Body Structure and Function

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abutler5
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216067
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Body Structure and Function
Updated:
2013-04-27 11:49:28
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Urinary System
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  1. The urinary system consists of what?
    • 2 kidneys
    • 2 ureters
    • the urinary bladder
    • the urethra
  2. Where are the kidneys located?
    Retroperitoneal (behind the peritoneum) on either side of the backbone
  3. What helps to hold them in place and cushion the kidneys?
    • adipose tissue 
    • renal fascia
  4. The function of the kidneys?
    • form urine
    • to excrete waste products
    • regulate the volume, electrolytes and pH of the blood and tissue fluid
  5. Outer tissue layer of the kidney, made of renal corpuscles and convoluted tubules
    Renal cortex
  6. inner tissue layer of the kidneys, made of loop of henle, and collecting tubules and the pyramids
    renal medulla
  7. a cavity formed by the expanded end of the ureter within the kidney at the hilus, extensions around the papillae of the pyramids are called calyx which collect urine
    renal pelvis
  8. The structural and functional init of the kidney, 
    about 1 million in each kidney
    Nephron
  9. consists of the glomerulus surrounded by the bowmans capsule
    renal corpuscle
  10. Capillary network between an afferent and efferent arteriole
    glomerulus
  11. the expanded end of the renal tubule that encloses the glomerulus

    the inner layer is made of podocytes (has pores) and is very permeable

    contains renal filtrate
    Bowmans Capsule
  12. Consists of the proximal and distal tubules loop of henle and collecting tubes
    Renal tubule
  13. Peritubular capillaries
    arise from the efferent arteriole and surround all parts of of the renal tubule
  14. Blood vessel pathaway in the kidney
    Abdominal aorta - renal artery - afferent - glomerulus - efferent - peritubular capillaries - renal vein - inferior vena cava
  15. Formation of urine
    • 1 Glomerulus filtration
    • 2 Tubular reabsorption
    • 3 Tubular secretion
  16. Takes place in the glomerulus, high blood pressure in the glomerulus forces plasma, dissolved materials, small proteins out of the blood into the bowmans capsule == filtrate
    Glomerular filtration
  17. Filtration is selectively permeable in terms of ___ ? 

    what remains in the blood ?
    Size

    Blood cells and large proteins
  18. Glomerular Filtration Rate
    • amount of renal filtrate formed by the kidneys in 1 minute
    • 100 - 125 mL per minute
    • increased blood increases GFR 
    • decreased blood decreases GFR
  19. takes place from the filtrate in the renal tubules to the peritubular capillaries
    99% of filtrate is reabsorbed only 1% becomes urine
    tubular reabsorption
  20. reabsorption of glucose, amino acids, vitamins, and positive ions
    Active transport
  21. Threshold level
    a limit to how much can be absorbed
  22. transport of most negative ions, they follow the reabsorption of positive ions
    passive transport
  23. transport of water
    follows the reabsorption of sodium
    osmosis
  24. small proteins are engulfed by proximal tubule cells
    pinocytosis
  25. Aldosterone
    • Secreted from the adrenal cortex
    • increases the reabsorption of NA and K
  26. ADH - Anti diuretic horomone
    • Secreted by the pituitary gland 
    • increases the absorption of H20 into the blood
  27. PTH - parathyroid horomone
    • secreted by the parathyroid glands
    • increases the absorption of Calcium and
    • excretion of phosphate
  28. ANP - Atrial Natriuetic Peptide
    • Secreted by the atria of the heart
    • decrease the absorption of Sodium
    • more sodium and water are excreted in the urine
  29. What do the kidneys excrete if the body fluids are becoming to acidic?
    • Hydrogen Ions
    • and return Bicarbonate ions to the blood
  30. What do the kidneys secrete if the body tissues are becoming to alkaline?
    Bicarbonate ions and return more hydrogen ions to the blood
  31. When the blood pressure becomes to low, these cells secrete what to increase it?
    Juxtaglomerular cells JG cells secrete renin
  32. What hormone causes vasoconstriction and increases the secretion of aldosterone?
    Angiotensin 2
  33. What do the kidneys secrete in response to hypoxia? This hormone stimulates ____ to increase the production of ____?
    • Erythropoeitin 
    • stimulates red bone marrow to produce RBCs
  34. A reservoir for urine?
    Urinary bladder
  35. bladder is located where in females? and males
    • females: below the uterus
    • males: above the prostate
  36. Smooth muscle layer, a spherical muscle that contracts to expel urine?
    Detrusor muscle
  37. how long is the urethra in males? females?
    Males: 7-8 in long, passes through prostate and penis; also secretes semen 

    female: 1- 1.5 in long, anterior to the vagina
  38. involuntary sphincter that is formed by the detrusor muscle fibers around the opening of the urethra
    Internal urethral sphincter
  39. Voluntary; skeletal muscle of the pelvic floor -- sphincter?
    External urethral sphincter
  40. Stimulus of the urinary reflex?
    stretching of the detrusor muscle by accumulating urine in the bladder
  41. Micturation
    the urinary reflex
  42. the measurement of dissolved material in urine
    specific gravity
  43. Characteristics of urine:
    Amount, color, specific gravity, pH, composition, and nitrogenous wastes
    • Amount = 1 - 2 L
    • Color = straw or amber
    • Specific gravity= 1.010 - 1.025
    • pH = 6, range 4.6 - 8
    • Composition = 95% water, 5% waste
    • Nitrogenous wastes: Urea, creatinine, uric acid
  44. Urea
    comes from amino acid metabolism
  45. Creatinine
    comes from muscle metabolism
  46. Uric Acid
    Comes from nucleic acid metabolism
  47. Glycosuria
    glucose in the urine
  48. Proteinuria
    Protein in the urine
  49. Hematuria
    Blood in the urine
  50. Bacteriuria
    Bacteria in the urine
  51. Ketonuria
    Ketones in the urine
  52. Cystitis
    inflammation of the bladder
  53. nephritis
    inflammation of the kidneys

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