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What are Rab proteins?
What is the Role of Rab in transport?
Direction of vesicles to correct location
How does Rab direct to the correct location?
- Rab binds to vesicle
- Vesicle reaches location
- Rab Effector acts like GAF
- Rab Dissociates
What is the role of snares in Membrane Fusion?
Mediating the Process
How do Viruses infect cells?
- Using a fusion protein that integrates to the membrane
- The Fusion protein then aids in vesicular fusion
What are Vesicles departing the ER and headed to the Golgi Network coated with?
What type of proteins are BiP and Calnexin?
Chaperones, used in protein folding
What is it called when vesicles fuse together?
Homotypic Membrane Fusion
What is the product of Homotypic Membrane Fusion?
Vesicular Tubular Clusters
What are ER bound Vesicles headed from the Golgi network Coated with?
What marks Proteins for return to the ER?
A K-del sequence
How does the KDEL sequence work?
- The sequence binds to KDEL Receptors which bind to Extracellular COP-I.
- A Vesicle is formed
How does an ER resident protein "know" not to bind to KDEL receptors when "home" in the ER?
- The PH of the ER inhibits binding of KDEL to KDEL receptors
- The different PH at the golgi allows binding
What is "Kin Recognition"?
Aggregation of Proteins with the same function
Which "end" of the Golgi apparatus is secretory?
The Trans face
Why does the Golgi consist of a number of Sacks?
The Golgi Apparatus is compartmentalized to allow for different environments suited to different enzymes.
How are vesicles and cisternae held in place?
Tethering by matrix proteins.
What does phosphorylation of Matrix proteins do?
What are some characteristics of Lysosomes?
- pH ~5
- Glycosylated Membranes (Protection)
In what three ways do Lysosomes get material?
Intake of a Macromolecular object which is taken into a vesicle which ultimately becomes a lysosome
Intake of extracellular particles by vesicle formation
Formation of a vesicle around an intracellular object that ultimately becomes a lysosome
What is the role of Mannose-6-phosphate in transport?
To bind to M6P receptors and guide the molecule to the lysosome
What is Transcytosis?
Movement across a cell (Vesicle)
How does LDL "packaged" cholesterol enter the cell?
- It is first endocytosed forming a clathrin coated vesicle
- The Vesicle loses it's clathrin forming an early endosome
- The LDL and receptor are dissociated in the early endosome
- The Receptor is recycled
- The Endosome becomes a Lysosome
- The LDL is broken down and it's cholesterol released
Label the Diagram of an LDL
- A - Cholesterol Molecule
- B - Phospholipid Monolayer
- C - Cholesteryl Ester Molecule
- D - Surface Protrusion on Protein
What is another name for the Sorting Vesicle?
What two processes does the LDL receptor undergo frequently?
- Down Regulation
- Up Regulation
What is up regulation?
The relocation of membrane bound particles from an Intracellular Vesicle to the Plasma Membrane.
Multivesicular Bodies and Late Endosomes fuse with Lysosomes. True or False?
False, it's on OR the other.
Can early Endosomes from different cellular locations fuse?
Yes, they fuse to create the late endosome
What are the two types of exocytotic secretion?