Axial Skeletal System Anatomy

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  1. What is the Axial Skeleton?
    • Forms the longitudinal axis of the body;
    • Supports and protects organ systems;
    • Provides surface area for the attachment of muscles
  2. Bones in the axial skeleton
    • (SSRS)
    • Skull
    • Spine
    • Ribs
    • Sternum
  3. Bones in the skull
    • 29 total bones;
    • Cranium bones
    • Facial Bones
    • Mandible
  4. Mandible
    • jaw bone;
    • serves as orienting landmark for palpating the carotid artery to assess pulse
  5. Bones in the spine
    • (VIA)
    • Vertebrae
    • Intervertebral Disks
    • Adult vertebral column
  6. How many and what kinds of vertebrae make up the spine?
    • 33 total vertebrae
    • 7 cervical
    • 12 thoracic
    • 5 lumbar
    • 5 sacrum
    • 4 coccygeal
  7. Coccyx
    4 coccygeal vertebrae fused to form one bone that lies below the sacrum
  8. Cervical vertebrae
    7 vertebrae of the neck
  9. Thoracic vertebrae
    12 vertebrae of the midback
  10. Lumbar vertebrae
    5 vertebrae of the lower back
  11. Sacrum
    5 sacral vertebrae fused to make one bone that acts as trasition pointbetween the spine and pelvis.
  12. Intervertebral disks
    • Round, flat, platelike structures composed of fibrocartilaginous tissue
    • Disks
    • - unite the vertebral bodies
    • - serve to absorb shock and bear weight
  13. Parts of the Intervertebral disk
    • (AN)
    • Annulus Fibrosus
    • Nucleus pulposus
  14. Annulus Fibrosus
    outer, fibrocartilaginous portion of the intervertebral disk
  15. nucleus pulposus
    inner gelatinous portion of the intervertebral disk
  16. What is the Adult vertebral column?
    The 4 major curvatures of the adult spine in the sagittal plane
  17. What are the 4 curve types of the normal adult vertebral column?
    • (CTLS)
    • Cervical curve
    • Thoracis curve
    • Lumbar curve
    • Sacral curve
  18. Kyphosis curve and examples
    • Convexity of the curve is posteriorily directed
    • - two primary curves of vertebral column (thoracic curve and sacral curve)
  19. Primary curve and examples
    • Vertebral column curve that contains the same directional curvature as the spine in the fetus
    • - Thoracic curve
    • - Sacral curve
  20. Lordosis Curve and examples
    • Convexity of the curve is anteriorly directed
    • - 2 secondary curves of the vertebral column (cervical and lumbar)
  21. Secondary curve and examples
    • Curves of vertebral column that develop after birth as infant progresses in weight and bearing
    • - Cervical curve
    • - Lumbar curve
  22. Abnormal curves in sagittal plane
    • - Hyperkyphosis
    • - Hyperlordosis
  23. Hyperkyphosis
    exaggerated posterior thoracic curvature (hunchback)
  24. Hyperlordosis
    Exaggerated anterior lumbar curvature
  25. Abnormal curve in the frontal plane
    Scoliosis - lateral deviation in the frontal plane
  26. How many paris of ribs does the body have and what kinds?
    • 12 pairs of ribs.
    • - 7 pairs of true ribs
    • - 5 pairs of false ribs
  27. True ribs
    7 most superior ribs that attach directly to the sternum with costal cartilage
  28. False ribs
    • 5 inferior pairs of ribs that do not attach directly with the sternum
    • - top 3 indirectly attach via costal cartilage of adjacent superior ribs
    • - bottom 2 are floating
  29. Intercostal spaces and function
    • Spaces between the ribs
    • - Palpation of the intercostal spaces of the true ribs is important for correct ECG electrode placement
  30. What is the Sternum and it's parts?
    • Sternum lies in the midline of the chest
    • - Manubrium (superior)
    • - Body (middle)
    • - Xophoid process (inferior)
  31. Sternal Angle
    Slightly raised surface landmark where manubrium meets of the body of the sternum.
  32. Xiphoid Process and function
    • Surface landmark situated at the bottom of the sternum and in the middle of the inferior border of the rib cage
    • - Palpation of the xiphoid is necessary for CPR
  33. Manubrium function
    Palpation of manubrium helps determine proper paddle placement in defibrillation.
Card Set
Axial Skeletal System Anatomy
Basic anatomy of the axial skeletal system. Includes bones and other information
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