Chapter 2 Chemistry Comes Alive (TB)

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lonelygirl
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215913
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Chapter 2 Chemistry Comes Alive (TB)
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2013-05-08 18:40:22
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Biology Anatomy Physiology
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Biology 103A
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  1. Which of the following is necessary for proper conduction of nervous impulses? 

    A) Fe 
    B) P 
    C) Na
    D) I 
    C) Na
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. A phospholipid is usually ________. 

    A) partially polar and partially nonpolar 
    B) completely nonpolar 
    C) completely polar 
    D) neither polar nor nonpolar
    A) partially polar and partially nonpolar
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. In general, the category of lipids that we refer to as oils have ________.

    A) a high degree of unsaturated bonds
    B) a high degree of saturated bonds 
    C) a high water content 
    D) long fatty acid chains 
    A) a high degree of unsaturated bonds
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. The genetic information is coded in DNA by ________. 

    A) the regular alteration of sugar and phosphate molecules 
    B) the sequence of the nucleotides 
    C) the three-dimensional structure of the double helix 
    D) the arrangement of the histones
    B) the sequence of the nucleotides
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. Which of the following is not true of proteins? 

    A) They appear to be the molecular carriers of the coded hereditary information. 
    B) They may be denatured or coagulated by heat or acidity. 
    C) Some types are called enzymes. 
    D) Their function depends on the three-dimensional shape.
    A) They appear to be the molecular carriers of the coded hereditary information.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. The single most abundant protein in the body is ________. 

    A) hemoglobin
    B) glucose
    C) DNA 
    D) collagen 
    D) collagen
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. Carbohydrates are stored in the liver and muscles in the form of ________. 

    A) glycogen 
    B) glucose 
    C) triglycerides 
    D) cholesterol
    A) glycogen
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. Coenzymes are ________. 

    A) enzymes that work together
    B) metal ions 
    C) organic molecules derived from vitamins 
    D) two enzymes that perform the same function 
    C) organic molecules derived from vitamins
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. The speed or rate of a chemical reaction is influenced by all of the following except ________. 

    A) the temperature 
    B) the concentration of the reactants 
    C) the presence or absence of carbon
    D) the presence of catalysts or enzymes 
    C) the presence or absence of carbon
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. A chemical reaction in which bonds are broken is usually associated with ________. 

    A) the release of energy 
    B) a synthesis 
    C) the consumption of energy 
    D) forming a larger molecule
    A) the release of energy
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. Salts are always ________. 

    A) hydrogen bonded
    B) single covalent compounds 
    C) ionic compounds 
    D) double covalent compounds 
    C) ionic compounds
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. The numbers listed represent the first, second, and third energy levels, respectively. On this basis, which of the following is an unstable or reactive atom? 

    A) 2, 8 
    B) 2, 8, 8 
    C) 2 
    D) 2, 8, 1
    D) 2, 8, 1
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. A solution that has a pH of 2 could best be described as being ________. 

    A) acidic 
    B) neutral 
    C) basic 
    D) slightly acidic
    A) acidic
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. Which of the following is the major positive ion outside cells? 

    A) sodium
    B) potassium 
    C) nitrogen 
    D) hydrogen 
    A) sodium
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. Which of the following would be regarded as an organic molecule? 

    A) CH4
    B) NaCl 
    C) NaOH 
    D) H2O 
    A) CH4
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. A chain of 25 amino acids would be called a ________. 

    A) starch
    B) nucleotide 
    C) protein 
    D) polypeptide 
    D) polypeptide
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. A long chain of simple sugars would be a ________. 

    A) protein 
    B) nucleic acid
    C) monosaccharide 
    D) polysaccharide 
    D) polysaccharide
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. The coiling of the protein chain backbone into an alpha helix is referred to as the ________. 

    A) tertiary structure 
    B) quaternary structure
    C) secondary structure
    D) primary structure 
    C) secondary structure
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. Carbohydrates and proteins are built up from their basic building blocks by the ________. 

    A) addition of a carbon atom between each two units 
    B) removal of a nitrogen atom between each two units
    C) addition of a water molecule between each two units 
    D) removal of a water molecule between each two units 
    D) removal of a water molecule between each two units
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. Which statement about enzymes is false? 

    A) Enzymes are organic catalysts. 
    B) Enzymes raise the activation energy needed to start a reaction. 
    C) Enzymes may be damaged by high temperature.
    D) Enzymes are composed mostly of protein. 
    B) Enzymes raise the activation energy needed to start a reaction.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. Many plasma proteins may function as _________. 

    A) buffers 
    B) structural proteins 
    C) oxygen transport vesicles
    D) antibodies 
    A) buffers
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. Which of the following is true regarding the concentration of solutions? 

    A) Percent solutions are parts per 1000 parts. 
    B) To calculate molarity, one must know the atomic weight of the solvent.
    C) To calculate molarity, one must know the atomic number of the solute. 
    D) Molarity is one mole of solute per 1000 ml of solution. 
    D) Molarity is one mole of solute per 1000 ml of solution.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. Select the statement about mixtures that is correct. 

    A) Suspensions are homogeneous mixtures of two or more components.
    B) Suspensions can change reversibly from liquid to solid. 
    C) A solution contains solvent in large amounts and solute in smaller quantities. 
    D) Solutions contain particles that settle out in time. 
    C) A solution contains solvent in large amounts and solute in smaller quantities.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. HCO3- is _________. 

    A) a weak acid 
    B) common in the liver
    C) a bicarbonate ion 
    D) a proton donor
    C) a bicarbonate ion
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. Select which reactions will usually be irreversible regarding chemical equilibrium in living systems. 

    A) ADP + Pi to make ATP 
    B) glucose molecules joined to make glycogen
    C) glucose to CO2 & H2O 
    D) H2O + CO2 to make H2CO3 
    C) glucose to CO2 & H2O
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. In redox reactions ________. 

    A) the reaction is always easily reversible
    B) the electron acceptor is oxidized 
    C) the electron donor is reduced 
    D) both decomposition and electron exchange occur 
    D) both decomposition and electron exchange occur
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. Fibrous proteins ________. 

    A) rarely exhibit secondary structure 
    B) are very stable and insoluble in water 
    C) are usually called enzymes 
    D) are cellular catalysts
    B) are very stable and insoluble in water
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. The ATP molecule is not used in ___________. 

    A) mechanical work 
    B) pigments
    C) chemical work 
    D) transport 
    B) pigments
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. Select the most correct statement regarding nucleic acids. 

    A) DNA is a long, double-stranded molecule made up of A, T, G, and C bases. 
    B) RNA is a long, single-stranded molecule made up of the bases A, T, G, and C. 
    C) Three forms exist: DNA, RNA, and tDNA.
    D) TDNA is considered a molecular slave of DNA.
    A) DNA is a long, double-stranded molecule made up of A, T, G, and C bases.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. ________ is a suspension. 

    A) Cytoplasm 
    B) Saltwater 
    C) Rubbing alcohol 
    D) Blood
    D) Blood
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. Select the correct statement about isotopes. 

    A) All the isotopes of an element have the same number of neutrons. 
    B) All the isotopes of an element are radioactive. 
    C) Isotopes occur only in the heavier elements.
    D) Isotopes of the same element have the same atomic number but differ in their atomic mass. 
    D) Isotopes of the same element have the same atomic number but differ in their atomic mass.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. The four elements that make up about 96% of body matter are ________. 

    A) carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen 
    B) sodium, potassium, hydrogen, oxygen
    C) nitrogen, hydrogen, calcium, sodium 
    D) carbon, oxygen, phosphorus, calcium 
    A) carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. An example of a coenzyme is ________.

    A) riboflavin (vitamin B2) 
    B) zinc
    C) copper 
    D) iron 
    A) riboflavin (vitamin B2)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. ________ is fat-soluble, produced in the skin on exposure to UV radiation, and necessary for normal bone growth and function. 

    A) Vitamin D
    B) Cortisol 
    C) Vitamin K 
    D) Vitamin A 
    A) Vitamin D
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. In liquid XYZ, you notice that light is scattered as it passes through. There is no precipitant in the bottom of the beaker, though it has been sitting for several days. This liquid must be a ________. 

    A) colloid 
    B) solution 
    C) suspension 
    D) mixture
    A) colloid
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. Atom X has seventeen protons. How many electrons are in its valence shell? 

    A) 3 
    B) 5 
    C) 10
    D) 7 
    D) 7
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. If an atom were to have two protons, then it would ________. 

    A) be chemically active 
    B) be very stable 
    C) have three electrons
    D) have a valence of 0 
    B) be very stable
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. If atom X has an atomic number of 74 it would have ________. 

    A) 74 protons and no neutrons 
    B) 74 protons and roughly the same number of neutrons
    C) 37 electrons 
    D) 37 protons and 37 neutrons 
    B) 74 protons and roughly the same number of neutrons
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. The formula C6H12O6 means ________. 

    A) the molecular weight is 24 
    B) there are 6 calcium, 12 hydrogen, and 6 oxygen atoms 
    C) the substance is a colloid
    D) there are 12 hydrogen, 6 carbon, and 6 oxygen atoms 
    D) there are 12 hydrogen, 6 carbon, and 6 oxygen atoms
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. Two good examples of a colloid would be Jell-O® or ________. 

    A) blood 
    B) urine 
    C) toenails 
    D) cytosol
    D) cytosol
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  41. An atom with a valance of 3 may have a total of ________ electrons. 

    A) 8 
    B) 13 
    C) 3 
    D) 17
    B) 13
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. An atom with ________ electrons could be an anion when ionically bonded. 

    A) 9 
    B) 6 
    C) 3 
    D) 15
    A) 9
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. The chemical symbol O=O means ________.

    A) zero equals zero 
    B) this is an ionic bond with two shared electrons
    C) the atoms are double bonded 
    D) both atoms are bonded and have zero electrons in the outer orbit 
    C) the atoms are double bonded
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. Dipole is ________. 

    A) a type of reaction
    B) a polar molecule 
    C) an organic molecule
    D) a type of bond 
    B) a polar molecule
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  45. CH4 means ________. 

    A) this was involved in a redox reaction
    B) there are four carbon and four hydrogen atoms 
    C) there is one carbon and four hydrogen atoms 
    D) this is an inorganic molecule 
    C) there is one carbon and four hydrogen atoms
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  46. Amino acids joining together to make a peptide is a good example of a ________ reaction. 

    A) synthesis 
    B) exchange 
    C) decomposition 
    D) reversible
    A) synthesis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  47. ________ is not considered to be a factor in influencing a reaction. 

    A) Time
    B) Concentration 
    C) Particle size 
    D) Temperature 
    A) Time
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  48. Which of the following is not an electrolyte? 

    A) HCl 
    B) NaOH
    C) H2O 
    D) Ca2CO3 
    C) H2O
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  49. Human blood has a pH of ________. 

    A) 8.35-8.55 
    B) 7.70-8.00 
    C) 6.80-7.00
    D) 7.35-7.45 
    D) 7.35-7.45
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  50. __________ is a heavy metal normally found in the body. 

    A) Arsenic 
    B) Lead 
    C) Mercury 
    D) Iron
    D) Iron
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  51. Sucrose is a ________.

    A) disaccharide 
    B) polysaccharide 
    C) triglyceride
    D) monosaccharide 
    A) disaccharide
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  52. Neutral fats have a ________ ratio of fatty acids to glycerol. 

    A) 1:1 
    B) 4:1
    C) 3:1 
    D) 2:1 
    C) 3:1
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  53. In a DNA molecule, the phosphate serves ________. 

    A) as nucleotides
    B) to bind the sugars to their bases 
    C) as a code 
    D) to hold the molecular backbone together
    D) to hold the molecular backbone together
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  54. Most fibrous proteins in the body contain all of these except: 

    A) collagen
    B) elastin 
    C) eledin 
    D) keratin 
    C) eledin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  55. Heat shock proteins (hsp) are a type of protein called ________. 

    A) chaperonins
    B) coenzymes 
    C) eicosanoids 
    D) cofactors 
    A) chaperonins
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  56. _________ bonds often bind different parts of a molecule into a specific 3-dimensional shape. 

    A) Oxygen 
    B) Amino acid
    C) Hydrogen 
    D) Carbon 
    C) Hydrogen
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  57. Choose the statement that is false or incorrect.

    A) Endergonic reactions absorb more energy than they release.
    B) A key feature of the body's metabolism is the almost exclusive use of exergonic reactions by the body.
    C) Exergonic reactions release more energy than they absorb.
    D) In chemical reactions, breaking old bonds requires energy and forming new bonds releases energy.
    B) A key feature of the body's metabolism is the almost exclusive use of exergonic reactions by the body.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  58. Which of the following is not a role of molecular chaperonins?

    A) aid the desired folding and association process of polypeptides
    B) act as a biological catalyst
    C) help to translocate proteins and certain metal ions across cell membranes
    D) prevent accidental, premature, or incorrect folding of polypeptide chains
    E) promote the breakdown of damaged or denatured proteins
    B) act as a biological catalyst
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  59. Which of the following statements is false?

    A) Chemical reactions proceed more quickly at higher temperatures.
    B) Catalysts increase the rate of chemical reactions.
    C) Larger particles move faster than smaller ones and thus collide more frequently and more forcefully.
    D) Chemical reactions progress at a faster rate when the reacting particles are present in higher numbers.
    C) Larger particles move faster than smaller ones and thus collide more frequently and more forcefully.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  60. Which protein types are vitally important to cell function in all types of stressful circumstances?

    A) regulatory proteins
    B) catalytic proteins
    C) molecular chaperones
    D) structural proteins
    C) molecular chaperones
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  61. Which property of water is demonstrated when we sweat?

    A) reactivity
    B) high heat of vaporization
    C) polar solvent properties
    D) cushioning
    E) high heat capacity
    B) high heat of vaporization
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  62. The atomic number is equal to the number of ________.
    protons (and electrons)
  63. Molecules such as methane that are made of atoms that share electrons have ________ bonds.
    covalent
  64. An atom with three electrons would have a valence of ________.
    one
  65. AB → A + B is an example of a(n) ________ reaction.
    decomposition
  66. ________ have a bitter taste, feel slippery, and are proton acceptors.
    Bases
  67. A holoenzyme is composed of an apoenzyme and a(n) ________.
    cofactor
  68. In a DNA molecule, guanine would connect to ________.
    cytosine
  69. The ________ molecule directly provides energy for cellular work.
    ATP
  70. Hydrogen bonds are more like a type of weak ________ than true bonds.
    attraction
  71. Weak acids and bases make good ________.
    buffers
  72. Starch is the stored carbohydrate in plants, while ________ is the stored carbohydrate in animals.
    glycogen
  73. How many phosphates would AMP have attached to it?
    one
  74. Which metals have a toxic effect on the body?
    heavy
  75. The atomic weight is only an average of relative weights of an atom and its isotopes, and it may vary from the weight of a specific isotope. True or False
    True
  76. Emulsions and colloids are the same thing. True or False
    True
  77. Chemical properties are determined primarily by neutrons. True or False
    False
  78. A charged particle is generally called an ion. True or False
    True
  79. Isotopes differ from each other only in the number of electrons contained. True or False
    False
  80. About 60 to 80% of the volume of most living cells consists of organic compounds. True or False
    False
  81. Lipids are a poor source of stored energy. True or False
    False
  82. Current information theorizes that Omega-3 fatty acids decrease the risk of heart disease. True or False
    True
  83. Glucose is an example of a monosaccharide. True or False
    True
  84. A molecule consisting of one carbon atom and two oxygen atoms is correctly written as CO2. True or False
    True
  85. The lower the pH, the higher the hydrogen ion concentration. True or False
    True
  86. Covalent bonds are generally less stable than ionic bonds. True or False
    False; more
  87. Hydrogen bonds are comparatively strong bonds. True or False
    False; weak
  88. The fact that no chemical bonding occurs between the components of a mixture is the chief difference between mixtures and compounds. True or False
    True
  89. Alpha particles, although relatively weak energy particles, are second only to smoking as a cause of lung cancer. True or False
    True
  90. No chemical bonding occurs between the components of a mixture. True or False
    True
  91. All organic compounds contain carbon. True or False
    True
  92. A dipeptide can be broken into two amino acids by dehydration synthesis. True or False
    False; hydration

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