Science Final DNA, 17, and 18

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Science Final DNA, 17, and 18
2010-06-02 12:27:34
science final kron

environmental science final
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  1. Codon
    3 letter code in RNA that codes for an amino acid.
  2. Translation
    Copying DNA
  3. Anticodon
    Compliment of a codon.
  4. Protein is made up of...
    Amino acids
  5. During translation, tRNA pairs with a complementary..
    mRNA codon (complement of DNA)
  6. AUG is a..
    Start up codon,
  7. Trait
    Characteristic of an organism.
  8. Chromosomes
    Sections of DNA that contain genes for traits.
  9. Allele
    • One of several forms that a paticular gene can take.
    • Ex: tall or short
  10. What is DNA
    Nucleic acid, which is made of nucleotides.
  11. What are nucleic acids made up of?
    • Nucleotides, which have three parts:
    • 1. Sugar molecule. DNA=deoxyribose RNA=ribose (both have 5 carbons, 1 oxygen, and 1 hydrogen.)
    • 2. Phosphate group. Phosphate of one nucleotide forms a covalent bond with another, which repeats and forms a negatively charged Sugar-Phosphate Backbone, which causes the whole strand to be negative.
    • 3. Nitrogenous Base- molecule made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, and attached to the sugar of the nucleotide.
  12. Purine
    Double-ringed bases. Adenine (A) & Guanine (G)
  13. Pyrimidines
    Single-ringed bases. Thymine (T), Cytosine (C), and Uracil (U).
  14. DNA's bases
    A, G, C, T
  15. RNA's bases
    A, G, C, U
  16. Complemenary Base Pairing
    • Each nitrogenous base always pairs with its complement.
    • A --> T, G --> C, A --> U
    • This keeps the distance between strands.
  17. Heredity
    Passing of traits from parents to children. In chromosomes (nucleus.)
  18. Genetics
    Study of heredity.
  19. Dihybrid Cross
    P generation has 2 dominant and 2 recessive, dominant always shows.
  20. Law of independant assortment
    Each pair of chromosomes seperates on its own in mieosis.
  21. Haploid
    1 of each chromosome (gamete).
  22. Diploid
    A pair (2h).
  23. Active strand
    • The side that has the codons/info.
    • Other is a complement (dummy strand).
  24. Where is DNA and what does it do?
    • In nucleus.
    • Directs proteins.
  25. Where is mRNA and what does it do?
    • Nucleus, cytoplasm, and ribosome.
    • Transcription.
  26. Where are ribosomes?
  27. DNA backbone is made of?
    Phosphate and deoxyribose.
  28. Voltage formula
    • Voltage= Current (amps) x Resistance (watts)
    • V = A x W
  29. Power formula
    • Power (watts) = Voltage (v) x Current (amps)
    • W = V x A
  30. Global Warming
    Average increase in in global temperature.
  31. Causes of global warming
    • 1. Humans
    • -Increase of fossil fuels --> CO2
    • 2. Nature
    • -Solar flares. Sun --> 99.5% of energy
  32. Current effects of global warming
    • 1. Climate refugees are relocating because it is getting too hot.
    • 2. Decrease in glaciers, increase in sea levels. Decrease in fresh water because it's mixing with the salt water. Most increase in polar regions b/c it's white.
    • 3. Increase in food price. Climate is shifting and changing growing.
    • 4. Increase in storm power due to increased water temperature.
    • 5. Tropical Diseases are stronger in heat.
  33. Smog: primary or secondary?
  34. Citys with a moist, cloudy climate and few traffic problems would pribably NOT have
  35. When car emissions react with O2 and UV rays, what is formed?
  36. Series Circuit
    If one object in the series does not recieve electricity, then none of the objects in the series will work.
  37. Parallel Circuit
    If one object in the circuit does not recieve electricty, it does not affect the other objects.
  38. Energy
    The ability to do work.
  39. Work
    Move matter and electrcity.
  40. 2 types of energy
    • Kinetic
    • Potential
  41. Kinetic energy
    Energy of movement (in use)
  42. Potential energy
    • Stored/ at rest.
    • Energy of position of matter.
  43. 6 main forms of energy
    • 1. nuclear
    • 2. mechanical
    • 3. thermal (heat)
    • 4. radiant
    • 5. electrical
    • 6. chemical
  44. nuclear energy
    energy in the matter of the nucleus (protons and neutrons).
  45. Fission
    • Break down larger nuclei to form smaller ones.
    • Used in nuclear bomb and nuclear powerplant.
  46. Fusion
    • Combine small nuclei to form a bigger nucleus.
    • Used on stars. H+H=He
  47. mechanical
    motion of matter
  48. thermal/heat energy
    • movement of molecules = friction (James Prescott Joule)
    • lowest form of energy
  49. radiant energy
    energy of waves (the electromagentic spectrum)
  50. electrical energy
    energy of electrons
  51. chemical energy
    energy of bonds of matter (electron bonds between atoms)
  52. The ultimate beginning form of all energy transformations is?
    nuclear energy from the sun.
  53. Which form of energy is always considered intermediate and why?
    Electrical- we want the actual end result of the energy, (light on), not electricity itself.
  54. Law of Conservation of Energy
    Matter: cannot be created. cannot be destroyed. CAN change from on form to another.
  55. 10 most common energy sources
    • petroleum
    • natural gas
    • coal
    • uranium
    • biomass
    • hydropower
    • propane
    • geothermal
    • solar
    • wind
  56. alka selter's energy
    chemical --> mechanical
  57. Newton's cradle energy
    energy is converted. frictio, heat is lost, and sound is converted. eventually all energy is converted, and the cradle stops.
  58. Most used energy source
  59. energy source used to generate the most electricty
  60. second most used energy source for electricity
  61. renewable sources
    • wind
    • biomass
    • solar
    • hydropower
    • geothermal
  62. nonrenewable energy sources
    • petroleum
    • coal
    • propane
    • natural gas
    • uranium
  63. fossil fuels
    • coal
    • petroleum
    • natural gas
    • propane
  64. static electricity
    gathering of electrons in one place
  65. frequency
    Number of peaks that pass a point in a set amount of time.
  66. wave lenght
    distance from one peak to the next peak.
  67. why is electrical energy useful?
    it is easily converted into other forms of energy
  68. armature
    moves through the magnetic field.
  69. steady system
    enter and exit at the same rate
  70. What happens as our living standards increase>
    carrying capacity decreases
  71. Law of conservation of matter
    matter can't be created or destroyed, but it can be rearranged.
  72. Sun energy
    • nuclear fusion
    • powers photosynthesis, water cycle, wind, waves, fossil fuels, biomass
  73. tide energy
    renewable. gravitiational pull of moon and sun on earth.
  74. geothermal energy
    renewable.. Earth's heat is from fission in crust
  75. fission fuels
    Uranum 235 is nonrenewable, but abundant. nuclear power plants.
  76. fusion fuels
    some day? hydrogen in oceans and such powers it. nonrenewable, but plentiful.
  77. mass
    measure of the amount of stuff in an an object (measure of an objects resistance to change). Ex: golf ball vs shot put. Which is harder to throw? Stop?
  78. matter
    anything that occupies space and has mass. You can see, touch, and feel matter.
  79. work formula
    force x distance