Care of Injured and Orphaned Wildlife
Card Set Information
Care of Injured and Orphaned Wildlife
Exotic Animals Final
What are the different steps to care for wounds of wildlife?
debride dead tissue
clean area - clip hair or pull feathers, scrup or paint with antiseptic
suture if fresh
What color are the bruises of wildlife? Why?
green because of the biliverdin
What is 1st intention healing and 2nd intention healing?
: with sutures
: without sutures
What are the different materials we can use for wound treatments?
How do we bandage a wound?
clean wound first
protective layer (non-stick)
masking tape (keep off feathers)
What are some clinical signs of an animal that has brain damage?
How do we treat brain damage if it is caught soon after injury?
heatstarch or mannitol to decrease swelling
What are some neurologic signs that may not be due to trauma?
What are some underlying problems that can cause neurological problems?
infectious disease (rabies, distemper)
parasitic disease (baylisascaris, toxoplasmosis)
bacterial infection (brain abscess)
What clinical signs will we see when there is damage to the spinal cord? What is the treatment and prognosis?
paresis or paralysis
: same as with brain, supportive therapy very important
poor prognosis - especially if vertebral fractures
How do we evaluate a wild animals vision?
look for external lesions
ability to follow objects
pupillary light response
internal ophthalmic exam
behavior in its enclosure
behavior in a larger enclosure
_____ of head damage will cause vision loss.
Where is pectin and what is its function?
its on top of the optic disk in a birds eye
unsure of its function
Bone ends must be _____ for fractures to heal.
How do we immobilize fractures?
must immobilize the joints above and below the fracture
Do we usually see infection with a closed fracture?
Is the external fixation of a fracture invasive?
no its the least invasive methose
How long should we keep birds or young mammals immoblized with an external fixation of a fracture?
no more than 3 - 4 weeks
Do we use an external fixation with a internal fixation?
yes we can
What can we use as an internal fixation of a fracture?
pins, wires, screws, plates
How do we prepare for surgery on an animal who is getting an internal fixation of a bone?
stabilize patient first before going into surgery (a broken bone does not need to be fixed immediately)
clip hair or pull feathers
paint or scrup antiseptic
What kind of physical therapy should we do after a fracture has healed?
flex and extend joints to increase range of motion
What are some external parasites wild animals get?
fleas, mites, lice, maggots
How do we treat external parasites?
treat fleas/lice with pyrethrins
treat mites with ivomec
need to remove/flush maggots
What are some common internal parasites we will see in wildlife?
trichomonas and giardia
ascarids and capillaria
flukes and tapeworms
How do we treat internal parasites?
similar to domestic animal treatments
How do we test wildlife for toxins?
need index of suspicion for tests and treatments
submit blood, urine, tissue, or GI contents samples depending on the toxin we are suspicious of
What are the different labs we can send samples for toxin testing to?
private labs (costs a lot of money)
human hospital labs
public health labs (good for lead levels)
What are the three most common toxins we will see in wildlife?
What toxin kills more birds than any other?
What toxin is used to kill nematodes/insects and is an organophosphate/carbamate?
What are some other toxins we will see in wildlife?
How do we treat toxin poisoning?
few antidotes available
: EDTA for heavy metals, atropine for CHEs
: GI protectants, fluids/warmth/nutrition
Is lead poisoning common?
yes very common
How do we treat for lead poisoning?
35 mg/kg calcium versinate BID
recheck lead levels in 5 days
Is CHE inhibitors a common poision?
yes, very common and very toxic
How do we treat for CHE inhibitor poisoning?
treat with atropine
How many waterfowl are killed each year due to botulism?
What causes botulism?
disease at water's edge
something dies on the edge of the water and then flies come and then maggots, then the birds eat the maggots and get sick
How do we treat botulism poisoning?
How do we treat oiled birds?
What are some common infectious diseases we will see with wildlife?
duck viral enteritis
west nile virus
What are the clinical signs of avian pox?
masses on face, mouth
membranes on face, feet
What kind of disease is aspergillosis?
What parts of the body do aspergillosis affect?
What is aspergillosis related to?
stress and poor ventilation
How do we treat aspergillosis?
What are the clinical signs of turtle respiratory disease?
eye or nasal discharge
swelling at ear
How do treat a turtle with a respiratory disease?
What are the two types of gout?
visceral and articular
What is gout related to?
dehydration and renal disease
What are some diseases that are zoonotic?
larval migrans - encephalitis
tularemia - septicemia
hydatid disease - liver disease
toxoplasmosis (brain, lung, congenital disease)
Describe how we should house wildlife?
avoid creating hazards (walls, front, substrate)
choose cage mates carefully
move outside asap
proper sized perches
protection from weather
allows adequate exercise
limit human traffic
keep predators away from prey
What are some complications we will see with housing wildlife?
How do we repair feathers?
if shaft is bent
: can straighten and hot glue
: can replace or amputate
Where do most orphaned animals come from?
most are kidnapped
What are ways to care for orphans?
take a history
What are some things we will see on a physical exam for orphaned animals?
How do we house orphaned animals?
if no feathers keep at 90 degrees and decrease by 5 degrees each week
beware of low humidity
keep in escape proof enclosures
What are fluids we can use to rehydrate orphaned animals?
use multiple electrolytes (pedialyte, emeraid I, IV fluids
What are ways we can rehydrate orphaned animals?
use oral route if animal is alert (feeding needle, stomach tube)
injectible if too weak to swallow (IP, IV, IO)
How do we feed orphans?
feed until they don't want to eat anymore (except deer fawns)
feed every 3 - 8 hours
What is the most difficult wild animal to raise?
How do we wean mammals?
do it gradually
thicken formula then add solid items
decrease hand feedings
make sure diet stays balanced
How do we feed orphaned birds?
feed every 30 - 60 minutes
wean 2 - 3 weeks
How do we feed raptor babies?
feed chopped rodents 3 - 4 times a day
How do we feed precocious waterfowl babies?
can offer turkey or chick starter
still need to be warm
What do we need to beware about handraising orphaned wildlife?
beware taming or imprinting by minimizing human contact
When do precocial birds imprint?
When do birds of prey imprint?
about 18 days after being born
How do we avoid imprinting?
use surrogates with young
Can we reverse a tame animal to be wild again?
yes, but it takes time
When can we release predator animals back into the wild?
young must be allowed to learn to kill prey in captivity before being allowed to be released into the wild
When do we know when an animal is ready for release?
injuries have healed
able to obtain natural food
able to avoid predators
exhibit normal behavior
lab tests are normal
What time of year should we release animals into the wild?
avoid inclement weather
decided if they will be okay to release during the winter or keep them through the winter and release in the spring
Where should we release animals?
proximity to where they are found
away from people, pets, traffic
suitable habitat - food, water, shelter, don't create pests
What are the three different release methods?
gradual (soft) release
What is the gradual (soft) release?
use for hand-raised young
pre-release enclosure on site
must be suitable hapitat
provide food and water for days before and after release
What is hacking out?
pre-release enclosure at distant site
provide food and water for days - weeks before and after
What is hard release?
take to a suitable spot and turn loose