Study Guide Bio205 Ch15

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karlap
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Study Guide Bio205 Ch15
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2013-04-30 00:07:46
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Study Guide Bio205 Ch15
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Study Guide Bio205 Ch15
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  1. What are the examples of the first line of defenses that the rhinovirus escaped?
    Mucus and cilia
  2. What is an example of the second line of defense that functions in surveillance?
    Dendritic cells
  3. What are epitopes?
    • Rhinovirus fragments 
    • The site on an antigen at which a specific antibody becomes attached
  4. What are the 3 main lines of defense, and which ones are innate?
    • First Line of Defense - Physical barrier (innate/nonspecific)
    • Second Line of Defense - cells chemicals, processes (innate/nonspecific)
  5. First Line of Defense - Physical barrier (innate/nonspecific)?
    • skin
    • mucous membranes
    • lacrimal apparatus
    • normal microbiota
    • defensins
  6. First Line of Defense - Physical barrier (innate/nonspecific)
    Skin?
    • 1) Epidermis - physical barrier of tightly packed cells, surface of dead cells are sloughed off, carrying microbes away. Dendritic cells - phagocytic, present antigens for adaptive immun.
    • 2) Dermis - collagen makes a tough protective layer: Blood vessels deliver defensive cells and chemicals. Sweat from sweat glands: salt, lysozyme, defensins. Sebum from oil glands: lowers pH
  7. First Line of Defense - Physical barrier (innate/nonspecific)
    Mucous Membranes?
    • Epithelial cells continuously shed, carry microbes away
    • Dendritic cells
    • Goblet cells secrete mucus - traps pathogens, contains lysozyme, defensins
    • Cilia remove mucus and pathogens
  8. First Line of Defense - Physical barrier (innate/nonspecific)
    Lacrimal apparatus?
    produces and drains tears, blinking spreads tears, washes surface of eyes, tears contain lysozyme
  9. First Line of Defense - Physical barrier (innate/nonspecific)
    Normal microbiota?
    • 1) microbial antagonism
    • 2) consume nutrients,
    • 3) change pH
  10. First Line of Defense - Physical barrier (innate/nonspecific)
    Defensins?
    • antimicrobial peptides, act against a variety of pathogens in several ways:
    • punch holes in cytoplasmic membranes
    • interrupts signaling
    • interrupt enzyme action
    • chemotactic
  11. Second Line of Defense - cells, chemicals, processes (innate/nonspecific)?
    • Defensive Cells - Leukocytes
    • Phagocytosis by eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells 
    • Defensive Chemicals
    • Inflammation- nonspecific response to tissue damage
    • Fever- body temp above 37oC
  12. Second Line of Defense - cells, chemicals, processes (innate/nonspecific):
    Defensive Cells - Leukocytes?
    • 1. Granulocytes- squeeze out of BV by diapedesis
    • Basophils
    • Eosinophils
    • Neutrophils
    • 2. Agranulocytes:
    • Lymphocytes 
    • Monocytes 
    • Dendritic cells
  13. Basophils?
    secrete histamines (inflammation)
  14. Eosinophils?
    phagocytic and secrete antimicrobial chemicals, kill worms, parasites
  15. Neutrophils?
    phagocytic and secrete antimicrobial chemicals, kill bacteria
  16. Lymphocytes?
    • Natural Killer Cells (innate/nonspecific immunity)
    • T cells, B cells (adaptive/specific immunity)
  17. Monocytes?
    • when leave blood stream become macrophages - phagocytic
    • wandering
    • fixed: alveolar macrophages, microglia, Kupffer cells
  18. Dendritic cells?
    phagocytic, mostly in skin, mucous membranes
  19. Second Line of Defense - cells, chemicals, processes (innate/nonspecific):
    Phagocytosis by eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells?
    • Chemotaxis
    • Adherence
    • Ingestion
    • Killing 
    • Elimination
  20. Phagocytosis by eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells?
    Chemotaxis?
    • -chemicals attract phagocytes towards pathogen
    • Microbial components
    • Damaged tissue
    • White blood cells
    • Chemotactic factors: defensins, complement, chemokines
  21. Phagocytosis by eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells?
    Adherence?
    • Bacterial virulence factors that hinder adherence:       
    • M protein
    • Capsules or slime layer
    • Opsonization- when complement protein or antibodies enhance adherence and phagocytosis
  22. Phagocytosis by eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells?
    Ingestion?
    microbe encased in phagosome
  23. Phagocytosis by eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells?
    Killing?
    phagosome fuses with lysosome, which contains digestive enzymes
  24. Phagocytosis by eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells?
    Elimination?
    • exocytosis
    • Fragments of pathogen may be displayed on outer surface of cytoplasmic    membrane of phagocytic cell - part of adaptive immunity
  25. Second Line of Defense - cells, chemicals, processes (innate/nonspecific)
    Nonphagocytic Killing?
    • Eosinophils and neutrophils secrete
    • antimicrobial/toxic chemicals   
    • Natural Killer lymphocytes (NK cells) secrete toxins to kill virally-infected cells and cancer cells
  26. Second Line of Defense - cells, chemicals, processes (innate/nonspecific):
    Defensive Chemicals?
    • Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 
    • NOD proteins 
    • Interferons
    • Complement System
  27. Second Line of Defense - cells, chemicals, processes (innate/nonspecific):Defensive Chemicals
    Toll-like receptors (TLRs)?
    membrane proteins of phagocytic cellsreact to pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)Initiates defensive response including apoptosis
  28. Second Line of Defense - cells, chemicals, processes (innate/nonspecific):Defensive Chemicals
    NOD proteins?
    • receptors for PAMPs inside the cell
    • Trigger inflammation, apoptosis
  29. Second Line of Defense - cells, chemicals, processes (innate/nonspecific):Defensive Chemicals
    Interferons?
    • proteins released by host cell infected with virus    
    • Activate NK cells
    • Triggers neighboring cells to produce antiviral proteins
  30. Second Line of Defense - cells, chemicals, processes (innate/nonspecific):Defensive Chemicals
    Complement System ?
    • serum proteins trigger cascade of events, results in...
    • opsonization for phagocytosis
    • chemotaxis for defensive cells
    • membrane attack complex (MAC)
    • histamine release by basophils, platelets, or mast cells
  31. Second Line of Defense - cells, chemicals, processes (innate/nonspecific)
    Inflammation - nonspecific response totissue
    damage?
    • Signs and symptoms:
    • 1) Redness
    • 2) localized heat
    • 3) edema
    • 4) pain
    • Results in:
    • 1) Dilation and increased permeability of blood vessels
    • 2) Migration of phagocytes and other WBCs
    • (neutrophils first, followed by monocytes - margination and diapedesis
    • 3) Tissue repair
    • 4) Increased blood flow to area brings oxygen and nutrients
    • Chemical Mediators of Inflammation
    • c.Histamine- secreted by basophils, platelets and mast cells
  32. Second Line of Defense - cells, chemicals, processes (innate/nonspecific):
    Fever -body temp above 37oC?
    • controlled by hypothalamus
    • occurs when pyrogens are released - any fever causing chemicals, body starts to chiver, metabolic rate increases (HR increases), blood vessels constrict
    • when pyrogens decrease, thermostat resets, body starts to perspire, metabolic rate
    • slows, blood vessels dilate = crisis of fever
    • Enhances effects of interferons
    • Inhibits growth of microbes
    • Probably enhances activity of white blood cells
    • Helps tissue repair

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