Axial Skeletal System Anatomy
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What is the Axial Skeleton?
- Forms the longitudinal axis of the body;
- Supports and protects organ systems;
- Provides surface area for the attachment of muscles
Bones in the axial skeleton
Bones in the skull
- 29 total bones;
- Cranium bones
- Facial Bones
- jaw bone;
- serves as orienting landmark for palpating the carotid artery to assess pulse
Bones in the spine
- Intervertebral Disks
- Adult vertebral column
How many and what kinds of vertebrae make up the spine?
- 33 total vertebrae
- 7 cervical
- 12 thoracic
- 5 lumbar
- 5 sacrum
- 4 coccygeal
4 coccygeal vertebrae fused to form one bone that lies below the sacrum
7 vertebrae of the neck
12 vertebrae of the midback
5 vertebrae of the lower back
5 sacral vertebrae fused to make one bone that acts as trasition pointbetween the spine and pelvis.
- Round, flat, platelike structures composed of fibrocartilaginous tissue
- - unite the vertebral bodies
- - serve to absorb shock and bear weight
Parts of the Intervertebral disk
- Annulus Fibrosus
- Nucleus pulposus
outer, fibrocartilaginous portion of the intervertebral disk
inner gelatinous portion of the intervertebral disk
What is the Adult vertebral column?
The 4 major curvatures of the adult spine in the sagittal plane
What are the 4 curve types of the normal adult vertebral column?
- Cervical curve
- Thoracis curve
- Lumbar curve
- Sacral curve
Kyphosis curve and examples
- Convexity of the curve is posteriorily directed
- - two primary curves of vertebral column (thoracic curve and sacral curve)
Primary curve and examples
- Vertebral column curve that contains the same directional curvature as the spine in the fetus
- - Thoracic curve
- - Sacral curve
Lordosis Curve and examples
- Convexity of the curve is anteriorly directed
- - 2 secondary curves of the vertebral column (cervical and lumbar)
Secondary curve and examples
- Curves of vertebral column that develop after birth as infant progresses in weight and bearing
- - Cervical curve
- - Lumbar curve
Abnormal curves in sagittal plane
- - Hyperkyphosis
- - Hyperlordosis
exaggerated posterior thoracic curvature (hunchback)
Exaggerated anterior lumbar curvature
Abnormal curve in the frontal plane
Scoliosis - lateral deviation in the frontal plane
How many paris of ribs does the body have and what kinds?
- 12 pairs of ribs.
- - 7 pairs of true ribs
- - 5 pairs of false ribs
7 most superior ribs that attach directly to the sternum with costal cartilage
- 5 inferior pairs of ribs that do not attach directly with the sternum
- - top 3 indirectly attach via costal cartilage of adjacent superior ribs
- - bottom 2 are floating
Intercostal spaces and function
- Spaces between the ribs
- - Palpation of the intercostal spaces of the true ribs is important for correct ECG electrode placement
What is the Sternum and it's parts?
- Sternum lies in the midline of the chest
- - Manubrium (superior)
- - Body (middle)
- - Xophoid process (inferior)
Slightly raised surface landmark where manubrium meets of the body of the sternum.
Xiphoid Process and function
- Surface landmark situated at the bottom of the sternum and in the middle of the inferior border of the rib cage
- - Palpation of the xiphoid is necessary for CPR
Palpation of manubrium helps determine proper paddle placement in defibrillation.
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