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What are the different steps to care for wounds of wildlife?
- flush wounds
- debride dead tissue
- clean area - clip hair or pull feathers, scrup or paint with antiseptic
- suture if fresh
- topical medication
- systemic medication
What color are the bruises of wildlife? Why?
green because of the biliverdin
What is 1st intention healing and 2nd intention healing?
- 1st intention: with sutures
- 2nd intention: without sutures
What are the different materials we can use for wound treatments?
- Copolymer flakes
- EZ Derm
- Bio Dres
How do we bandage a wound?
- clean wound first
- protective layer (non-stick)
- masking tape (keep off feathers)
What are some clinical signs of an animal that has brain damage?
- head tilt
How do we treat brain damage if it is caught soon after injury?
- heatstarch or mannitol to decrease swelling
- supportive therapy
What are some neurologic signs that may not be due to trauma?
- congenital defects
- tame animal
What are some underlying problems that can cause neurological problems?
- infectious disease (rabies, distemper)
- parasitic disease (baylisascaris, toxoplasmosis)
- bacterial infection (brain abscess)
What clinical signs will we see when there is damage to the spinal cord? What is the treatment and prognosis?
- paresis or paralysis
- treatment: same as with brain, supportive therapy very important
- poor prognosis - especially if vertebral fractures
How do we evaluate a wild animals vision?
- look for external lesions
- ability to follow objects
- pupillary light response
- internal ophthalmic exam
- behavior in its enclosure
- behavior in a larger enclosure
_____ of head damage will cause vision loss.
Where is pectin and what is its function?
- its on top of the optic disk in a birds eye
- unsure of its function
Bone ends must be _____ for fractures to heal.
How do we immobilize fractures?
must immobilize the joints above and below the fracture
Do we usually see infection with a closed fracture?
Is the external fixation of a fracture invasive?
no its the least invasive methose
How long should we keep birds or young mammals immoblized with an external fixation of a fracture?
no more than 3 - 4 weeks
Do we use an external fixation with a internal fixation?
yes we can
What can we use as an internal fixation of a fracture?
pins, wires, screws, plates
How do we prepare for surgery on an animal who is getting an internal fixation of a bone?
- stabilize patient first before going into surgery (a broken bone does not need to be fixed immediately)
- keep warm
- clip hair or pull feathers
- paint or scrup antiseptic
- use drapes
- maintain hemostasis
What kind of physical therapy should we do after a fracture has healed?
- flex and extend joints to increase range of motion
- encourage exercise
What are some external parasites wild animals get?
fleas, mites, lice, maggots
How do we treat external parasites?
- change bedding
- treat fleas/lice with pyrethrins
- treat mites with ivomec
- need to remove/flush maggots
What are some common internal parasites we will see in wildlife?
- trichomonas and giardia
- ascarids and capillaria
- flukes and tapeworms
How do we treat internal parasites?
similar to domestic animal treatments
How do we test wildlife for toxins?
- need index of suspicion for tests and treatments
- submit blood, urine, tissue, or GI contents samples depending on the toxin we are suspicious of
What are the different labs we can send samples for toxin testing to?
- private labs (costs a lot of money)
- human hospital labs
- public health labs (good for lead levels)
- state/federal labs
What are the three most common toxins we will see in wildlife?
- cholinesterase inhibitors
What toxin kills more birds than any other?
What toxin is used to kill nematodes/insects and is an organophosphate/carbamate?
What are some other toxins we will see in wildlife?
- algae toxins
How do we treat toxin poisoning?
- few antidotes available: EDTA for heavy metals, atropine for CHEs
- supportive therapy: GI protectants, fluids/warmth/nutrition
Is lead poisoning common?
yes very common
How do we treat for lead poisoning?
- 35 mg/kg calcium versinate BID
- recheck lead levels in 5 days
Is CHE inhibitors a common poision?
yes, very common and very toxic
How do we treat for CHE inhibitor poisoning?
treat with atropine
How many waterfowl are killed each year due to botulism?
What causes botulism?
- disease at water's edge
- something dies on the edge of the water and then flies come and then maggots, then the birds eat the maggots and get sick
How do we treat botulism poisoning?
How do we treat oiled birds?
- dawn detergent
- supportive therapy
What are some common infectious diseases we will see with wildlife?
- avian pox
- avian cholera
- duck viral enteritis
- newcastle's disease
- canine distemper
- feline panleukopenia
- cutaneous fibroma
- west nile virus
- hanta virus
What are the clinical signs of avian pox?
- masses on face, mouth
- membranes on face, feet
What kind of disease is aspergillosis?
What parts of the body do aspergillosis affect?
What is aspergillosis related to?
stress and poor ventilation
How do we treat aspergillosis?
What are the clinical signs of turtle respiratory disease?
- eye or nasal discharge
- swelling at ear
How do treat a turtle with a respiratory disease?
What are the two types of gout?
visceral and articular
What is gout related to?
dehydration and renal disease
What are some diseases that are zoonotic?
- yersinia pestis
- larval migrans - encephalitis
- tularemia - septicemia
- hydatid disease - liver disease
- toxoplasmosis (brain, lung, congenital disease)
- newcastle's disease
Describe how we should house wildlife?
- escape proof
- avoid creating hazards (walls, front, substrate)
- minimize stress
- proper temperature/humidity
- choose cage mates carefully
- move outside asap
- proper sized perches
- protection from weather
- allows adequate exercise
- limit human traffic
- keep predators away from prey
What are some complications we will see with housing wildlife?
- feather damage
- head injury
How do we repair feathers?
- if shaft is bent: can straighten and hot glue
- if broken: can replace or amputate
Where do most orphaned animals come from?
most are kidnapped
What are ways to care for orphans?
- rebuild/replace nests
- cross foster
- take a history
- physical exam
- diagnostic tests
What are some things we will see on a physical exam for orphaned animals?
How do we house orphaned animals?
- keep warm
- if no feathers keep at 90 degrees and decrease by 5 degrees each week
- beware of low humidity
- keep in escape proof enclosures
What are fluids we can use to rehydrate orphaned animals?
use multiple electrolytes (pedialyte, emeraid I, IV fluids
What are ways we can rehydrate orphaned animals?
- use oral route if animal is alert (feeding needle, stomach tube)
- injectible if too weak to swallow (IP, IV, IO)
How do we feed orphans?
- feed until they don't want to eat anymore (except deer fawns)
- weigh daily
- feed every 3 - 8 hours
- wean asap
What is the most difficult wild animal to raise?
How do we wean mammals?
- do it gradually
- thicken formula then add solid items
- decrease hand feedings
- make sure diet stays balanced
How do we feed orphaned birds?
- weigh daily
- feed every 30 - 60 minutes
- wean 2 - 3 weeks
How do we feed raptor babies?
- use surrogates
- feed chopped rodents 3 - 4 times a day
- wean early
How do we feed precocious waterfowl babies?
- can offer turkey or chick starter
- still need to be warm
What do we need to beware about handraising orphaned wildlife?
beware taming or imprinting by minimizing human contact
When do precocial birds imprint?
When do birds of prey imprint?
about 18 days after being born
How do we avoid imprinting?
use surrogates with young
Can we reverse a tame animal to be wild again?
yes, but it takes time
When can we release predator animals back into the wild?
young must be allowed to learn to kill prey in captivity before being allowed to be released into the wild
When do we know when an animal is ready for release?
- injuries have healed
- able to obtain natural food
- able to avoid predators
- exhibit normal behavior
- lab tests are normal
What time of year should we release animals into the wild?
- avoid inclement weather
- decided if they will be okay to release during the winter or keep them through the winter and release in the spring
Where should we release animals?
- proximity to where they are found
- away from people, pets, traffic
- suitable habitat - food, water, shelter, don't create pests
What are the three different release methods?
- gradual (soft) release
- hacking out
- hard release
What is the gradual (soft) release?
- use for hand-raised young
- pre-release enclosure on site
- must be suitable hapitat
- provide food and water for days before and after release
What is hacking out?
- pre-release enclosure at distant site
- provide food and water for days - weeks before and after
What is hard release?
take to a suitable spot and turn loose