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2013-04-28 20:20:23
Ecology words definitions

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  1. Ecology
    Study of relationship between organisms and their environments
  2. Ecosystems
    biosphere in which living organisms interact with the physical environment
  3. environment
    all living and nonliving things that act upon an organism.
  4. biosphere
    thin layer of earth where life exists
  5. biotic factors
    all living things in an ecosystem
  6. abiotic factors
    All the physical aspects of a environment
  7. producers
    produce their own food
  8. consumers
    eat all other organisms
  9. population
    a group of organisms of the same species living in the same oranism
  10. community
    populations of organism in an area
  11. habitat
    part of the ecosystem in which each organism lives
  12. Niche
    special role or function an organism has in the ecosystem
  13. trophic level
    position of an organism in a food chain
  14. detritus
    decayed organic materical
  15. phytoplankton
    floating plants
  16. zooplankton
    floating animals
  17. predator
    organism hunting prey
  18. prey
    organism being hunted
  19. food chain
    shows energy relationship among organisms
  20. food web
    several interconnected food chains
  21. energy pyramid
    another way to show the transfer of energy in a food chain
  22. rule of ten
    only 10% of the energy from the first trophic level moves up to the second trophic level
  23. limiting factors
    a resource where demand is greater than supply
  24. carrying capacity
    the number of individuals of a species that an environment can support healthily
  25. mountains
    as you go up in altitude
  26. Symbiosis
    Relationship between two organism
  27. Three types of symbiosis
    • Parasitism
    • Mutualism
    • Commensualism
  28. Parasitism
    Benefits one organism and harms another
  29. Mutualism
    Relationship that is beneficial to both
  30. Commensualism
    Relationship in which one benefits and other is unaffected
  31. Cycle
    No beginning or end; energy cannot be recycled
  32. Water cycle
    Precipitation, evaporation, run off, transportation, respiration, excretion & sweat
  33. Carbon Cycle
    Photosynthesis, respiration, burning fossil fuel
  34. Nitrogen cycle
    Nitrogen fixing bacteria, denitrifying bacteria, N2 into atmosphere
  35. Eutrophication
    Excess nutrients (sewage, fertilizer) - algea bloom - algea dies - decay bacteria increase - o2 used up - fish die
  36. biocumulation
    the build up of concentration of a substance as it move from organism to organism in the food chain  (ex:  DDT, lead, mercury, Acid rain)
  37. Types of ecosystems
    • Tundra
    • Taigi
    • Temperate Forest
    • Grasslands
    • Tropical Rain Forests
    • Deserts
    • Mountains
  38. Marine Biomes
    • Littoral Zone - between high & low tide
    • Sublittoral Zone - between littoral and continental shelf
    • Benthic Zone - Sea Bed
    • Pelagic Zone - Open ocean
    • Abyssal Zone - Cold & dark
  39. Succession
    Orderly change in inhabitants of an area through time
  40. Pioneer community
    Climax community
    Examples of succesion
  41. Sustainable development
    using natural resources without depleting them or causing environmental harm
  42. Example of sustainable development in farming
    prevent erosion, no over irrigation, organic practices
  43. Sustainable development in forestry
    selectively cut mature trees; don't clear cut
  44. Sustainable develoment in fisheries
    prevent overfishing; outlaw certain types of fishing; reduce by-catch, aquaculture
  45. Sustainable development in air resources
    prevent CO2 emission, acid rain, particulate matter
  46. Sustainable development - water resources
    prevent sewage, litter, chemicals, waterwaste; promote wetlands and drip irrigation.
  47. Greenhouse effect
    • global warming
    • Carbon cycle - human impact
    • natural factors
  48. Factors influencing birth and death rates
    Better meds; hygiene & nutrition