AP Comparative Politics_ Intro.txt

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Jennitime
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216332
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AP Comparative Politics_ Intro.txt
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2013-04-28 16:00:16
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AP Comparative Ethel Wood
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Chapter One Introduction to Comparative Politics
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  1. Government
    Reference to the leadership and institutions that make policy decisions for a country.
  2. Politics
    Where the power is involving leaders and policy decisions.
  3. Empirical Data
    Factual statements and statistics
  4. Normative Issues
    Requires value judgements that also takes into account facts
  5. Hypothesis
    A speculative statement about the relationship between two or more factors known as variables
  6. Causation
    One variable leading to another
  7. Correlation
    Connection but not necessarily causation
  8. Three-world approach
    • 1. US and allies
    • 2. Soviet Union and allies
    • 3. Third world
  9. Civil Society
    The way that citizens organize and define themselves and their interests
  10. Informal Politics
    Takes into consideration what politicians do outside their formal powers, but also impact that beliefs, values, and actions of ordinary citizens have on policymaking
  11. Advanced Democracy
    Country having a well established democratic government and a high level of economic development
  12. States
    Government that maintains a monopoly of violence over a territory
  13. Institutions
    Stable, long lasting organizations that help to turn political ideas into policy
  14. Sovereignty
    The ability to carry out actions or policies within their borders
  15. Nation
    A group of people that are bound together by a common political identity
  16. Nationalism
    The sense of belonging and identity that distinguishes one nation from another
  17. Regimes
    Rules that a state sets and follows in exerting its power
  18. Indirect and Direct Democracy
    Elected officials representing the people or individuals have immediate say over decisions government makes
  19. Parliamentary system
    Where citizens vote for legislative representatives, which in turn select leaders of the executive branch
  20. Presidential system
    Where citizens vote for legislative representatives as well as for executive brach leaders, and two branches function with seperation of powers.
  21. Parliamentary sovereignty
    Ability for parliament to carry out rules
  22. Head of State
    Symbolizes the power and nature of the regime: Queen of England
  23. Head of Government
    Does the daily government tasks: Prime Minister of Britain
  24. Checks and Balances
    Legislative and executive branch (sometimes Judicial Branch) can balance power
  25. Seperation of Powers
    Ensures that power is shared and that one branch does not come to dominate the others
  26. Semi presidential system
    Prime Minister coexists with president who is directly elected by the people and holds significant amount of power.
  27. Communism
    Communist party controls everything from the government to the economy to social life. Less freedom for more equality.
  28. Corporatism
    An arrangement in which government officials interact with people/groups outside the government before they set policy. Generally business and labor leaders. Or patron-client systems.
  29. Patron-Client Systems
    Provide favors for supporters
  30. Totalitarianism
    Used to describe repressive regimes
  31. Military rule
    When military takes over the state
  32. Coup de'etat
    Forced takeover of government. Often violent.
  33. Co-optation
    The means a regime uses to get support from citizens
  34. Pluralism
    A situation in which power is split among many groups that compete for the chance to influence the government's decision making.
  35. Democratic Corporatism
    The state controls the corporations that become semi public agencies acting on behalf of the state.
  36. Legitimacy
    The right to rule
  37. Common law
    Based on tradition, past practices, and legal precedents
  38. Code law
    Based on written rules divided into commercial, civil, and criminal codes
  39. Political Culture
    Refers to the collection of political beliefs, values, practices, and institutions that the government is based on.
  40. Consensual political culture
    Accepts legitimacy of regime and solutions to major problems
  41. Conflictual political culture
    Sharply divided often on both legitimacy and solutions to major problems
  42. Social capital
    The amount of reciprocity and trust that exists among the citizens and between citizens and state
  43. Political ideologies
    Sets of political values held by individuals regarding the basic goals of government and politics
  44. Liberalism as political ideology
    Emphasis on individual political and economic freedoms
  45. Socialism
    Value of equality but influenced by liberal value of freedom. Promotes private ownership and free market principles
  46. Fasicm
    Rejects equality and individual freedom. The government does whatever to ensure power to the country.
  47. Reform
    Type of change that does not advocate overthrowing of basic institutions. Wants to change some methods.
  48. Revolution
    Major revision in basic institutions
  49. Radicalism
    Rapid dramatic changes need to be made
  50. Liberalism as attitude towards change
    Reform and gradual change rather than revolution
  51. Conservatism
    Less support of change in general
  52. Reactionary beliefs
    We need to reverse to old times for policies. Willing to use violence similar to radicals.
  53. Competitive elections
    Regular, free, fair elections
  54. Liberal democracies
    Having civil liberties, rule of law, neutrality of the judiciary, open civil society, and civilian control of the military and competitive elections
  55. Substantive democracies
    Citizens have access to multiple sources of information
  56. Illiberal democracy
    Countries that have democratic procedures in place but significant restrictions on them
  57. Third wave of democratization
    Defeat of totalitarian or dictatorial rulers in south america, eastern europe, and so e parts of Africa
  58. Revolution of rising expectations
    Political discontent after Improvement in living conditions
  59. Democratic consolidation
    Creates a stable political system that is supported by all parts of the society
  60. Political liberalization
    Procedural democracy to substantive democracy though democratic consolidation
  61. Bourgeoisie
    Middle class professionals or businessmen
  62. Command economy
    Government owned almost all industrial enterprises and retail outlets
  63. Economic Liberalization
    The process of limiting the power of the state over private property and market forces
  64. Market Economy
    Economy that varies depending on control of the government
  65. Mixed Economy
    economy that allows for some control of the market
  66. Marketization
    describes the state's recreation of a market in which property, labor, goods, and services can all function in a competitive environment to determine their value
  67. Privatization
    transfer of state-owned property to private ownership
  68. Fragmentation
    divisions based on ethnic or cultural identity
  69. Politicization of religion
    Religion that gets mixed with politics
  70. Social Cleavages
    divisions in religion, class, ethnicity. etc.
  71. Social Boundaries
    Where people have a line drawn across from social cleavages
  72. Political Efficacy
    a citizen's capacity to understand and influence political events
  73. Political Socialization
    relating the politics with society
  74. Subject Activities
    most citizens contact government through this in authoritarian governments which involves obeying laws, paying taxes, etc.
  75. Social Movements
    organized collective activities that aim to bring about or resist fundamental change in an existing group or society
  76. Tyranny of the Majority
    the tendency in democracies to allow majority rule to neglect the rights and liberties of minorities
  77. Cosmopolitanism
    a universal political order that draws its identity and values from everywhere
  78. nongovernmental organizations (NGOs)
    national or international groups that pursue policy objectives and foster public participation that is not involved with the state
  79. Political Institutions
    structures of a political system that carry out the work of the governing
  80. Unitary System
    concentrated all policymaking powers in one central geographic place and the central government is responsible for most policy areas
  81. Confederal system
    spreads power among many sub-units and has weak government control
  82. Federal System
    divides power between central government and sub-units
  83. Integration
    a process that encourages states to pool their sovereignty in order to gain political, economic, and social clout.
  84. Foreign direct investments
    purchase of assets in a country by a foreign firm
  85. centripetal forces
    bind together the people of a state giving it strength
  86. centrifugal forces
    destabilize the government and encourage the country to fall apart
  87. separatist movements
    nationalities within a country may demand independence.
  88. Devolution
    the tendency to decentralize decision-making to regional governments
  89. Ethnic group
    belonging to the same culture
  90. Ethnonationalism
    ethnic groups to see themselves as a distinct nation with a right to autonomy or independence
  91. Cabinet Coalition
    several parties join forces and are represented in different cabinet posts
  92. discretionary power
    the power to make small decisions in implementing legislative and executive decisions
  93. technocrats
    civilian bureaucrats
  94. bicameral
    two houses in legislation
  95. unicameral
    legislature has one house
  96. elite recruitment
    identifying future leaders of the government
  97. Constitutional courts
    serves to defend democratic principles of a country against infringement by both private citizens and the government
  98. Judicial Review
    allows courts to review laws and executive actions for their constitutionality
  99. Linkage Institutions
    groups that connect citizens and government
  100. two-party system
    Only two parties running for office
  101. multi-party system
    multiple parties running for office
  102. electoral systems
    rules that decide how votes are cast, counted, and translated into seats in a legislature
  103. first-past-the-post
    divide their constituencies into single-member districts in which candidates compete for a single representative's seat
  104. winner-take-all system
    winner does not need majority to win, but simply get more votes than anyone else
  105. Proportional Representation
    creates multi-member districts in which more than one legislative seat is contested in each district
  106. Mixed System
    where there is a combined system for parties such as proportional representation plust first-past-the post
  107. Referendum
    a national ballot, called by the government on a policy issue
  108. Initiative
    a vote on a policy that is initiated by the people
  109. Transmission Belts
    groups that extends the party's influence. for example China
  110. interest group pluralism
    autonomous groups compete with each other and with government for influence over state policies in a patten
  111. State Corporatism
    the state determines which groups are brought in
  112. Societal Corporatism
    interest groups take the lead and dominate the state
  113. Political Elites
    leaders who have a disproportionate share of policy making power
  114. succession
    process that determines the procedure of replacing leaders when the resign, die or are no longer effective
  115. Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
    all the goods and services produced by a country's economy in a given year. excluding income citizens and groups earn outside the country
  116. Gross National Product (GNP)
    GDP that includes income earned outside the country
  117. GNP per capita
    divides GNP by population of the country
  118. Purchasing Power Parity (PPP)
    a figure like GNP except it takes into consideration what people can buy using their income in the local economy
  119. The Gini Index
    a mathematical formula that calculates the amount of economic inequality in a society
  120. Human Development Index (HDI)
    measures the well being of a country's people by factoring in adult literacy, life expectancy, educational enrollment, as well as GDP
  121. Freedom House
    an organization that studies democracy around the world, ranks countries 1 to 7 on the freedom scale with 1 being most free and 7 being least free

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