BIOL 404-Exam 4-Reproduction 16

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BIOL 404-Exam 4-Reproduction 16
2013-04-28 00:19:09
BIOL 404 Exam Reproduction 16

BIOL 404-Exam 4-Reproduction 16
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  1. What drives the cyclic changes in hormone levels in the female?
    feedback relationships between the ovarian hormones and the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary
  2. In response to LH, the granulosa cells mediate what process?
    Cytoplasmic changes and the first meiotic division of the oocyte
  3. What mediates the cytoplasmic changes and first meiotic division of the oocyte?
    Chemicals produced by granulosa cells in response to LH
  4. What is the antrum?
    Fluid area of the follicle
  5. LH causes what generalized changes in follicle?
    • Increase in antrum size
    • Increase in blood flow to the follicle
  6. What mediates incerased blood flow to the follicle and increase in antrum size?
  7. Why does progesterone begin to dominate mid-cycle?
    The granulosa cells decrease estrogen release and begin making progesterone
  8. What hormones are released by the corpus luteum?
    Progesterone and Estrogen
  9. What hormone maintains a high level of metabolic activity in the uterus?
  10. When estrogen and progesterone are low due to a regressing corpus luteum during days 1-5, what is happening in the female gonads?
    • Endometrial lining sloughs
    • FSH and LH are released from inhibition
    • Several growing follicles are stimulated to mature
  11. What are plasma estrogens like during days 1-5?
  12. When does plasma estrogen begin to increase during the ovarian cycle?
    Day 7-12
  13. When is the endometrium stimulated to proliferate?
    Days 7-12
  14. What occurs during days 7-12 of the ovarian cycle?
    • FSH and LH decrease due to estrogen inhibition
    • Degeneration of non-dominant follicles
    • Plasma estrogen increase
    • Endometrium thickens
  15. What mediates ovulation, other than a spike in LH and FSH?
    Prostaglandins and enzymes
  16. When the corpus leuteum has formed what happens to LH and FSH?
    They are inhibited
  17. What hormone stimulates growth of smooth muscle and epithelial lining of the reproductive tract?
  18. What effect does estrogen have on the fallopian tubes?
    Increases contraction and cilliary activity