Blood Glucose Control

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laulauspille
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216022
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Blood Glucose Control
Updated:
2013-04-27 03:36:21
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NMIH201 nBlood glucose control
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NMIH201 Science module 3 on Blood glucose control
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  1. Which hormone directs essentially all the events of the absorptive state?
    A) Glucagon
    B) Growth Hormone
    C) Insulin
    D) Adrenaline
    C) INSULIN is the hormone which directs essentially all the events of the absorptive state.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. Sometimes prolonged exessive exposure to high hormone concentrations causes a phenomenon known as?
    A) Diabetes Mellitus
    B) Down regulation
    C) Metabolism of protein kinases
    D) Cellular inhibition
    B) Down regulaion is the phenomenon that excessive exposure to high concentrations can cause .

    Note: Downregulation: An decrease in the number of receptors on the surface of target cells, making the cells less sensitive to a hormone or another agent. For example, insulin receptors may be downregulated in type 2 diabetes.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. The process of breaking triglycerides down into glycerol and fatty acid is known as
    A) Lipolysis
    B) Lipogenesis
    C) Gluconeogenesis
    D) Fat utilization
    A) Lipolysis is the process of breaking down triglycerides into glycerol and fatty acids.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. What is the primary objective during the postabsorptive state?
    A) To collect and remove glucose from the blood and deposit it in cells
    B) To convert fat to protein
    C) To maintain blood glucose at around 3.9-6.1 mmol/L of blood
    D) To elevate blood glucose to the higest possible level to ensure adequate delivery to the brain
    C) maintaining blood glucose at around 3.9-6.1 mmol/L of blood is the primary objective durinf the post absorptive state.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. In glucoeogenesis, during the post adsorptive state. Amino acids and ___ are converted to
    glucose?
    A) Glyceraldehyde
    B) Glycogen
    C) Glycerol
    D) Glucagon
    C) In gluconeogenesis, during the post absorptive state amino acids and GLYCEROL are converted to glucose.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. The beta cells are the pancreatic islet cells that produce insulin?
    TRUE OR FALSE?
    True, the beta cells are the pancreatic islet cells that produce insulin.
  7. Which of the following is NOT a cardinal sign of diabetes mellitus?
    Polyphagia
    Polyuria
    All of these
    Polydipsia
    • ALL OF THESE are cardinal signs of diabetes mellitus.
    • Polyphagia- excessive hunger or eating
    • Polyuria- frequent urination
    • Polydipsia- excessive thirst
  8. When the pancreas releases insulin in direct response to blood glucose this is an example of ___ stimulation?
    • Humoral stimulation
    • NOTE: Humoral Stimuli of Endocrine Glands - Changing levels of certain ions stimulate hormone release Humoral indicates various body fluids such as blood and bile Examples: Parathyroid hormone, Calcitonin, Insuli
  9. Insulin promotes all the following EXCEPT?
    A) Gluconeogenesis
    B) Protein synthesis
    C) Lipogenesis
    D) Glycogenesis
    Insulin promotes protein synthesis, lipogenesis and glycogenesis but does NOT promote A) Gluconeogenesis.
  10. Glycogen is formed in the liver during the?
    1. Period when the metabolic rate is lowest
    2. Starvation period
    3. Postabsorptive state
    4. Absorptive state
    4. Glycogen is formed in the liver during the absorptive state.
  11. Which of these choices is NOT a source of glucose during the postabsorptive state?
    1. Lipolysis in adipose tissue and liver
    2. Absorption of glucose from the GI tract
    3. Glycogenolysis in the liver
    4. Catabolism of cellular protein
    2. Absorption of glucose from the GI tract IS NOT a sourse of glucose during the postabsorptive state.
  12. Alpha islet cells produce glycogen, an extremely potent hyperglycemic hormone.
    True or False?
    FALSE- Alpha islet cells do not produce glycogen.
  13. As the body progesses from the absorptive to the postabsorptive state, only the ___ continues to burn glucose while every other organ in the body mostly switches to fatty acids?
    BRAIN
  14. The molecule that serves as the major source of readily available fuel for neurons and blood cells is____?
    GLUCOSE
  15. Lipolysis is?
    Splitting of triglycerides into glycerol and fatty acids.
  16. Gluconeogenesis is?
    • Formation of glucose from proteins or fats.
    • Glucose is formed from nocarbohydrate precursors.
  17. Glycogenesis is?
    • Glycogenesis is the formation of glycogen
    • from glucose. Glycogen is synthesized
    • depending on the demand for glucose and ATP (energy). If both
    • are present in relatively high amounts, then the excess of insulin
    • promotes the glucose conversion into glycogen for storage in
    • liver and muscle cells.
  18. Glycogenolysis is?
    Breakdown of glycogen to release glucose
  19. Glycolysis is?
    A series of enzymatically catalyzed reactions by which glucose and other sugars are broken down to yield lactic acid or pyrunic acid. The break down releases energy in the form of adenosine triphophrate.
  20. Polyuria is caused by?
    • Glucosuria.
    • A typical occurence of glucose in urine. May be due to excessive carbohydate ingestion or a disorder such as diabetes mellitus.
  21. Where are the two primary sources of glucose during the postabsorptive state?
    Liver and skeletal muscle.
  22. Hyperglycemic hormones include glucagon and?
    ADRENALINE
  23. Type 2 diabetics may reflect declining receptor sensitivity to insulin rather than decreased insulin production....
    T OR F?
    True- Type 2 diabetics may reflect declining receptor sensitivity to insulin rather than decreased insulin production
  24. What is the outcome of ketosis?
    Metabolic acidosis....

    Note: ketosis is the abnormal accumulation of ketones in the body as a result of excessive breakdown of fats caused by a deficient of inadequate use of carbohydrates. Fatty acids are metabolised instead and the end products ketones being to accumulate.

    Metabolic acidosis- decreased pH and bicarbonate concentration of the body fluids caused by either accumlation of excess acids stronger than carbonic acid or by abnormal losses of bicarbonate from the body
  25. The hormone that raises blood sugar is?
    INSULIN

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