Medical procedures

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lhills
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Medical procedures
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2013-04-28 18:29:45
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Medical procedures
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  1. anastomosis
    connection between two vessels; surgical joining of two ducts, blood vessels, or bowel segments to allow flow from one to the other
  2. cauterize
    process of burning abnormal tissue with electricity, freezing, heat, or chemicals (silver nitrate)

    cauterization is usually performed to destroy damaged or diseased tissues or coagulating blood vessels
  3. scan
    technique for carefully studying an area, organ or system of the body by recording and displaying an image of that area

    concentration of a radioactive substance that has an affinity for a specific tissue may be administered intravenously to enhance the image.  The liver, brain, and thyroid can be examined; tumors can be located; and function can be evaluated by various scanning techniques
  4. diagnostic technique that produces an image of an organ or area by recording the concentration of a radiopharmaceutical (the combination of a radioactive substance called a radionuclide and another chemical) introduced into the body (ingested, inhaled, or injected)
    nuclear scan

    a scanning device detects the shape, size, location, and function of the organ or structure under study.  It provides information about the structure and the function of an organ or system.  There is a variety of nuclear scans, such as bone scans, liver scans, and brain scans
  5. radiographic technique that uses a fluorescent screen instead of a photographic plate to produce a visual image from x-rays that pass through the patient, resulting in continuous imaging of the motion of internal structures and immediate serial images
    flouroscopy

    fluroscopy is invaluable in diagnostic and clinical procedures.  It permits the radiographer to observe organs, such as the digestive tract and heart, in motion.  It is also used during biopsy surger, nasogastric tube placement, and catheter insertion during angiography.
  6. visual examination of the interior of organs and cavities with a specialized lighted instrument called an endoscope.
    endoscopy can also be used to obtain tissue samples for biopsy, perform surgery, and follow the course of a disease as in the assessment of the healing of gastric ulcers.  The cavity or organ examined dictates the name of the endoscopic procedure.  A camera and the video recorder are commonly used during this procedure to provide a permanent record.
  7. radiographic technique that uses electromagnetic energy to produce multiplanar cross-sectional images of the body
    MRI does not require a contrast medium; however one may be used to enhance visualization of internal structures.  MRI is regarded as superior to CT for most CNS abnormalities, particularly abnormalities of the brainstem and spinal cord, and musculoskeletal and pelvic area abnormalities

    • -in the respiratory system, MRI is used to produce a scan of the chest and lungs.
    • -identify abnormalities of pituitary, pancreatic, adrenal and thyroid glands
  8. production of captured shadow images on photographic film through the action of ionizing radiation passing through the body from an external source
    radiography

    soft body tissues, such as the stomach or liver, appear black or gray on the radiograph; dense body tissues, such as bone, appear white on the radiograph, making it useful in diagnosing fractures.
  9. drug that contains a radioactive substance which travels to an area or a specific organ that will be scanned
    radiopharmaceutical

    types include diagnostic, research, and therapeutic
  10. radiographic technique that produces a film representing a detailed cross-section, or slice, of an area, tissue , or organ at a predetermined depth
    tomography is a valuable diagnostic tool for identifying space-occupying lesions, such as those found in the liver, brain, pancreas, and gallbladder.

    • types include:
    • computed (CT)
    • positron emission (PET)
    • single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)
  11. radiographic technique that uses a narrow beam of x-rays that rotates in a full arc around the patient to acquire multiple views of the body that a computer interprets to produce cross-sectional images of that body part
    Computed tomography

    CT scans are used to detect tumor masses, bone displacement, and accumulations of fluid, CT may be administered with or without a contrast medium

    • -used to detect lesions in the lungs and thorax, blood clots, and pulmonary embolism (PE)
    • -used to view gallbladder, liver, bile ducts, and pancreas and diagnose tumors, cysts, inflammation, absceses, perforation, bleeding, and obstructions.
    • -used to diagnose kidney, ureter, and bladder tumors, cysts;
  12. radiographic technique combining computed tomography with radiopharmaceuticals that produces a cross-sectional (transverse) image of the dispersement of radioactivity (through emission of positrons) in a section of the body to reveal the areas where the radiopharmaceutical is being metabolized and where there is a deficiency in metabolism
    positron emission tomography (PET) is a type of nuclear scan used to diagnose disorders, such as brain tumors, epilepsy, stroke, Alzheimer disease, and abdominal and pulmonary disorders
  13. type of nuclear imaging study that scans organs after injection of a radioactive tracer and employs a specialized gamma camera that detects emitted radiation to produce a 3-dimensional image from a composite of numerous views
    single-photon emission computed tomography differs from PET in that the chemical substance stay in the bloodstream instead of being absorbed into the surrounding tissues.  Organs commonly studied by SPECT scans include the brain, heart, lungs, liver, spleen, bones, and joints
  14. removal of a small piece of living tissue from an organ or other part of the body for microscopic examination to confirm or establish a diagnosis, estimate prognosis, or follow the course of a disease
    Biopsy

    types include needle, punch, shave, and frozen section
  15. method for determining induced sensitivity (allergy) by applying or inoculating a suspected allergen or sensitizer into the skin and determining sensitivity (allergy) to the specific antigen by an inflammatory skin reaction to it
    skin test

    intradermal, patch, and scratch tests
  16. use of subfreezing temperature, commonly with liquid nitrogen, to destroy abnormal tissue cells, such as unwanted, cancerous, or infected tissue
    cryosurgery
  17. treatment that involves removal of foreign material and dead or damaged tissue, especially in a wound, and is used to promote healing and prevent infection
    debridement
  18. process in which high-frequency electrical sparks are used to dehydrate and destroy disease tissue
    electrodessication
  19. incision of a lesion, such as an abscess, followed by the drainage of its contents
    incision and drainage (I&D)
  20. surgical procedure to transplant healthy tissue by applying it to an injured site
    Skin graft

    allograft, autograft, synthetic, xenograft
  21. transplantation of healthy tissue from one person to another person;
    allograft; aka homograft

    skin donor is usually a cadaver.  This type of skin graft is usually temporary and is used to protect the patient against infection and fluid loss.  The allograft is frozen and stored in a skin bank until needed.
  22. transplantation of healthy tissue from one site to another site in the same individual
    autograft
  23. transplantation of artificial skin produced from collagen fibers arranged in a lattice pattern
    synthetic skin graft

    the recipient's body does not reject the synthetic skin and healing skin grows into it as the graft gradually disintigrates
  24. transplantation (only dermis) from a foreign donor (usually a pig) and transferred to a human
    xenograft; aka heterograft

    used as a temporary graft to protect the patient against infection and fluid loss
  25. procedure that repairs damaged skin, acne scars, fine or deep wrinkles, or tattoos or improves skin tone irregularities through the use of topical chemicals, abrasion, or laser
    Skin resurfacing

    chemical peel, cutaneous laser, dermabrasion
  26. use of chemicals to remove outer layers of skin to treat acne scarring and general karatoses as well as cosmetic purposes to remove fine wrinkles on the face
    chemical peel; aka chemabrasion
  27. any of several laser treatments employed for cosmetic and plastic surgery
    cutaneous laser
  28. removal of acne scars, nevi, tattoos, or fine wrinkles on the skin through the use of sandpaper, wire brushes, or other abrasive materials on the epidermal layer
    dermabrasion
  29. measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide content of arterial blood by various methods
    arterial blood gas (ABG)

    ABG analysis is used to assess adequacy of ventilation and oxygenation and the acid-base status of the body
  30. visual examination of the interior bronchi using a bronchoscope, a flexible fiberoptic instrument with a light, which can be inserted through the nose or mouth
    bronchoscopy may be performed to remove obstructions, obtain a biopsy specimen, or observe directly for pathological changes
  31. radiograph of the chest taken from the AP, PA or lateral projections
    chest x-ray is used to diagnose atelectasis, tumors, pneumonia, emphysema, and many other lung disease
  32. variety of tests to determine the capacity of the lungs to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide efficiently
    pulmonary function tests (PFTs)

    forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), spirometry
  33. measurement of the amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled from the lungs after the deepest inhalation
    forced vital capacity (FVC)
  34. measurement of the volume of air that can be forcefully exhaled during the first second of measuring the FVC
    forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)
  35. measurement of FVC & FEV1 producing a tracing on a graph
    spirometry measures the breathing capacity of the lungs and produces a tracing on a graph
  36. use of body positioning to assist in removal of secretions from specific lobes of the lung, bronchi, or lung cavities
    postural drainage
  37. insertion of a catheter into the heart through a vein or artery, usually of an arm (brachial approach) or leg (femoral approach) to provide evaluation of the heart
    cardiac catheterization (CC)

    during CC, the cardiologist may also inject a contrast medium and take x-rays (angiography). cardiac catheterization is used mainly in diagnosing and evaluating congenital, rheumatic, and coronary artery lesions, including myocardial infarction
  38. battery of blood tests performed to determine the presence of cardiac damage
    cardiac enzyme studies
  39. use of ultrasound to evaluate the heart and great vessels and diagnose cardiovascular lesions
    echocardiography
  40. creation and study of graphic records (electrocardiograms) produced by electric activity generated by the heart muscle
    electrocardiography; aka cardiography

    ECG is analyzed by a cardiologist and is valuable in diagnosing cases of abnormal heart rhythm and myocardial damage
  41. monitoring device worn by a patient that records prolonged electrocardiograph readings (usually 24 hours) on a portable tape recorder while the patient conducts normal daily activities
    Holter monitor provides a record of cardiac arrhythmia that would not be discovered by means of an ECG of only a few minutes' duration.  The patient keeps an activity diary to compare daily events with electrocardiograph tracings
  42. ECG taken under controlled exercise stress conditions (typically using a treadmill) while measuring the amount of oxygen consumption
    stress tests may show abnormal ECG tracings that do not appear during an ECG taken when the patient is resting

    • nuclear stress test: utilizes a radioisotope to evaluate coronary blood flow
    • -the radioscope is injected at the height of exercise.  The area not receiving sufficient oxygen is visualized by decreased uptake of the isotope
  43. blood test that measures protein released into the blood by damaged heart muscle (not skeletal muscle)
    troponin I test is a highly sensitive and specific indicator of recent myocardial infarction (MI)
  44. imaging technique that records high-frequency waves bouncing off body tissues and uses a computer to process those waves to produce an image of an internal organ or tissue
    ultrasonography

    doppler ultrasonography measures blood flow in blood vessels.  It allows the examiner to hear characteristic alterations in blood flow caused by vessel obstruction in various parts of an extremity
  45. removal of living bone marrow tissue, usually taken from the sternum or iliac crest, for microscopic examination
    bone marrow aspiration biopsy evaluates hematopoiesis by revealing the number, shape, and size of RBCs, WBCs, and platelet precursors
  46. blood test used to screen for an antibody to the aids virus
    ELISA

    positive outcome on this test indicates probably virus exposure and is confirmed with the western blot test, which is more specific
  47. radiographic examination of lymph glands and lymphatic vessels after an injection of a contrast medium
    lymphangiography

    used to show the path of lymph flow as it moves into the chest region
  48. technique used to determine the histocompatibility of tissues used in grafts and transplants with the recipient's tissues and cell;
    tissue typing aka histocompatibility testing
  49. any endovascular procedure that reopens narrowed blood vessels and restores forward blood flow, usually using balloon dilatin
    angioplasty
  50. procedure in which a surgeon removes one or more of a patient's peripheral veins and then sutures each end of the vein onto the coronary artery to route blood flow around a blockage in a coronary artery, thus increasing blood flow to the heart
    Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
  51. delivery of brief discharges of electricity that pass across the chest to stop a cardiac arrhythmia and restore normal sinus rhythm;
    cardioversion aka defibrillation

    a defibrillator is the electrical device used for cardioversion
  52. device designed to administer a defibrillating electric shock to restore normal sinus rhythm
    defribillator

    automatic implantable cardioverter- defibrillator (AICD) and automatic external defibrillator (AED)
  53. surgically implanted defibrillator that automatically detects and corrects potentially fatal arrhythmias, such as ventricular fibrillations
    • automatic implantable cardioverter- defibrillator (AICD)
    • usually implanted in the chest, in a patient who is at high risk for developing a serious arrhythmia.  It has leads (wires) that go to the heart, sense its rhythm, and deliver an electrical shock if needed
  54. portable computerized defibrillator that analyzes the patient's heart rhythm and delivers an electrical shock to stimulate a heart in cardiac arrest
    • automatic external defibrillator (AED)
    • kept on emergency response vehicles and in public places.  designed to be used by trained first-responder personnel or laypeople.
  55. surgical removal of the lining of an artery
    endarterectomy is performed on almost any major artery that is diseased or blocked, such as the carotid or femoral artery
  56. surgical removal of plaque and thromboses from an occluded carotid artery
    carotid endarterectomy can reduce the risk of stroke when it is performed on a patient with moderate or sever stenoses fo the artery, with or without a history of transient ischemic attacks (TIA)
  57. chemical injection into a varicose vein that causes inflammation and formation of fibrous tissue, which closes the vein
    sclerotherapy

    when a vein closes, it can no longer fill with blood.  In a few weeks the treated varicose vein fades
  58. plastic or restorative surgery on a valve, especially a cardiac valve
    valvuloplasty

    balloon valvuloplasty invloves insertion of a balloon catheter to open a stenotic heart valve.  Inflation of the balloon decreases the constriction
  59. removal of a lymph vessel
    lymphangiectomy
  60. radiographic examination of the rectum and colon after administration of barium sulfate (radiopaque contrast medium) into the rectum
    barium enema (BE)

    used for diagnosis of obstruction, tumors, or other abnormalities, such as ulcerative colitis
  61. radiographic examination of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine after oral administration of sulfate
    barium swallow; aka upper GI series

    structural abnormalities of the esophagus and vessels, such as esophageal varices may be diagnosed using this technique
  62. visual examination of a cavity or canal using a specialized lighted instrument called an endoscope
    endoscopy

    Upper GI:
    endoscopy of the esophagus (esophagoscopy), stomach (gastroscopy), and duodenum

    • lower GI: endoscopy of colon (colonoscopy), sigmoid colon (sigmoidoscopy), & rectum & anal canal (proctoscopy)
    • -identifies pathological conditions in the colon, removes polyps
  63. test performed on feces using the reagent gum guaiac to detect presence of blood in feces that is not apparent on visual inspection;
    stool guaiac; aka hemoccult test
  64. group of procedures that treat morbid obesity
    bariatric surgery

    vertical banded gastroplasty: upper stomach near the esophagus is stapled vertically to reduce it to a small pouch and a band is inserted that restricts and delays food from leaving the pouch, causing a feeling of fullness

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RGB): stomach stapled to decrease it to a small pouch and then the jejunum is shortened and connected to the small stomach pouch, causing the base of the duodenum leading from the nonfunctioning portion of the stomach to form a Y configuration, which decreases the pathway of food through the intestine, thus reducing absorption of calories and fats
  65. procedure for eliminating a stone within the gallbladder or urinary system by crushing the stone surgically or using a noninvasive method, such as ultrasonic shock waves, to shatter it
    lithotripsy (crushed fragments expelled or washed out)

    extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL): use of shock waves as a noninvasive method to destroy stones in the gallbladder
  66. insertion of nasogastric tube through the nose into the stomach
    nasogastric intubation is used to relieve gastric distention by removing gas, gastric secretions, or food.  It is also used to instill medication, food, or fluids or obtain a specimen for laboratory analysis
  67. lab test that measures the amount of urea in the blood and demonstrates the kidneys' ability to filter urea from the blood for excretion in urine
    Blood urea nitrogen (BUN)

    increase in BUN level may indicate impaired kidney function
  68. radiographic examination to determine the location, size, shape, and malformation of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder
    • kidney, ureter, bladder
    • KUB radiography may also detect stones and calcified areas
  69. radiographic study of the kidney, ureters, and bladder after injection of a contrast agent
    pyelography

    intravenous pyelography (IVP): contrast medium is injected intravenously and serial x-ray films (called pyelogram or urogram) are taken to provide visualization of the entire urinary tract. aka intravenous urography, or excretory urography (EU)

    retrograde pyelography (RP): contrast medium is introduced through cystoscope directly into the bladder and ureters using small-caliber catheters
  70. nuclear medicine imaging procedure that determines renal function and shape through measurement of a radioactive substance that is injected intravenously concentrates in the kidney
    renal scan
  71. physical, chemical, and microscopic evaluation of urine
    urinalysis
  72. radiography of the bladder and urethra after filling the bladder with a contrast medium and during the process of voiding urine
    voiding cystourethrography (VCUG)
  73. insertion of a catheter into a body cavity or organ to instill a substance or remove fluid, most commonly through the urethra into the bladder to withdraw urine
    catheterization
  74. mechanical filtering process used to cleanse blood of high concentrations of metabolic waste products, draw off excess fluids, and regulate body chemistry when kidneys fail to function properly
    dialysis

    hemodialysis
    : process of removing excess fluids & toxins from the blood by continually shunting the patient's blood from the body into a dialysis machine for filtering, and then returning the clean blood to the patient's body via tubes connected to the circulatory system

    peritoneal dialysis: dialysis in which the patient's own peritoneum is used as the dialyzing membrane
  75. organ transplant of a kidney in a patient with end-stage renal disease;
    • renal transplantation
    • or kidney transplantatin
  76. obstetric procedure that involves surgical puncture of the amniotic sac under ultrasound guidance to remove amniotic fluid
    amniocentesis - cells of the fetus found in the fluid are cultured and studied chmically and cytologically to detect genetic abnormalities etc.
  77. examination of the vagina and cervix with an optical magnifying instrument (colposcope)
    colposcopy is commonly performed after a Papanicolaou test to obtain biopsy specimens of the cervix
  78. radiographyof the uterus and oviducts after injection of a contrast medium
    hysterosalpingography
  79. visual examination of the abdominal cavity with a laparoscope through one or more small incisions in the abdominal wall, usually at the umbilicus
    laparoscopy

    used for inspection of the ovaries and fallopian tubes, diagnosis of endometriosis, destruction of uterine leiomymomas, myomectomy, and gynecologic steriliaztion
  80. radiography of breast; used to diagnose benign and malignant tumors
    mammography
  81. microscopic analysis of cells taken from the cervix and vagina to detect the presence of carcinoma
    Papanicolaou (pap) test
  82. examination of the prostate gland by finger palpation through the anal canal and the rectum
    digital rectal examination (DRE)
  83. blood test to screen for prostate cancer
    Prostate-specific antigen test (PSA)

    elevated levels are associated with prostate enlargement and cancer
  84. obstetric procedure in which a nonabsorbable suture is used for holding the cervix closed to prevent spontaneous abortion in a woman who has an incompetent cervix
    cerclage
  85. surgical procedure that widens the cervical canal of the uterus (dilation) so that the endometrium of the uterus can be scraped (curettage)
    dilation & curettage (D&C)

    performed to stop prolonged uterine bleeding, diagnose uterine abnormalities
  86. surgical removal of a uterus, fallopian tube and ovary
    hysterosalpingooophorectomy
  87. excision of a small primary breast tumor and some of the normal tissue that surrounds it
    lumpectomy
  88. complete or partial excision of one or both breasts, most commonly performed to remove a malignant tumor
    mastectomy

    total (simple): excision of an entire breast, nipple, areola, and the involved overlying skin

    modified radical: excision of entire breast, and lymph nodes in the underarm; most common

    radical: excision of entire breast, all underarm lymph nodes, and chest wall muscles under the breast
  89. reconstruction of a breast that has been removed due to cancer or other disease
    reconstructive breast surgery

    tissue (skin) expansion, transverse rectus abdominus muscle (TRAM) flap
  90. sterilization procedure that involves blocking both fallopian tubes by cutting or burning them and tying them off
    tubal ligation
  91. surgical procedure to relieve obstruction caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia (excessive overgrowth of normal tissue) by insertion of a resectoscope into the penis and through the urethra to "chip-away" at prostatic tissue and flush out chips (using an irrigating solution)
    transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP)
  92. imaging procedure that measures level of radioactivity in the thyroid after oral or IV administration of radioactive iodine
    radioactive iodine uptake test is used to determine thyroid function by monitoring the thyroid's ability to take up iodine from the blood
  93. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis
    lab test where CSF is obtained from a lumbar puncture.  Elevated macroscopically for clarity & color, microscopically for cells and chemically for proteins and other substances

    normal CSF is clear and colorless
  94. insertion of a needle into the subarachnoid space of the spinal column at the level of the 4th intervertebral space to withdraw cerebral spinal fluid (CSF)
    • lumbar puncture
    • aka spinal tap or spinal puncture
  95. surgical removal of 1 or both adrenal glands to remove a benign or cancerous tumor, aid in correcting a hormone imbalance, prevent metastasis or, occasionally, prevent adrenal gland hormone excretion from exacerbating an existing condition such as breast cancer
    adrenalectomy
  96. surgical procedure that creates an opening in the skull to gain access to the brain during neurosurgical procedures
    craniotomy

    also performed to relieve intracranial pressure, control bleeding, or remove a tumor
  97. partial destruction of the thalamus to treat psychosis or intractable pain
    thalamotomy
  98. puncture of a joint space with a needle to remove fluid
    arthrocentesis
  99. blood test to detect the presence of rheumatoid factor
    rheumatoid factor
  100. surgical reconstruction or replacement of a painful degenerated joint to restore mobility in rheumatoid or osteoarthritis or to correct a congenital deformity
    arthroplasty
  101. excision of a sequestrum (segment of necrosed bone)
    sequestrectomy
  102. procedure used to detect glaucoma that measures intraocular pressure by determining the resistance of the eyeball to indentation by an applied force
    tonometry
  103. standard eye examination to determine the smallest letters a person can read on a Snellen chart at a distance of 20 feet
    visual acuity test
  104. audiometry
    test that measures hearing acuity at various sound frequencies
  105. visual examination of the external auditory canal and the tympanic membrane using an otoscope
    otoscopy

    pneumotic otoscopy: procedure that assess the ability of the tympanic membrane to move in response to a change in air pressure
  106. hearing acuity test performed with a vibrating tuning fork that is 1st placed on the mastoid process adn then in front of the external auditory canal to test bone and air conduction
    Rinne test
  107. excision of a lens affected by a cataract
    cataract surgery...central part of the lens is removed and replaced with an artificial intraocular lens (IOL) implant

    extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE):

    phacoemulsification: aka small incision cataract surgery (SICS)
  108. surgical transplantation of a donor cornea into the eye of a recipient
    • corneal transplant
    • or
    • keratoplasty
  109. excision of a portion of the iris used to relieve intraocular pressure in patients with glaucoma
    iridectomy
  110. electronic transmitter surgically implanted into the cochlea of a deaf person to restore hearing
    cochlear transplant
  111. surgical repair of a perforated eardurm with a tissue graft; also called tympanoplasty
    myringoplasty

    performed to correct hearing loss
  112. incision of the eardrum to relieve pressure and release pus or serous fluid from the middle ear or to insert PE tubes in the eardrum via surgery
    myringotomy

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