Bio 108 Final

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Author:
jpham
ID:
215938
Filename:
Bio 108 Final
Updated:
2013-05-11 23:48:22
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EID
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Description:
Emerging Infectious Diseases Unit 4
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  1. Black Death
    • 14th century Europe
    • Typically thought to be Y. pestis
    • Medical records show people were dying too quickly (3-4 days) w/out buboes or fever
  2. Murrain
    • Anthrax in cows
    • Cattle boom in 14th century
    • Infected meat sold in market places
  3. Connection between Murrain and Black Plauge
    • Anthrax spores found in pits of plague victims
    • 1340 evidence of spores jumping from cows to humans
    • Early stages of plague and anthrax look the same
    • Black Death was most likely more anthrax than plague
  4. Bacillus anthracis
    • Anthrax bacterium
    • rod shaped, prefers lymph
    • Bacillaceae: Gram +
    • Discovered by Koch 1876
    • Spore forming (very hardy)
  5. Bacillus anthracis life cycle
    • Usually cow parasite (human infection are incidental)
    • Cows eat spores in grass
    • Bacteria multiply, produce toxin, kill host
    • Carcass opens, spores form
    • Liquid leaches into soil
    • Liquid dries, spores are left
  6. Anthrax Toxins
    • Exotoxins: released outside of cell
    • 3 main toxins
  7. Protective Antigen
    • Not actually a toxin--> precursor to other toxins
    • 2 parts
    • 83kD (764 amino acid)
    • Used in vaccine
  8. PA steps of Activity
    • 1) Binds to host receptor
    • -ATR (anthrax toxin receptor)
    • -CMG2 (capillary morphogenesis protein 2)
    •     -capillary formation
    • 2) Cleaved by host cell protease to be 63kD
    • 3) Repeats 6 times
    • 4) 7 parts bind together (heptamerize) to form pore on cell surface
    • 5) Pore binds to one of the other 2 toxins to allow entry into cell
  9. Edema Factor (EF)
    • 800 amino acids
    • Causes cAMP level to rise
    • -messes with cell energy level
  10. Lethal Factor
    • 809 amino acids
    • Cleaves MAPKK: interferes with cell signals and energy
    • Macrophages hit especially hard (causes cell lysis)
  11. Transmission
    • Cutaneous (wool sorter's disease, soil, biting flies: vegetative not spore)
    • Gastrointestinal
    • Inhalation 
    • No person-to-person
    • Incubation ~7 days

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