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What is the condition when two pupils are not equal in size?
what disorder is characterized by medial rectus palsy on attempt conjugate gaze with monocular horizontal nystagmus?
what disorder presents with absence of direct and consensual pupillary light reflex but intact accomodation reflex?
Argyll Robertson pupil
What nerve is most likely damaged when on eye deviates lateral and down, pupil is dilated and fixed, and ptosis?
What disorder is characterized by intact consensual light reflex but absent direct light reflex?
Marcus Gunn pupil
What disorder presents with ipsilateral hemiparesis, fixed dilated pupil, ptosis, down and out eye, contralateral homonymous hemianopsia?
Transtentorial herniation (uncal herniation)
What disease is characterized by a lesion in the ciliary ganglion and in post ganglionic fibers to the iris sphincter pupillae muscle. Symptoms: dilated pupil that is slow to react to light; females absent knee and/or ankle jerk
What type of cells are olfactory receptor cells?
What part of the thalamus does the olfactory primary olfactory cortex project too?
NAME THAT DISORDER
Symptoms: ipsilateral anosmia, ipsilateral optic atrophy, contralateral papilledema?
Foster kennedy syndrome
Where are the first order neurons of the tongue located?
- Ant 2/3 = geniculate ganglion CN VII
- Post 1/3= Petrosal ganglion CN IX
- Pharynx= Nodose ganglion CN X
Where do first order gustatory neurons project too?
Where does the solitary nucleus project taste too?
Ventral posteromedial nucleus of thalamus via central tegmental tract and Parabrachial nucleus of pons
Where does the parabrachial nucleus project taste input?
hypothalamus and amygdala
Where does the posteromedial nucleus of the thalamus project taste input?
Area 43 parietal operculum and parainsular cortex
Where are fungiform papillae located and what is substances do they mainly respond too?
Anterior 2/3 Sweet, salty, and sour
Where are foliate papillae located and what substance do they mainly respond too?
posterior edge (sour)
What nerve innervates the foliate and fungiform papillae?
Chorda tympani branch of facial nerve
Where are circumvallate papillae located and what substances do they respond too?
junction between anterior 2/3 and posterior 1/3 of the tongue (bitter)
What nerve innervates the circumvallate papillae?
What are the areas of the cortex that taste sensations are projected?
- somatosensory and frontal
- Amygdala Hypothalamus
What joins the middle ear to the nasopharynx?
What are the two parts of the tympanic membrane and what is their location to one and other?
- Pars Flaccida (Superior to lat process of malleus)
- Pars Tensa (inferior to pars flaccida)
What is the peak of the central cone depression of the tympanic membrane?
What supplies the external surface of the tympanic membrane?
- Auriculotemporal nerve (branch V3)
- Auricular branch of X
What nerve supplies the internal surface of the tympanic membrane?
What are the two parts of the middle ear?
- Tympanic cavity
- epitympanic recess
What are the muscles of the middle ear?
- Stapedius m.
- Tensor tympani m.
What nerve innervates the middle ear?
Chorda tympani (branch VII)
What bone contains the inner ear?
Petrous part of temporal bone
How many turns the cochlea make?
What are the three divisions of the cochlea?
- Scala vestibule
- cochlear duct
- Scala tympani
What fluid is found in the scala vestibule and scala tympani?
What fluid is found in the cochlear duct?
What are the two sacs of the vestibular labyrinth?
- Utricle (superior)
- Saccule (inferior)
What is the ampullary crest sensitive too?
motion of head
What is the maculae of the utricle and saccule sensitive too?
position of head reletive to gravity
what are the bodies and cilia of hair cells in touch with (respectively)?
- body- basilar membrane
- Cilia - tectorial membrane
what type of frequency is detected by the base and apex of the cochlea respectively?
- base = High Freq
- Apex = Low Freq
What part of the thalamus receives auditory information?
Medial geniculate nucleus
What tract is responsible if inhibition of auditory sensation which helps sharpen sound?
What are the hair cell cilia of the vestibular system embedded in?
What is a kinocilium?
Long vestibular cilia
What is a stereocilia?
small vestibular cilia
What is the effect of stereocilia bending toward kinocilium?
Where do most vestibular neurons terminate?
Vestibular nucleus in medulla
What tract carries balance info to the erector spinae m.
How do vestibular nuclei connect to the cerebellum?
Through the inferior peduncle
what is the most common insidious vascular cause of dimentia?
what are the symptoms of wernikie encephalopathy? what is the cause?
- gait ataxia
Caused by thiamine deficiency
what causes wernikie korsakoff's syndrome?