Axial Skeletal System Anatomy

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Author:
elby317
ID:
21611
Filename:
Axial Skeletal System Anatomy
Updated:
2010-06-01 23:12:40
Tags:
anatomy skeletal system bones joints tissue axial
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Description:
Basic anatomy of the axial skeletal system. Includes bones and other information
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  1. What is the Axial Skeleton?
    • Forms the longitudinal axis of the body;
    • Supports and protects organ systems;
    • Provides surface area for the attachment of muscles
  2. Bones in the axial skeleton
    • (SSRS)
    • Skull
    • Spine
    • Ribs
    • Sternum
  3. Bones in the skull
    • 29 total bones;
    • Cranium bones
    • Facial Bones
    • Mandible
  4. Mandible
    • jaw bone;
    • serves as orienting landmark for palpating the carotid artery to assess pulse
  5. Bones in the spine
    • (VIA)
    • Vertebrae
    • Intervertebral Disks
    • Adult vertebral column
  6. How many and what kinds of vertebrae make up the spine?
    • 33 total vertebrae
    • 7 cervical
    • 12 thoracic
    • 5 lumbar
    • 5 sacrum
    • 4 coccygeal
  7. Coccyx
    4 coccygeal vertebrae fused to form one bone that lies below the sacrum
  8. Cervical vertebrae
    7 vertebrae of the neck
  9. Thoracic vertebrae
    12 vertebrae of the midback
  10. Lumbar vertebrae
    5 vertebrae of the lower back
  11. Sacrum
    5 sacral vertebrae fused to make one bone that acts as trasition pointbetween the spine and pelvis.
  12. Intervertebral disks
    • Round, flat, platelike structures composed of fibrocartilaginous tissue
    • Disks
    • - unite the vertebral bodies
    • - serve to absorb shock and bear weight
  13. Parts of the Intervertebral disk
    • (AN)
    • Annulus Fibrosus
    • Nucleus pulposus
  14. Annulus Fibrosus
    outer, fibrocartilaginous portion of the intervertebral disk
  15. nucleus pulposus
    inner gelatinous portion of the intervertebral disk
  16. What is the Adult vertebral column?
    The 4 major curvatures of the adult spine in the sagittal plane
  17. What are the 4 curve types of the normal adult vertebral column?
    • (CTLS)
    • Cervical curve
    • Thoracis curve
    • Lumbar curve
    • Sacral curve
  18. Kyphosis curve and examples
    • Convexity of the curve is posteriorily directed
    • - two primary curves of vertebral column (thoracic curve and sacral curve)
  19. Primary curve and examples
    • Vertebral column curve that contains the same directional curvature as the spine in the fetus
    • - Thoracic curve
    • - Sacral curve
  20. Lordosis Curve and examples
    • Convexity of the curve is anteriorly directed
    • - 2 secondary curves of the vertebral column (cervical and lumbar)
  21. Secondary curve and examples
    • Curves of vertebral column that develop after birth as infant progresses in weight and bearing
    • - Cervical curve
    • - Lumbar curve
  22. Abnormal curves in sagittal plane
    • - Hyperkyphosis
    • - Hyperlordosis
  23. Hyperkyphosis
    exaggerated posterior thoracic curvature (hunchback)
  24. Hyperlordosis
    Exaggerated anterior lumbar curvature
  25. Abnormal curve in the frontal plane
    Scoliosis - lateral deviation in the frontal plane
  26. How many paris of ribs does the body have and what kinds?
    • 12 pairs of ribs.
    • - 7 pairs of true ribs
    • - 5 pairs of false ribs
  27. True ribs
    7 most superior ribs that attach directly to the sternum with costal cartilage
  28. False ribs
    • 5 inferior pairs of ribs that do not attach directly with the sternum
    • - top 3 indirectly attach via costal cartilage of adjacent superior ribs
    • - bottom 2 are floating
  29. Intercostal spaces and function
    • Spaces between the ribs
    • - Palpation of the intercostal spaces of the true ribs is important for correct ECG electrode placement
  30. What is the Sternum and it's parts?
    • Sternum lies in the midline of the chest
    • - Manubrium (superior)
    • - Body (middle)
    • - Xophoid process (inferior)
  31. Sternal Angle
    Slightly raised surface landmark where manubrium meets of the body of the sternum.
  32. Xiphoid Process and function
    • Surface landmark situated at the bottom of the sternum and in the middle of the inferior border of the rib cage
    • - Palpation of the xiphoid is necessary for CPR
  33. Manubrium function
    Palpation of manubrium helps determine proper paddle placement in defibrillation.

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