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Who was Antoni van Leeuwenhoek?
He was a Dutch tailor, merchant, and lens grinder who invented the first microscope and first saw microorganisms. He was elected to the Royal Society in 1680.
*When he died, he left no instructions on how to make his microscopes, which delayed the progress of microbiology as a result.
What are the six categories that Leeuwenhoek's microorganisms can be grouped in to?
- 1) Fungi
- 2) Protozoa
- 3) Algae
- 4) Bacteria
- 5) Archaea
- 6) Small multicellular animals
Describe fungi in comparison to plants and animals.
They are eukaryotic organisms. They differ from plants in that they obtain their food from other organisms, and they are different from animals in that they have cell walls.
Who was Carolus Linnaeus?
- B. 1707-1778
- He was a Swedish botanist who developed the taxonomic system.
- *His initial system was only divided into the animal and plant kingdom.
List 6 characteristics of protozoa.
- 1) Single-celled eukaryotes
- 2) Similar to animals in their nutritional needs and cellular structure
- 3) Typically live freely in water
- 4) Most produce asexually (though some are sexual as well)
- 5) Often categorized based on their locomotive structure
- 6) Can be pathogenic within animal hosts
What are the three locomotive structure categories of protozoa?
- 1) Pseudopodia
- 2) Cilia
- 3) Flagella
They are unicellular and typically oval or round. They reproduce asexually by budding. Some yeasts also produce sexual spores.
*They are a type of fungi
They are typically multicellular organisms that grow as long, intertwining filaments that compose the body of the mold. They can reproduce via sexual or asexual spores.
*They are a type of fungi
How are they categorized?
What are they used for?
Algae are unicellular or multicellular photosynthetic organisms. They make their own food like plants using CO2 and H2O and energy from sunlight. They are categorized based on their pigmentation and composition of their cell walls.
*They are used to make microbiological growth media.
What were the two big reasons microbiology didn't develop significantly for nearly two centuries (late 1600's - late 1800's)?
- 1) Leeuwenhoek never trained nor disclosed how to make his microscopes and it took nearly 100 years to make them at the same quality he had.
- 2) Until the late 1800's microbes had been considered curiosities of nature and insignificant to human affairs. This changed when, in the late 1800's, scientists began to adopt a new philosophy of demanding experimental proof rather than simply accepting traditional knowledge.
What four questions drove scientists into the 50 years of the "Golden Age of Microbiology"?
- 1) Is spontaneous generation of microbial life possible?
- 2) What causes fermentation?
- 3) What causes disease?
- 4) How can we prevent infection and disease?
What is abiogenesis?
Who was Francesco Redi?
He was an Italian physician (1626-1697) who conducted the meat in the jar experiment and made people begin to question Aristotle's theory of spontaneous generation and begin to consider a new view that animals only arise from other animals.
Who was John T. Needham?
- B. 1713-1781
- He was a British biologist and Roman Catholic priest who boiled beef gravy and infusions of plant materials in vials and then observed cloudiness in them days later. This led him to believe that there must be a "life force" that caused inanimate matter to spontaneously come to life.
*Endospores from plant infusions had unknowingly not been killed during Needham's heating, which was why life continued to arise in his vials.
Who was Lazzaro Spallanzani?
- B. 1729-1799
- He was an Italian scientist who challenged John T. Needham's findings. He boiled his infusions for over an hour and seal his vials shut. His vials remained clear until they were broken and exposed to air. He thus contradicted Needham's findings.
*However, his experiment did not officially put the spontaneous generation debate to rest.
Who was Louis Pasteur?
- He was a French chemist and microbiologist who developed swan-neck flasks and conducted experiments that put the spontaneous generation debate to rest.
- Later, he discovered facultative anaerobes and found out that bacteria spoil wine, whereas yeasts create them. He thus began the field of industrial microbiology.
* He is considered to be the "Father of Microbiology"
Who was Edward Buchner?
- B. 1860-1917
- He was a German chemist and zymologist who conducted experiments that demonstrated the presence of enzymes. He thus began the field of biochemistry and the study of metabolism.
What is metabolism?
Metabolism is the sum of all chemical reactions within an organism.
What is the germ theory of disease?
The germ theory of disease states that some infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms.
What is etiology?
Etiology is the study of the causation of disease.
Who was Robert Koch?
What are five advances he made to laboratory microbiology?
- B. 1843-1910
- He was a German microbiologist who dominated etiology. He was able to discover the cause of anthrax before Pasteur and made many advances in laboratory microbiology, including:
- 1) Simple staining techniques
- 2) The first photograph of bacteria is diseased tissue
- 3) The use of petri dishes to hold specimens
- 4) Elucidation of bacteria as distinct species
- 5) Koch's postulates