Chapter 3 The Living Units (TB)

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lonelygirl
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216252
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Chapter 3 The Living Units (TB)
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2013-05-08 18:45:26
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Biology Anatomy Physiology
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Biology 103A
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  1. Which of the following is true regarding the generation of a membrane potential?

    A) Both potassium and sodium ions can "leak" through the cell membrane due to diffusion.
    B) The maintenance of the potential is based exclusively on diffusion processes.
    C) When the sodium-potassium pump is activated, potassium is pumped into the cell twice as fast as the sodium is pumped out, thus causing the membrane potential.
    D) In the polarized state, sodium and potassium ion concentrations are in static equilibrium.
    A) Both potassium and sodium ions can "leak" through the cell membrane due to diffusion.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. Which statement best describes transcytosis?

    A) combining an endosome with a lysosome and degrading or releasing the contents
    B) transporting an endosome from one side of a cell to the other and releasing the contents by exocytosis
    C) recycling the contents of the endosome back to the surface of the cell
    D) storing the contents of the endosome
    B) transporting an endosome from one side of a cell to the other and releasing the contents by exocytosis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. In certain kinds of muscle cells, calcium ions are stored in ________.

    A) the cytoplasm
    B) both smooth and rough ER
    C) the smooth ER
    D) the rough ER
    C) the smooth ER
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. The RNA responsible for bringing the amino acids to the "factory" site for protein formation is ________.

    A) rRNA
    B) mRNA
    C) tRNA
    D) ssRNA
    C) tRNA
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. A red blood cell placed in pure water would ________.

    A) neither shrink nor swell
    B) shrink
    C) swell initially, then shrink as equilibrium is reached
    D) swell and burst
    D) swell and burst
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. Which of the following describes the plasma membrane?

    A) a double layer of protein enclosing the plasma
    B) a membrane composed of tiny shelves or cristae
    C) a single-layered membrane that surrounds the nucleus of the cell
    D) the phospholipid bilayer surrounding the cell
    D) the phospholipid bilayer surrounding the cell
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. Which of these is not a function of the plasma membrane?

    A) It acts as a site of cell-to-cell interaction and recognition.
    B) It is selectively permeable.
    C) It prevents potassium ions from leaking out and sodium ions from crossing into the cell.
    D) It encloses the cell contents.
    C) It prevents potassium ions from leaking out and sodium ions from crossing into the cell.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. Which structures are fingerlike projections that greatly increase the absorbing surface of cells?

    A) flagella
    B) cilia
    C) stereocilia
    D) microvilli
    D) microvilli
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. Which of the following statements is correct regarding diffusion?

    A) The greater the concentration of gradient, the faster the rate of diffusion.
    B) The rate of diffusion is independent of temperature.
    C) The lower the temperature, the faster the diffusion rate.
    D) Molecular weight of a substance does not affect the rate of diffusion.
    A) The greater the concentration of gradient, the faster the rate of diffusion.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. Cell junctions that promote the coordinated activity of cells by physically binding them together into a cell community include all of the following except ________.

    A) gap junctions
    B) peroxisomes
    C) desmosomes
    D) tight junctions
    B) peroxisomes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. If cells are placed in a hypertonic solution containing a solute to which the membrane is impermeable, what could happen?

    A) The cells will show no change due to diffusion of both solute and solvent.
    B) The cells will lose water and shrink.
    C) The cells will swell and ultimately burst.
    D) The cells will shrink at first, but will later reach equilibrium with the surrounding solution and return to their original condition.
    B) The cells will lose water and shrink.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. Which of the following is not a subcellular structure?

    A) membranes
    B) intercellular material
    C) cytoplasm
    D) organelles
    B) intercellular material
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. Once solid material is phagocytized and taken into a vacuole, which of the following statements best describes what happens?

    A) A ribosome enters the vacuole and uses the amino acids in the "invader" to form new protein.
    B) The vacuole remains separated from the cytoplasm and the solid material persists unchanged.
    C) A lysosome combines with the vacuole and digests the enclosed solid material.
    D) Nitrogen enters the vacuole and "burns" the enclosed solid material.
    C) A lysosome combines with the vacuole and digests the enclosed solid material.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. Riboswitches are folded RNAs that act as switches to turn protein synthesis on or off in response to _________.

    A) the presence or absence of ubiquitins
    B) specific codes from the DNA
    C) changes in the environment
    D) specific tRNAs
    C) changes in the environment
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. Which of the following is a function of a plasma membrane protein?

    A) oxygen transport
    B) molecular transport through the membrane
    C) forms a lipid bilayer
    D) circulating antibody
    B) molecular transport through the membrane
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. Which of the following statements is correct regarding RNA?

    A) rRNA is always attached to the rough ER.
    B) If the base sequence of DNA is ATTGCA, the messenger RNA template will be UCCAGU.
    C) There is exactly one specific type of mRNA for each amino acid.
    D) Messenger RNA, transfer RNA, and ribosomal RNA play a role in protein synthesis.
    D) Messenger RNA, transfer RNA, and ribosomal RNA play a role in protein synthesis.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. Which of the following would not be a constituent of a plasma membrane?

    A) glycoproteins
    B) phospholipids
    C) glycolipids
    D) messenger RNA
    D) messenger RNA
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. Mitosis ________.

    A) creates diversity in genetic potential
    B) always results in division of a cell
    C) produces nucleus replication
    D) is the formation of sex cells
    C) produces nucleus replication
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. The electron microscope has revealed that one of the components within the cell consists of microtubules arranged to form a hollow tube. This structure is a ________.

    A) centriole
    B) ribosome
    C) centrosome
    D) chromosome
    A) centriole
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. Which of these is an inclusion, not an organelle?

    A) microtubule
    B) melanin
    C) cilia
    D) lysosome
    B) melanin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. Which of the following is not a factor that binds cells together?

    A) wavy contours of the membranes of adjacent cells
    B) glycolipids in the glycocalyx
    C) special membrane junctions
    D) glycoproteins in the glycocalyx 
    D) glycoproteins in the glycocalyx
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. If the nucleotide or base sequence of the DNA strand used as a template for messenger RNA synthesis is ACGTT, then what would be the sequence of bases in the corresponding mRNA?

    A) TGCAA
    B) GUACC
    C) UGCAA
    D) ACGTT
    C) UGCAA
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. Which transport process is the main mechanism for the movement of most macromolecules by body cells?

    A) secondary active transport
    B) receptor-mediated endocytosis
    C) phagocytosis
    D) pinocytosis
    B) receptor-mediated endocytosis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. Caveolae are closely associated with all but which of the following?

    A) enzymes involved in cell regulation
    B) receptors for hormones
    C) lipid rafts
    D) enzymes involved in cell metabolism
    D) enzymes involved in cell metabolism
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. Passive membrane transport processes include ________.

    A) movement of water from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration
    B) the use of transport proteins when moving substances from areas of low to high concentration
    C) movement of a substance down its concentration gradient
    D) consumption of ATP
    C) movement of a substance down its concentration gradient
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. Enzymes called _________ destroy the cell's DNA and cytoskeleton, producing a quick death of the cell.

    A) DNA polymerase III
    B) cyclins
    C) caspases
    D) ubiquitins
    C) caspases
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. Mitochondria ________.

    A) are always the same shape
    B) are single-membrane structures involved in the breakdown of ATP
    C) contain some of the DNA and RNA code necessary for their own function
    D) synthesize proteins for use outside the cell
    C) contain some of the DNA and RNA code necessary for their own function
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. Ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, and the Golgi apparatus functionally act in sequence to synthesize and modify proteins for secretory use (export) only, never for use by the cell. This statement is ________.

    A) false; integral cell membrane proteins are also synthesized this way
    B) true
    C) false; proteins thus manufactured are for use inside the cell only
    D) false; lipids, not proteins, are synthesized this way
    A) false; integral cell membrane proteins are also synthesized this way
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. Peroxisomes ________.

    A) are able to detoxify substances by enzymatic action
    B) function to digest particles ingested by endocytosis
    C) are also called microbodies, and contain acid hydrolases
    D) sometimes function as secretory vesicles
    A) are able to detoxify substances by enzymatic action
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. DNA replication ________.

    A) can also be called mitosis
    B) is spontaneous, not requiring enzyme action
    C) takes place during interphase of the cell cycle
    D) occurs only in translationally active areas
    C) takes place during interphase of the cell cycle
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. Which statement is the most correct regarding transcription/translation?

    A) The nucleotide sequence in a mRNA codon is an exact copy of the DNA triplet that coded for it except that uracil is substituted for thymine.
    B) The nucleotide sequence in a tRNA anticodon is an exact copy of the DNA triplet that coded for it.
    C) The nucleotide sequence in a tRNA anticodon is an exact copy of the DNA triplet that coded for it except that uracil is substituted for thymine.
    D) The nucleotide sequence in a mRNA codon is an exact copy of the DNA triplet that coded for it.
    C) The nucleotide sequence in a tRNA anticodon is an exact copy of the DNA triplet that coded for it except that uracil is substituted for thymine.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. In the maintenance of the cell resting membrane potential ________.

    A) the steady state involves only passive processes in all cells
    B) the inside of the cell is positive relative to its outside
    C) cells are more permeable to Na+ than K+
    D) extracellular sodium levels are high
    D) extracellular sodium levels are high
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. Which of the following is a concept of the cell theory?

    A) A cell is the basic structural and functional unit of living organisms.
    B) Only higher organisms are composed of cells.
    C) Simple cells can arise spontaneously from rotting vegetation.
    D) The subcellular organelle is the basic unit of life.
    A) A cell is the basic structural and functional unit of living organisms.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. Which of the following does not serve as a signal for cell division?

    A) surface-to-volume ratio
    B) joining of cyclins and Cdks
    C) repressor genes
    D) contact inhibition
    C) repressor genes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. Which of the following is a principle of the fluid mosaic model of cell membrane structure?

    A) The lipid bilayer is a solid at body temperature, thus protecting the cell.
    B) Phospholipids form a bilayer that is largely impermeable to water-soluble molecules.
    C) Phospholipids consist of a polar head and a nonpolar tail made of three fatty acid chains.
    D) All proteins associated with the cell membrane are contained in a fluid layer on the outside of the cell.
    B) Phospholipids form a bilayer that is largely impermeable to water-soluble molecules.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. Which of the following statements is most correct regarding the intracellular chemical signals known as "second messengers"?

    A) Second messengers act through receptors called K-proteins.
    B) Second messengers usually inactivate protein kinase enzymes.
    C) Second messengers usually act to remove nitric oxide (NO) from the cell.
    D) Cyclic AMP and calcium may be second messengers.
    D) Cyclic AMP and calcium may be second messengers.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. The main component of the cytosol is ________.

    A) salts
    B) sugars
    C) water
    D) proteins
    C) water
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. Lysosomes ________.

    A) maintain a highly alkaline internal environment
    B) are the major site of protein synthesis
    C) contain acid hydrolases that are potentially dangerous to the cell
    D) are always used for the cell to "commit suicide"
    C) contain acid hydrolases that are potentially dangerous to the cell
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. The endomembrane system is ________.

    A) the process by which bacteria took up residence in ancient cells
    B) a system by which cells are riveted together by desmosomes
    C) a system of hydrophilic lipid monolayers that surround many cell organelles
    D) an interactive system of organelles whose membranes are physically or functionally connected
    D) an interactive system of organelles whose membranes are physically or functionally connected
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. The functions of centrioles include ________.

    A) organizing the mitotic spindle in cell division
    B) serving as the site for ribosomal RNA synthesis
    C) providing a whiplike beating motion to move substances along cell surfaces
    D) producing ATP
    A) organizing the mitotic spindle in cell division
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  41. A gene can best be defined as ________.

    A) noncoding segments of DNA up to 100,000 nucleotides long
    B) a segment of DNA that carries the instructions for one polypeptide chain
    C) a three-base triplet that specifies a particular amino acid
    D) an RNA messenger that codes for a particular polypeptide
    B) a segment of DNA that carries the instructions for one polypeptide chain
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. Extracellular matrix is ________.

    A) a type of impermeable cell junction found in epithelia
    B) the most abundant extracellular material
    C) composed of strands of actin protein
    D) not present in connective tissue
    B) the most abundant extracellular material
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. Crenation is likely to occur in blood cells in ________.

    A) an isotonic solution
    B) blood plasma
    C) a hypertonic solution
    D) a hypotonic solution
    C) a hypertonic solution
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. Some hormones enter cells via ________.

    A) pinocytosis
    B) endocytosis
    C) receptor-mediated endocytosis
    D) exocytosis
    C) receptor-mediated endocytosis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  45. If a tRNA had an AGC anticodon, it could attach to a(n) ________ mRNA codon.

    A) UGA
    B) UCG
    C) AUG
    D) TCG
    B) UCG
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  46. Cells are composed mainly of ________. 

    A) carbon, potassium, sodium, nitrogen 
    B) calcium, oxygen, sodium, potassium
    C) carbon, sodium, nitrogen, calcium 
    D) carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen
    D) carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  47. The RNA that has an anticodon and attaches to a specific amino acid is ________ RNA.
    transfer
  48. Water may move through membrane pores constructed by transmembrane proteins called ________.
    aquaporins
  49. ________ is the division of the cytoplasmic mass into two parts.
    Cytokinesis
  50. The metabolic or growth phase of a cell life cycle is called ________.
    interphase
  51. In order for the DNA molecule to get "short and fat" to become a chromosome, it must first wrap around small molecules called ________.
    histones
  52. ________ are hollow tubes made of spherical protein subunits called tubulins.
    Microtubules
  53. Aerobic cellular respiration occurs in the ________.
    mitochondria
  54. Two very important second messengers used in the G protein-linked receptor mechanism are cyclic AMP and ________.
    ionic calcium
  55. The most common extracellular ion is ________.
    sodium
  56. The process of discharging particles from inside a cell to the outside is called ________.
    exocytosis
  57. A red blood cell would swell if its surrounding solution were ________.
    hypotonic
  58. A ________ is a channel between cells.
    connexon
  59. Each daughter cell resulting from mitotic cell division has exactly as many chromosomes as the parent cell. True or False
    True
  60. Apoptosis is programmed cell suicide, but cancer cells fail to undergo apoptosis. True or False
    True
  61. DNA contains "dark matter" that codes for specific structural proteins. True or False
    False;
  62. Final preparation for cell division is made during the cell life cycle subphase called G2. True or False
    True
  63. Chromatin consists of DNA and RNA. True or False
    False;
  64. In osmosis, movement of water occurs toward the solution with the lower solute concentration. True or False
    False
  65. The genetic information is coded in DNA by the regular alternation of sugar and phosphate molecules. True or False
    False
  66. A process by which large particles may be taken into the cell for food, protection of the body, or for disposing of old or dead cells is called phagocytosis. True or False
    True
  67. The orderly sequence of the phases of mitosis is prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. True or False
    True
  68. Diffusion is always from areas of greater to areas of lesser concentration. True or False
    True
  69. Facilitated diffusion always requires a carrier protein. True or False
    False; not always
  70. DNA transcription is another word for DNA replication. True or False
    False; they are different.
  71. The glycocalyx is often referred to as the "cell coat," which is somewhat fuzzy and sticky with numerous cholesterol chains sticking out from the surface of the cell membrane. True or False
    False
  72. In their resting state, all body cells exhibit a resting membrane potential ranging from -50 to about +50 millivolts. True or False
    False
  73. Microfilaments are thin strands of the contractile protein myosin. True or False
    False; actin
  74. Interstitial fluid represents one type of extracellular material. True or False
    True
  75. The cell (plasma) membrane normally contains substantial amounts of cholesterol. True or False
    True
  76. Aquaporins are believed to be present in red blood cells and kidney tubules, but very few other cells in the body. True or False
    False
  77. Most organelles are bounded by a membrane that is quite different in structure from the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane. True or False
    False
  78. Only one cell type in the human body has a flagellum. True or False
    True
  79. Microtubules are hollow tubes made of subunits of the protein tubulin. True or False
    True
  80. Telomeres are the regions of chromosomes that code for the protein ubiquitin. True or False
    False
  81. Nitric oxide may act as a biological messenger. True or False
    True

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