Micro II Exam 7

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Micro II Exam 7
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Micro II Exam 7
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  1. single-celled eucaryotic organisms
    yeasts
  2. reproduce by budding
    yeasts
  3. multi-cellular eucaryotic organisms
    molds
  4. they grow in slender thread-like strands call hyphae
    molds
  5. a visible mass of hyphae growing together
    • mycelium
    • molds
  6. reproduce by conidia (asexual) or zygote formation (sexual)
    molds
  7. any infection of the skin, hair, or nails with a fungus
    dermatomycosis
  8. most often refers to ringworm, athlete's foot, jock itch or tinea infections
    dermatomycosis
  9. caused by the genera:
        Epidermophyton
        Microsporum
        Trichophyton

    all are molds
    dermatomycosis
  10. transmitted via direct contact with infected people or pets
    dermatomycosis
  11. most often affects children under 12 years of age
    dermatomycosis
  12. caused by a mold called Coccidioides immitis
    Coccidioidomycosis
  13. a normal flora organism of the soil
    Coccidioidomycosis
  14. transmitted via inhalation of dust containing the spores
    Coccidioidomycosis
  15. causes influenza-like infection with:
       cough
       painful breathing
       malaise
       loss of appetite
    Coccidioidomycosis
  16. may disseminate to the rest of the body, often causing a form of meningitis
    Coccidioidomycosis
  17. caused by Histoplasma capsulatum
    Histoplasmosis
  18. a dimorphic organism
    Histoplasmosis
  19. it grows as a yeast above 350C and a mold below
    Histoplasmosis
  20. the most common respiratory disease caused by a fungus
    Histoplasmosis
  21. the organism is most often found in the soil especially that contaminated with bird or bat droppings
    Histoplasmosis
  22. transmitted via inhalation
    Histoplasmosis
  23. asymptomatic in most cases
    Histoplasmosis
  24. symptomatic cases range from mild respiratory infection with fever to a lethal disseminated (spread throughout the body) infection
    Histoplasmosis
  25. most common in the Mississippi, Missouri & Ohio river valleys
    Histoplasmosis
  26. caused by Candida albicans
    Candidiasis
  27. a normal flora organism
    Candidiasis
  28. most often causes thrush & vaginal yeast infection
    Candidiasis
  29. may also disseminate throughout the body where it settles in the lungs
    Candidiasis
  30. can be fatal
    Candidiasis
  31. caused by Cryptococcus neoformans
    Cryptococcosis
  32. most often found in the soil especially that contaminated with pigeon droppings
    Cryptococcosis
  33. affects the lungs first but then spreads to the central nervous system
    Cryptococcosis
  34. causes a very deadly form of Meningitis
    Cryptococcosis
  35. a very serious condition in immunocompromised individuals
    Cryptococcosis
  36. caused by Aspergillus sp.
    Aspergillosis
  37. common in decaying vegetation, particularly common in the agriculture industry
    Aspergillosis
  38. the condition resembles TB & is often misdiagnosed
    Aspergillosis
  39. affects immunocompromised individuals most often
    Aspergillosis
  40. caused by Blastomyces dermatitidis
    Blastomycosis
  41. a dimorphic organism
    Blastomycosis
  42. it grows as a mold in the soil & as a yeast in tissue
    Blastomycosis
  43. it forms a lesion in the lung that is granulomatous & suppurative in nature
    Blastomycosis
  44. also often misdiagnosed as TB
    Blastomycosis
  45. if untreated, it will rapidly prove fatal
    Blastomycosis
  46. causes Pneumocystic pneumonia
    Pneumocystis jirovecii (carinii)
  47. this is not a pathogen of healthy humans
    Pneumocystis jirovecii (carinii)
  48. it affects only immunocompromised individuals
    Pneumocystis jirovecii (carinii)
  49. characterized by fever, nonproductive cough and shortness of breath
    Pneumocystis jirovecii (carinii)
  50. can lead to death by respiratory failure
    Pneumocystis jirovecii (carinii)
  51. often seen as a determining factor for an AIDS diagnosis
    Pneumocystis jirovecii (carinii)
  52. Eucaryotic single celled animals
    Protozoa
  53. may exist as free-living organisms or as parasites of a living host
    Protozoa
  54. differ from other parasites in that they are small enough to necessitate the use of a microscope whereas the others are macroscopic
    Protozoa
  55. causes Amebiasis (Amebic dysentery)
    Entamoeba histolytica
  56. most cases are asymptomatic
    Entamoeba histolytica
  57. most common in developing countries with poor sanitation conditions
    Entamoeba histolytica
  58. transmitted via the fecal-oral route
    Entamoeba histolytica
  59. has two stages to its life cycle
    Entamoeba histolytica
  60. Entamoeba histolytica has two stages to its life cycle
    • 1. cyst stage
    • 2. vegetative state
    •     trophozoite
  61. this is the form that is passed from the intestine and then reintroduced into another host
    Cyst stage
  62. this is the stage that occurs in the intestines of a host
    • vegetative state
    • trophozoite
  63. feeds on the contents of the intestine as well as the tissue of the intestinal wall
    • vegetative state
    • trophozoite
  64. this is what leads to the symptoms of amoebiasis:
         abdominal pain
         fever
         bloody mucoid stool
    • vegetative state
    • trophozoite
  65. may spread to other parts of the body
         most commonly the liver
    • vegetative state
    • trophozoite
  66. causes Giardiasis
    Giardia Iamblia
  67. a common gastrointestinal disturbance
    Giardia Iamblia
  68. transmitted in water contaminated with fecal matter from an infected individual or by person-to-person contact
    Giardia Iamblia
  69. the latter occurs often in institutional settings like daycare centers & nursing homes
    Giardia Iamblia
  70. campers and hikers tend to be at heightened risk
    Giardia Iamblia
  71. has a cyst stage and a trophozoite stage
    Giardia Iamblia
  72. the most common symptoms are:
    Diarrhea
    abdominal cramps
    increased gas
    bloating
    weight loss
    weakness
    foul greasy stools
    Giardia Iamblia
  73. causes malaria
    Plasmodium malariae
  74. transmitted to humans via the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito
    Plasmodium malariae
  75. has a multiple phase life cycle as well
    Plasmodium malariae
  76. reproduces asexually in humans
    Plasmodium malariae
  77. reproduces sexually in the salivary glands of the mosquito
    Plasmodium malariae
  78. is passed back and forth between humans & mosquitoes
    Plasmodium malariae
  79. the protozoa localize in the erythrocytes of the human host

    causes their destruction

    possibly to the point of anemia
    Plasmodium malariae
  80. the disease is characterized by alternating periods of chills and fever
    Plasmodium malariae
  81. once attempted to control the disease by controlling the mosquito vector with insecticides
    Plasmodium malariae
  82. causes toxoplasmosis
    Toxoplasma gondii
  83. infections of the eye and brain in immunocompromised individuals
    Toxoplasma gondii
  84. asymptomatic in most other cases
    Toxoplasma gondii
  85. Toxoplasma gondii transmitted in two ways:
    • 1. by eating meat that contains tissue cycts
    • 2. by ingesting oocysts that have been excreted by an infected cat
  86. causes trichinosis
    Trichinella sporalis
  87. an intestinal disturbance while the worms are still in the intestine
    trichinosis
  88. trichinosis charateristics:
    • nausea
    • diarrhea
    • vomiting
    • fatigue
    • fever
    • abdominal discomfort
  89. a more systemic infection as the worms encyst in other areas of the body

    trichinosis
    • 1. headaches
    • 2. fevers
    • 3. chills
    • 4. cough
    • 5. eye swelling
    • 6. aching joints and muscle pains
    • 7. pinpoint hemorrhages
    • 8. itchy skin
    • 9. heightened numbers of white blood cells
  90. transmitted by eating undercooked meat, usually pork
    trichinosis
  91. the worms survive by invading a cell and using the cell much like a virus
    trichinosis
  92. occurs mainly in muscle cells
    trichinosis
  93. A normal flora organism of the soil.
    Coccidioides immitis
  94. A normal flora fungus of humans.
    Candida albicans
  95. Affects only immunocompromised individuals.
    Pneumocystic pneumonia
  96. Affects the lungs then spreads to the central nervous system.
    Cryptococcus neoformans
  97. Anopheles mosquito.
    Plasmodium malariae
  98. Are the three genera of fungi that cause dermatomycosis molds or yeasts?
    molds
  99. Campers and hikers are at heightened risk.
    Giardia lamblia
  100. Causes a deadly form of meningitis.
    Cryptococcus neoformans
  101. Causes an influenza-like infection with cough, painful breathing, malaise, and loss of appetite.
    Coccidioides immitis
  102. Causes infections of the eye and brain immunocompromised individuals.
    Toxoplasma gondii
  103. Common in decaying vegetation.
    Aspergillus sp.
  104. Dessemination to the entire body often leads to a form of meningitis.
    Cryptococcus neoformans
  105. Disease is characterized by alternating periods of chills and fever.
    • malaria
    • Plasmodium malariae
  106. Eucaryotic single-celled animals.
    Yeasts
  107. Explain the dimorphism of Blastomyces dermatitidis.
    it grows as a mold in the soil and as a yeast in tissue
  108. Explain the dimorphism of Histoplasma capsulatum.
    it grows as a yeast above 35oC and as a mold below
  109. Feeds on the contents of the intestine and the tissues of the intestinal wall.
    • Entamoeba histolytica
    • vegetative state called a trophozoite
  110. Forms a lesion that is granulomatous and suppurative in nature.
    Blastomyces dermatitidis
  111. Found in soil contaminated with bird or bat droppings.
    Histoplasma capsulatum
  112. Found in soil contaminated with pigeon droppings.
    Cryptococcus neoformans
  113. Has a cyst stage and a trophozoite stage.(2)
    • Entamoeba histolytica
    • Giardia lamblia
  114. How do molds grow?
    in slender thread-like strands called hyphae
  115. Is reproduction by conidia sexual or asexual?
    asexual
  116. ls reproduction by zygote formation sexual or asexual?
    sexual
  117. Localizes in the erythrocytes of the human host.
    Plasmodium malariae
  118. Most common in the Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio river valleys.
    Histoplasma capsulatum
  119. Multi-cellular eukaryotic organisms.
    Molds
  120. NOT a pathogen of healthy humans.
    Pneumocystis jirovecii (carinii)
  121. Often affects the agricultural industry.
    Aspergillus sp.
  122. Often occurs in institutional settings like daycare centers and nursing homes.
    Giardia lamblia
  123. Reproduce by conidia.
    Molds
  124. Reproduce by zygote formation.
    Molds
  125. Reproduces sexually and asexually.
    • Molds
    • Plasmodium malariae
  126. Resembles tuberculosis. (2)
    • Blastomyces dermatitidis
    • Aspergillus sp.
  127. Seen as a determining factor for an AIDS diagnosis.
    • pneumocystic pneumonia
    • Pneumocystis jirovecii (carinii)
  128. Single-celled eukaryotic organisms.
    Yeasts
  129. The most common respiratory disease caused by a fungus.
    Histoplasma capsulatum
  130. Transmitted by eating meat contaminated with the cysts.
    Toxoplasma gondii
  131. Transmitted by ingesting oocysts excreted by an infected cat.
    Toxoplasma gondii
  132. Transmitted in water contaminated with fecal matter.
    Giardia lamblia
  133. What are the three genera of fungi that cause dermatomycosis?
    • 1. Epidermaphyton
    • 2. Microsporum
    • 3. Trichophyton

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