Urinalysis and Body Fluids

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  1. What is found in normal urine microscopic?
    • RBCs: 0-2/hpf
    • WBC: 0-2/hpf
    • Hyaline casts: 0-2/lpf
    • Epithelial cells: several
    • Some types of crystals
    • Mucus
  2. What is the clinical significance of finding RBCs in the urine microscopic?
    • Number of cells counted is related to the extent of renal damage, glomerular membrane damage, or urogenital tract vascular damage
    • Infections
    • Toxins
    • Cancer
    • Circulatory problems
    • Renal calculi
    • Mentrual contamination
    • Trauma
    • Exercise
  3. What is used to tell the difference between RBCs and yeast?
    Acetic acid will lyse RBCs but keep yeast intact
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  5. What conditions are associated with WBCs found in the microscopic of urines?
    • Infection of the urogenital tract
    • Bacterial infections
    • Pyelonephritis
    • Cystitis
    • Prostatis
    • Urethritis
    • Glomerulonephritis
    • Lupus
    • Tumors
  6. What conditions are associated with finding Eosinophils in the urine?
    • Drug-induced nephritis
    • Renal transplant rejection
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  8. Where are squamous epithelial cells normally found?
    Line the lower urethra and vagina in women
  9. What are epithelial cells that are covered with Gardnerella vaginalis called?
    Clue cells
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    Squamous epithelial cells
  11. Where are transitional epithelial cells found?
    Line the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and upper urethra in males
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    Transitional epithelial cells
  13. What is the clinical significance of finding renal epithelial cells in a urine microscopic?
    • Tubular injury is indicated when >5/hpf are present
    • Renal tubular necrosis is indicated when Bubble cells (renal tubular cells) that contain non-lipid filled vacuoles
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    Renal epithelial cells
  15. What are renal epithelial cells:
    That have absorbed lipids that are highly refractile Stain with Sudan III or Oil Red O
    May indicate nephrotic syndrome
    Oval fat bodies
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    Oval fat bodies
  17. What cells:
    Filled with fat
    Larger than oval fat bodies
    May indicate lipid storage disease
  18. Where are casts formed?
    Formed within the lumen of the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct
  19. What is the major constituent of casts and is poorly detected by reagent strip methods?
    Uromodulin (Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein)
  20. What cast:
    Most commonly seen
    0-5/lpf is normal
    Colorless, with varied morphology
    Associated with Acute glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, chronic renal disease, CHF
    Can be incrased following exercise, dehydration, heat, emotional stress
    Hyaline cast
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    Hyaline Cast
  22. What cast:
    Cellular cast containing erythrocytes
    Associated with bleeding within the nephron, damage to the glomerulus or renal capillaries as found in post-streptococcal infections
    RBC cast
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    RBC cast
  24. What cast:
    A cellular cast containing WBCs
    Associated with Infection (pyelonephritis) or inflammation within the nephron (acute interstitial nephritis)
    WBC cast
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    WBC cast
  26. What cast:
    Bacilli contained within the cast and bound to the surface
    Mixed cast containing bacteria and WBCs may occur
    Associated with pyelonephritis
    Bacterial cast
  27. What cast:
    Contains renal tubular epithelial cells
    Associated with advanced renal tubular damage, seen in heavy metal, chemical, or drug toxicity, viral infections, and allograft rejection
    Epithelial cell cast
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    Epithelial cast
  29. What cast:
    Has large or small granules
    Associated with glomerular precipatants
    • Granular casts
    • (Fine or coarse)
  30. What cast:
    High refractive index, colorless to yellow with a smooth appearance
    Can have cracks or fissures on the sides
    Contains surface protein, granules adhere to the cast matrix
    Formed from degeneration of granular casts
    Associated with chronic renal failure with significant urine stasis
    Waxy cast
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    Waxy cast
  32. What cast:
    Highly refractile, contains yellow-brown fat droplets
    Seen with oval fat bodies in disease states that result in lipiduria
    Associated with Nephrotic syndrome, toxic tubular necrosis, diabetes mellitus
    Fatty cast
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    Fatty cast
  34. What is:
    Not normally present in steril urine
    Associated with lower and upper UTIs
    Can be motile (tumbling or directional flagellar movement)
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  36. What is:
    Associated with UTI, vaginal infections, diabetes mellitus, and in immunocompromised individuals
    Also can have budding and hyphae present
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    Trichomonas vaginalis
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    • Pinworm ova
    • (Enterobius vermicularis)
  40. What is:
    Seen in urine following intercourse or nocturnal emissions
    Associated with forensic cases, male infertility, and retrograde ejaculation
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  42. What is:
    Threadlike structures with low refractive index
    Protein substance produced by the Renal Tubular Epithelial (RTE) cells and the urogenital glands
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Card Set:
Urinalysis and Body Fluids
2013-05-03 05:03:22
Microscopic Examination Urine

Microscopic Examination of Urine
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