biofinal

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Author:
JessZucker
ID:
21633
Filename:
biofinal
Updated:
2010-06-06 16:30:46
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biology
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bio final
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  1. Asexual Reproduction
    reproduce by itself
  2. Asexual
    Offspring that inherit genes from one parent
  3. Sexual Reproduction
    Offspring that inherit genes of both parents combined
  4. DNA
    • Neucleic Acid(macromolecule)
    • Nucleotide = monomer unit
    • deoxyribose sugar
    • nitrogen base phosphate group
  5. Double Helix
    Structure of DNA
  6. Chromatin
    • Thing and stringy, can't see under microscope
    • DNA wrapped loosly arond protein
    • As a cell enters mitosis the chromatin condenses into chromosomes
  7. Chromosomes
    when chromatids seperate the individual strands are called chromosomes
  8. Sex Chromosomes
    Chromosomes that determine an individuals gender
  9. Autosomes
    any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
  10. Sister Chromatids
    two identically joined copies of the same chromosome
  11. Centromere
    where the two chromatids attach at the center
  12. Cell Cycle
    The process that a cell goes through when doubling
  13. Interphase
    • NONDIVIDING stafe
    • -carries out normal metabolic processes and functions
  14. Go
    • Normal day activities of the cell
    • (g stands for gap)
  15. G1
    Growth phase
  16. S - phase
    • Genetic material duplicates (DNA replication)
    • (S stands for synthesis)
  17. G2
    • Growth phase
    • cell prepares to divide
  18. M - phase
    Mitotic phase
  19. Mitosis
    Nucleus and duplicated chromosomes divide into two "daughter" neclei
  20. Cytokinesis
    Process by which the cytoplasm is split in order to form two seperate cells
  21. Somatic Cells
    Body cells
  22. Centrosomes
    • contain centrioles (only in animal cells)
    • release microtubles to for the mitotic spindle
  23. Phases of mitosis
    • Prophase - pro = before
    • Metaphase - meta - middle
    • anaphase - apart
    • telphase

    PMAT
  24. Prophase
    • -Neucleolus goes away
    • -Nuclear envelope breaks up
    • -Spindle forming
    • -Chromosome consisting of two sister cromatids
  25. Metaphase
    • -Spindle microtubles
    • -2 chromatids
  26. Anaphase
    -Identical daughter chromosomes
  27. Telophase
    • -Chromosomes uncoiling
    • -Neuclear envelope forming
    • -Cell dividing into two
  28. Cancer
    • -Disease caused by the severe disruption of the mechanisms that normally control the cell cycle
    • -Uncontrolled Cell division
  29. Tumor supprressor Gene
    Halts Cell Division
  30. Neoplasm(Tumor)
    • Abnormal new growth of tissue
    • Types:
    • -Benign
    • -Malignant
  31. Benign Tumor
    • NON-cancerous
    • -They CANNOT spread or invade other parts of your body
    • -They CAN be dangerous i they press vital organs, such as your brain
  32. Malignant TUmor
    Cancer cells can migrate and form tumors elsewhere in the body
  33. Metastasis
    The spread of cancer beyond their original site
  34. Radiation therapy
    Injures or Destroys cells in the area being treated by damaging their DNA, making it impossible for more growth and divide
  35. Chemotherapy
    Chemicals that distrupt Cell division
  36. Homologous Chromosomes
    • -same chromosome structure
    • -carries the same sequence of genes
  37. Diploid
    • 2 sets of chromosomes
    • -one from mom
    • -one from dad
  38. Haploid
    • One set of chromosomes
    • -Combination of chromosomes from mom and dad
  39. Karyotype
    the representations of a chromosome
  40. Gametes
    Sex cells (germ cells)
  41. Zygote
    A cell formed by two gametes
  42. Dizygotic Twins
    • Fraternal twins
    • -twins who develop from two eggs fertilized by two different sperm
  43. Monozygotic Twins
    • Identical twins
    • -Soon after one sperm fertilized one egg to
    • form the zygote, the embryo splits to form
    • two identical embryos
  44. Conjoined Twins
    • -A form of monozygotic twins
    • -Occurs when the zygote of identical twins
    • fails to completely separate
  45. Meiosis
    • Produces 4 non-identical gametes
    • -Cell Division
    • Stage one
    • -Chromosome reduction divison
    • Stage two
    • -Division
  46. Non-disjunction
    • The failure of the chromosomes to properly
    • segregate during meiotic or mitotic anaphase,
    • resulting in daughter cells with abnormal numbers of chromosomes
    • -Down Syndrome
    • -Turner Syndrome
    • -Klinefelter Syndrome
  47. Down Syndrome
    • Mental Retardation
    • - Characteristic Facial Appearance
    • - Increased risk for heart defects (~50% have a heart defect), digestive problems,
    • leukemia, Alzheimer disease, hearing problems, hypothyroidism
    • - Life Expectancy - 55 years
  48. Turner Syndrome
    -presence of only one complete X chromosome and no Y chromosome
  49. Klinefelter Syndrome
    An abnormal condition in a male characterized by two X chromosomes and one Y chromosome
  50. Chorionic villus sampling
    • -used for women 35 or
    • older
    • -earlier Test: 10-12 wks
    • -increased risk for
    • miscarriage: about 2%
  51. Amniocentesis
    • Used for women 35 or
    • older
    • -Test: 16-18 wks
    • -Increased risk for
    • miscarriage: less than 1%
  52. Crossing Over
    • exchange of genetic material between
    • homologous chromosomes (tetrad)
  53. Tetrad
    group of 4 chromosomes
  54. Double Helix
    The structure of DNA in a shape of a spiral that consists of paired polynucleotides
  55. Nucleotide
    something that makes up DNA
  56. Nitrogen Base
    • Purines-double ring
    • -Adenine
    • -Guanine
    • Pyrimidines
    • -Cytosine
    • -Thymine
  57. Phosphodiester bonds
    In RNA or DNA that holds a polynucleotide chain together

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