in the thalamus does not contribute significantly to ________.

    A) movement perception
    B) depth perception
    C) high-acuity vision
    D) night vision
    D) night vision
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  53. Visible light fits between ________.

    A) X rays and UV
    B) microwaves and radio waves
    C) gamma rays and infrared
    D) UV and infrared
    D) UV and infrared
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  54. Ceruminous glands are ________.

    A) modified taste buds
    B) glands found in the lateral corners of your eye
    C) modified apocrine sweat glands
    D) saliva glands found at the base of the tongue
    C) modified apocrine sweat glands
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  55. Presbyopia is not ________. 

    A) called ʺold personʹs visionʺ
    B) the loss of elasticity of the lens 
    C) the unequal curvature of refracting surfaces
    D) common in individuals over 50 
    C) the unequal curvature of refracting surfaces
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  56. Inhibitory cells in the olfactory bulbs are called _________. 

    A) mitral cells 
    B) basal cells
    C) granule cells 
    D) sustentacular cells 
    C) granule cells
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  57. There are three layers of neurons in the retina. The axons of which of these neuron layers form the optic nerves?

    A) ganglion cells 
    B) rod cells
    C) bipolar cells 
    D) cone cells 
    A) ganglion cells
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  58. Photoreceptors ________. 

    A) replicate to replace damaged cells, in order to maintain normal vision 
    B) package visual pigment in membrane-bound discs, which increases the efficiency of light trapping 
    C) possess an inner segment, which is the receptor region 
    D) called cones possess a short conical inner segment
    B) package visual pigment in membrane-bound discs, which increases the efficiency of light trapping
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  59. Olfactory glands function to ________. 

    A) produce olfactory cells 
    B) secrete mucus
    C) produce Ca+ ions that are taken up by the olfactory receptor cells for their use 
    D) assist in detection of odors 
    B) secrete mucus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  60. The ciliary body does not ________. 

    A) attach to the iris
    B) secrete aqueous humor 
    C) pull on the ciliary zonule 
    D) belong to the anterior chamber of the eye
    D) belong to the anterior chamber of the eye
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  61. As sound intensity increases, we hear the sound as a louder sound at the same pitch. This suggests that ________. 

    A) inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) are building up in the auditory cortex
    B) cochlear cells that respond to the same pitch vary in responsiveness 
    C) the timing of the cochlear vibrations encodes the pitch 
    D) 540-Hz-receptive cells are particularly refractory 
    B) cochlear cells that respond to the same pitch vary in responsiveness
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  62. ________ is a disorder of the olfactory nerves. 

    A) Uncinate fits 
    B) Anosmias 
    C) Otalgia
    D) Scotoma 
    B) Anosmias
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  63. What are the special senses?
    smell, taste, sight, hearing, and equilibrium
  64. What is the dominant sense?
    Vision - 70 % of all the sensory receptors in the body are in the eyes and nearly 1/2 of the cerebral cortex is in involved in some aspect of visual processing
  65. What part of the eye is called "the white of the eye"?

    A) the sclera
    B) the choroid
    the sclera; this opaque outer layer appears white due to the presence of collagen fibers.
  66. In which layer is the retina found?

    A) uvea
    B) neural layer
    B) neural layer; the retina contains the neural cells whereas the uvea contains the iris.
  67. Which iris color has more melanin?

    A) green
    B) blue
    B) blue
  68. Which iris color has more melanin?

    A) green
    B) blue
    A) green; color variation is due to concentration and distribution of melanocytes. Blue has the least amount of
  69. What are the protein fibers called that make up the lens?

    A) collagens
    B) crystallins
    B) crystallins; collagen is important in the connective tissues and cornea. Crystallins appear in a precisely packed pattern in the lens.
  70. What do we call the gel-like substance in the posterior chamber of the eyeball?

    A) the aqueous humor
    B) the vitreous body
    B) the vitreous body; the aqueous humor is the fluid in the anterior chamber.
  71. Which photoreceptor cells are responsible for sharp vision?

    A) the rods
    B) the cones
    B) the cones; the cones are stimulated by color and intense light.
  72. Which neural cells regulate action potential generation in the eye?

    A) the ganglion cells
    B) the bipolar cells
    B) the bipolar cells; they regulate action potentials of the ganglion cells based on stimulation of the rods and cones.
  73. What is the area called where your vision is the sharpest?

    A) the optic disc
    B) the fovea
    B) the fovea; it contains the highest concentrations of cones, resulting in the sharpest vision.
  74. The boundary of the retina is called the ________.
    ora serrata
  75. The synapse of the olfactory nerves with the mitral cells is called a ________.
    glomerulus
  76. The rocks found in one's head (calcium carbonate crystals) are called ________.
    otoliths
  77. The middle ear ossicle is the ________.
    incus
  78. The ________ are in the visual pathway and mediate the pupillary light reflexes.
    pretectal nuclei
  79. The oval window touches the stapes and the ________.
    scala vestibuli
  80. The vestibulocochlear nerve first synapses with the ________ in the medulla.
    cochlear nuclei
  81. The apex of the ear hears sounds in the range of ________ Hz.
    20
  82. In the optic ________ the visual fields of the axons are all ipsilateral.
    tract
  83. The mucous membrane that lines the eyelids and is reflected over the anterior surface of theeyeball is the conjunctiva. True or False
    True
  84. Researchers have found that retinal ganglionic fields are of two types: on center or off center. True or False
    True
  85. The photoreceptor cells are sensitive to damage from light. True or False
    True
  86. Both the cornea and the lens are vascular. True or False
    False
  87. The optic disc is the location where the optic nerve leaves the eyeball. True or False
    True
  88. Sour taste receptors are stimulated by hydrogen ions of acidic food substances. True or False
    True
  89. The fluid contained within the membranous labyrinth is called perilymph. True or False
    False
  90. The extrinsic eye muscle motor units contain only 8 to 12 muscle cells and in some cases asfew as 2 or 3 muscle cells. True or False
    True
  91. Retinal detachment always results in loss of vision. True or False
    False
  92. The structure that allows equalization of the pressure in the middle ear with that outside thebody is the external auditory meatus. True or False
    False
  93. The bending of light rays is called reflection. True or False
    False
  94. The anterior chamber of the eye is filled with vitreous humor. True or False
    False
  95. The neural layer of the retina prevents excessive scattering of light within the eye. True or False
    False
  96. In order for sound to reach the spiral organ (of Corti), the auditory ossicles must vibrate theoval window and set the endolymph in motion. True or False
    True
  97. Sound is generally perceived in the occipital lobe of the cerebral cortex. True or False
    False
  98. Light passes through the entire thickness of the neural layer of the retina to excite the photoreceptors. True or False
    True
  99. Without a functioning crista ampullaris, the semicircular canals would not function. True or False
    True
  100. Contraction of the ciliary muscle causes the lens to bend the light less. True or False
    False
  101. Theoretically, an individual born without a middle ear would be able to hear by boneconduction with a hearing aid. True or False
    True
  102. When we move from darkness to bright light, retinal sensitivity is lost, but visual acuity is gained. True or False
    True
  103. The function of the lens of the eye is to allow precise focusing of light on the retina. True or False
    True
  104. Each olfactory cortical neuron receives input from one receptor at a time. True or False
    False
  105. Odorants must be volatile to be smelled. True or False
    True

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview