Endocrine System

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laulauspille
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216014
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Endocrine System
Updated:
2013-04-27 02:26:19
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Endocrine system nNursing nNMIH201
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NMIH201 Principles of Episodic care science modules 2, endocrine system
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  1. Which of the choices below is NOT a factor required for target cell activation by hormone receptor ineraction?
    A) Type of hormone
    B) Number of receptors for that hormone
    C) Strength of the bond between the receptor and hormone
    D) Blood levels of hormone
    A) Type of hormone is NOT A factor required for target cell activation by hormone receptor interaction.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. Which of the following is true about calicum homeostasis?
    A) Parathyroid hormone is the single most important regulator of calcium levels in the blood.
    B) Parathyroid hormone causes an increase in osteoblast activity.
    C) High calicum levels cause bone resorption.
    D) Increased calcitonin levels will cause increased blood calcium levels.
    A) Parathyroid hormone is the single most important regulator of calcium levels in the blood.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. The neurohypophysis or posterior lobe of the pituitary gland is not a true endocrine gland because
    A) It is strictly a part of the neural system and has little or nothing to do with the hormonal release.
    B) Embryonically it was an endocrine tissue but in the adult human it is no longer functional
    C) It is unable to function as an endocrine tissue because it is actually part of the neural system due to its location
    D) It is the only hormone storage area that receives hormones from the hypothalamus for release
    D) The neurohypophysis or posterior lobe of the pituitary gland is not a true endocrine gland because it is only a hormone storage area that receives hormones from the hypothalamus for release.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. Thyroid horomoe exerts its influence by
    A) Acting to decrease basal metabolic rate
    B) Entering some cells and binding to intracellular receptors within the nuclei
    C) Causing a reduction in the number of blood vessels adrenergic receptors and therefor decreasing blood pressure
    D) Exerting only a minor effect on body metabolism
    B) Thyroid hormone exerts its influences by entering some cells and binding to intracellular receptors within the nuclei.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. The beta cells are the pancreatic islet cells that produce insulin
    True or False?
    True, the beta cells are the pacreatic islet cells that produce insulin.
  6. Regulating hormones form the hypothalamus

    A) Travel by arteries to the pituiary
    B) enter venous circulation and travel to the heart, which pumps the hormone containing blood to the pituitary
    C) Enter the hepatic portal system which feeds the pituitary
    D) First enter into the hypophyseal portal system
    D) Regulating hormones from the hypothalamus first enter into the hypophyseal portal system.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. The hormone that raises the blood sugar levels is insulin
    True or False?
    False, the hormone that raises the blood sugar levels is NOT insulin.

    NOTE: Glucagon is the hormone released by the alpha cells of the pancreas and it stimulates the liver into releasing glucose thereby raising the blood glucose levels
  8. A patient is losing weight rapidly, sweating profusely and is always anxious. The patient may be suffering from
    A) Cretinism
    B) Hypersecretion of calcitonin
    C) Hypothroidism
    D) Hyperthryoidism
    • D) Hyperthroidism
    • The thyroid gland is part of the endocrine system, which secretes regulatory hormones into the blood. The thyroid sits just below the
    • Adam's apple (larynx) and has two lobes, one on either side of the windpipe. This gland controls many vital metabolic processes, such as growth and energy expenditure.

    • An overactive thyroid is known as hyperthyroidism, and this condition
    • tends to affect women more than men. Around two in every 100 women will
    • experience some degree of hyperthyroidism. The most common cause is
    • Graves' disease, which is due to an immune system abnormality. Other
    • causes of an overactive thyroid include local inflammation (thyroiditis), nodules or lumps. There is no cure for hyperthyroidism,
    • but it can be successfully managed with treatments such as anti-thyroid medication.
  9. Sometimes prolonged excessive exposure to high hormone concentrations cause a phenomenon known as
    A) Down regulation
    B) Metabolism of protein kinases
    C) Cellular inhibition
    D) Diabetes mellitus
    Down regulation (A) is the phenomenon caused by prolonged excessive exposure to high hormone concentrations.
  10. The hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract

    A) Connects the hypophysis to the pituitary gland
    B) Conducts aldosterone to the hypophysis
    C) Is the site for prolactin synthesis
    D) Is partly contained within the infundibulum
    D) The hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract is partly contained in the infundibulum.

    Basically, the hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract is the axon connection that connects the posterior pituitary gland to the hypothalamus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. When the pancreas releases insulin in direct response to blood glucose, this is an example of ____ stimulation?
    A) Neural
    B) Negative feedback
    C) Hormonal
    D) Humoral
    D) Humoral stimulation is an example of when the pancreas releases insulin in direct response to blood glucose.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. ADH__________
    P.S ADH= Antidiuretic hormone

    A) Is inhibited by alcohol
    B) Promotes dehydration
    C) Is produced in the anterior pituitary
    D) Increases urine production
    A) ADH is inhibited by alcohol.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. Several hormones are synthesized in the hypothalamus and transported to the anterior pituitary gland. The mechanism of transportation from hypothalamus to anterior pituitary gland is through the_______

    A) General circulatory system
    B) Hypophyseal portal system
    C) Hepatic portal system
    D) Feedback loop
    • B) Several hormones are synthesized in the hypothalamus and transported to
    • the anterior pituitary gland. The mechanism of transportation fromĀ  hypothalamus to anterior pituitary gland is through the hypophyseal portal system.

    • Note: The hypophyseal portal system (or hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system)
    • is the system of blood vessels that links the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary. It allows endocrine communication between the two structures. The anterior pituitary receives releasing and inhibitory hormones in the blood. Using these the anterior pituitary is able to fulfill its function of regulating the other endocrine glands adenohypophysis is the anterior (glandular) lobe of the pituitary gland.
  14. The parathyroid glands maintain adequate levels of blood calcium. This is accomplished through

    A) Targeting the bone and activating osteoclasts so that calcium will be released
    B) Antagonizing the synthesis of calcitonin
    C) Slowing the activity of tissues that require calcium for activity
    D) Blocking the action of growth hormone
    A) The parathyroid glands maintain adequate levels of blood calcium. This is accomplished through targeting the bone and activating osteoclasts so that the calcium will be released.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. Normal development of the immune response is due in part to hormones produced by the___

    A) Thyroid gland
    B) Adrenal medulla
    C) Thymus Gland
    D) Pancreas
    C) Normal development of the immune response is due in part to the hormones produced by the thymus gland.

    Note: The thymus is a small gland situated in the chest cavity just behind the upper end of the sternum or breastbone. The thymus gland processes many of the white blood cells that are produced in the bone marrow and converts these cells into T-lymphocytes.These cells have a crucial role in defending the body against infection. They stimulate the production of antibodies by other
    lymphocytes and they also stimulate the growth and activity of the
    phagocytes, which are a form of scavenger cell that ingest invading viruses and bacteria. The thymus gland is at its largest size in the
    young infant and over the years it regresses in size. This reduction in size leads to reduced function in the gland.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. _______ is the adrenal hormone responsible for maintaining appropriate blood sodium levels.

    A) DHEA
    B) Aldosterone
    C) Epinephrine
    D) Cortisol
    B) Aldosterone is the adrenal hormone responsible for maintaining appropriate blood sodium levels.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. The ability of a specific tissue or organ to respond to the presence of a hormone is dependent upon______

    A) The presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the target tissue or organ.
    B) The membrane potential of the cells of the target organ
    C) The location of the tissue or organ with respect to the circulatory path
    D) Nothing, all hormones of the human body are able to stimulate any cell and all cell types because hormones are powerful and non specific
    A) The ability of a specific tissue or organ to respond to the presence of a hormone is dependent upon the presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the target tissue or organ.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. Gonadocorticoid(s)____________.
    A) Secretion inhibition is highly dependent on negative feedback loop involving ACTH.
    B) Hypersecretion can result in adrenogenital syndrome also called feminization.
    C) Synthesized by the adrenal medulla are primarily androgens.
    D) Production by the adrenal gland is insignificant compared with sex hormone release from the gonads during late puberty.
    D) Gonadocorticoid production by the adrenal gland is insignificant compared with sex hormone relase from the hoands during late puberty.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. The major targets of growth hormone are___
    A) Bones and skeletal muscles
    B) The blood vessels
    C) The adrenal glands
    D) The liver
    A) THe major targets of growth hormone are bones and skeletal muscles.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. Common secretion of the thyroid gland is (are) ___?
    A) Calcitonin
    B) Thyroxine
    C) Triiodothyronine
    D) All of the above
    D) Common secretion of the thyroid gland are calcitonin, thyroxin and triiodothyronine.
  21. Which of the following is NOT a cardinal sign of diabetes mellitus?

    A) All of these are signs
    B) Polyuria- Frequent urination
    C) Polydipsia- Excessive thirst
    D) Polyphagia- Excessive hunger or eating
    Note: a cardinal sign or cardinal symptom is the primary or major clinical sign symptom by which a diagnosis is made
    A) All of these are cardinal signs of diabetes mellitus.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. How do glucocorticoids enable the body to deal appropriately with stress?
    A) By increasing blood glucose, fatty acid and amino acid levels and enhancing blood pressue
    B) By decreasing the heart rate, thus decreasing blood pressure
    C) By blocking the neurotransmitters that prepare the body for the stree response
    D) By stimulating the pancreas to release insulin
    A) Glucocorticoids enable the body to deal appropriately with stress by increasing blood glucose, fatty acid and amino acid levels and enhancing blood pressure.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. Along with the sympathetic nervous system, the ____ is the other primary mediator of acute stress.
    A) Zona reticularis
    B) Adrenal medulla
    C) Zona glomerulosa
    D) Adrenal cortex
    B) Along with the sympathetic nervous system, the adrenal medulla is the other primary mediator of acute stress.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. The secretion of ___ helps regulate our circadian rhythms.
    A) Estrogen
    B) Throid hormones
    C) Testosterone
    D) Melatonin
    • D) The secretion of melatonin helps regulate our circardian rhythms.
    • NOTE: The signals our body clock produces are called circadian rhythms. Circadian describes the changing levels of hormones and neurochemicals that control our sleep, activity and mood. When our body clock misses critical zeitgebers (body signals) such as bright morning light or evening darkness, its rhythm may shift, and as a result, your body will produce hormones at the wrong time, or stop producing the right amounts.
    • When your sleep or mood suffers, you may likely have a circadian rhythm problems.
    • Melatonin is a hormone that helps regulate sleep. It also appears to influence other hormones in the body.Melatonin is made from an amino acid called tryptophan. When our
    • surroundings are dark, the SCN tells the pineal gland to produce melatonin, which is thought to trigger sleep. Some melatonin is also made in the stomach and intestines.
  25. Which of the following is NOT a category of endocrine gland stimulus?
    A) Humoral
    B) Hormonal
    C) Neural
    D) Enzyme
    D) Enzyme is not a category of endocrine gland stimulus.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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