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The notion that the world view of a cultureis shaped and reflected by the language its members speak.
Native language may represent a different reality then other tongues.
Ex. Lagniappe - has no meaning in any other language but french creole.
Sapir- Whorf Hypothesis
The process of adapting ones speech style to match that of others with whom the communicator wants to identify.
A stategy used when communicators want to set themselves apart from others.
includes words, phrases, expressions that unnecessarily differentiate between females and males or exclude, trivialize, or diminish either sex.
Reflects a world view that classifies one race as superior and others as inferior.
Language that shows the speaker is taking responsibility.
Reflect a more accurate way to express a complaint.
Identifies the speaker as the source of the message.
Language that expresses a judgement of the other person.
Can arouse defensiveness.
Implies that the issue or concern is the responsibility of both the speaker and receiver of a message.
Disruptive language in which we present opinions as facts.
ex....You can get a fair shake in this country unless you're white.
Fact Opinion Confusion
Disruptive language in which conclusions are arrived at from an interpretation of evidence.
Why are you mad at me?
I'm not mad, why you insecure?
I'm not insecure, you've been so critical...
Language that seems to describe something but really announces the speakers attitude towards it.
if you approve, say thrifty
if you disapprove, say cheap
Messages expressed by nonlinguistic means.
Functions of nonverbal communication
- Create/maintain relationships
- Regulating interaction
- Influencing others
- Managing Identity
Types of nonverbals
- Body/eye movement - kinesics/oculesics
- Touch - haptics
- Voice - paralanguage (rate, pitch, tone,etc..)
- Distance - proxemics (personal/intimate/social)
- Territoriality - stationary territory
- Time - Chronemics
- Physical attractiveness
- physical environment