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What drives the cyclic changes in hormone levels in the female?
feedback relationships between the ovarian hormones and the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary
In response to LH, the granulosa cells mediate what process?
Cytoplasmic changes and the first meiotic division of the oocyte
What mediates the cytoplasmic changes and first meiotic division of the oocyte?
Chemicals produced by granulosa cells in response to LH
What is the antrum?
Fluid area of the follicle
LH causes what generalized changes in follicle?
- Increase in antrum size
- Increase in blood flow to the follicle
What mediates incerased blood flow to the follicle and increase in antrum size?
Why does progesterone begin to dominate mid-cycle?
The granulosa cells decrease estrogen release and begin making progesterone
What hormones are released by the corpus luteum?
Progesterone and Estrogen
What hormone maintains a high level of metabolic activity in the uterus?
When estrogen and progesterone are low due to a regressing corpus luteum during days 1-5, what is happening in the female gonads?
- Endometrial lining sloughs
- FSH and LH are released from inhibition
- Several growing follicles are stimulated to mature
What are plasma estrogens like during days 1-5?
When does plasma estrogen begin to increase during the ovarian cycle?
When is the endometrium stimulated to proliferate?
What occurs during days 7-12 of the ovarian cycle?
- FSH and LH decrease due to estrogen inhibition
- Degeneration of non-dominant follicles
- Plasma estrogen increase
- Endometrium thickens
What mediates ovulation, other than a spike in LH and FSH?
Prostaglandins and enzymes
When the corpus leuteum has formed what happens to LH and FSH?
They are inhibited
What hormone stimulates growth of smooth muscle and epithelial lining of the reproductive tract?
What effect does estrogen have on the fallopian tubes?
Increases contraction and cilliary activity