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2013-04-26 03:58:52

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  1. The decline in the tendency to respond to an event that has become familiar through repeated exposure, or a stimulus that is repeatedly presented.
  2. Increase responsiveness, or sensitivity, to an event that has been repeated.
  3. A set of procedures used to investigate how organism learns about the signaling properties of events. Classical conditioning involves learning relations between events. Conditioned and unconditioned stimuli that occur outside of one’s control.
    Classical conditioning
  4.  a procedure for studying how organisms learn about the consequences of their own voluntary actions (also called instrumental conditioning)
    Operant conditioning
  5. a stimulus that automatically leads to an observable response prior to training.
    Unconditioned Stimulus (US)
  6. the observable response that is produced automatically prior to training on presentation of an unconditioned stimulus.
    Unconditioned Response (UR)
  7. the neutral stimulus that is paired with the unconditioned stimulus during classical conditioning.
    Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
  8. the acquired response that is produced by the conditioned stimulus in anticipation of the unconditioned stimulus.
    Conditioned Response (CR)
  9. responding to a new stimulus in a way similar to the response produced by an established conditioned stimulus.
    Stimulus generalization
  10. responding differently to a new stimulus that how one responds to an established conditioned stimulus.
    Stimulus discrimination
  11. presenting a conditioned stimulus repeatedly, after conditioning, without the unconditioned stimulus, resulting in a loss in responding.
  12. learning that an event signals the absence of the unconditioned stimulus.
    Conditioned inhibition
  13. an event that when presented after a response, increases the likelihood of that response.
    Positive reinforcement
  14. an event that when removed after a response, increases the likelihood of the likelihood of that response occurring again.
    Negative reinforcement
  15. an event that, when presented after a response, lowers the likelihood of that response occurring again.
    Positive punishment
  16. an event that, when removed after a response, lowers the likelihood of that response occurring again.
    Negative punishment
  17. the stimulus situation that sets the occasion for a response to be followed by reinforcement of punishment.
    Discriminative stimulus
  18. a procedure in which reinforcement is delivered for successive approximations of the desired response.
  19. learning by observing the experience of others.
    Observational learning
  20. the natural tendency to imitate the behavior of significant others.
  21. the system that produces and stores visual sensory memories
    Iconic Memory
  22. the system that produces and stores auditory sensory memories
    Echoic Memory
  23. the strategic process that helps maintain short term memories indefinitely through the use of internal repetition
  24. the number of items that can be recalled from short term memory in their proper presentation order on half of the tested memory trials
    Memory Span
  25. a short term memory strategy that involves rearranging incoming  information into meaningful or familiar patterns
  26. a memory of a particular event, or episode, that happened to you personally; such as remembering what you ate for breakfast, or where you went on vacation last year
    Episodic Memories
  27. knowledge about the world stored as facts that make little to no reference to one’s personal experience
    Semantic Memory
  28. an encoding process that involves the formation of connections between to-be-remembered input and other information in the memory
  29. the process used to construct an internal visual image
    Visual Imagery
  30. the better memory of items near the beginning of a memorized list
    Primacy Effect
  31. the better memory of items near the end of a memorized list
    Recency Effect
  32. special mental tricks that help people think about material in ways that improve later memory. Most mnemonic devices require the use of visual imagery.
    Mnemonic Devices
  33. rich memory records of the circumstances surrounding emotionally significant and surprising events.
    Flashbulb Memories
  34. an organized knowledge structure in long-term memory.
  35. remembering that occurs in the absence of conscious awareness or willful intent.
    Implicit Memory
  36. conscious, willful remembering.
    Explicit Memory
  37. a process in which the formation of new memories hurt the recovery of old memories.
    Retroactive Interference
  38. a process in which old memories interfere with the establishment and recovery of new memories.
    Proactive Interference
  39. the proposal that memories are forgotten or lost spontaneously with the passage of time.
  40. a defense mechanism that individual use, unknowingly, to push threatening thoughts, memories, and feeling out of conscious awareness.
  41. memory loss for events that happened prior to the point of brain injury.
    Retrograde Amnesia
  42. the collection of nerves that control the more autonomic needs of the body (such as heart rate, digestion, blood pressure); part of the peripheral nervous system.
    Anterograde Amnesia
  43. repressing memories
    Motivated Forgetting
  44. refers to how unique of different memory record is fro other thins in memory. Distinctive memory records tend to be recalled well.