Science Final DNA, 17, and 18
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Science Final DNA, 17, and 18
science final kron
environmental science final
3 letter code in RNA that codes for an amino acid.
Compliment of a codon.
Protein is made up of...
During translation, tRNA pairs with a complementary..
mRNA codon (complement of DNA)
AUG is a..
Start up codon,
Characteristic of an organism.
Sections of DNA that contain genes for traits.
One of several forms that a paticular gene can take.
: tall or short
What is DNA
Nucleic acid, which is made of nucleotides.
What are nucleic acids made up of?
Nucleotides, which have three parts:
1. Sugar molecule. DNA=deoxyribose RNA=ribose (both have 5 carbons, 1 oxygen, and 1 hydrogen.)
2. Phosphate group. Phosphate of one nucleotide forms a covalent bond with another, which repeats and forms a negatively charged Sugar-Phosphate Backbone, which causes the whole strand to be negative.
3. Nitrogenous Base- molecule made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, and attached to the sugar of the nucleotide.
Double-ringed bases. Adenine (A) & Guanine (G)
Single-ringed bases. Thymine (T), Cytosine (C), and Uracil (U).
A, G, C, T
A, G, C, U
Complemenary Base Pairing
Each nitrogenous base always pairs with its complement.
A --> T, G --> C, A --> U
This keeps the distance between strands.
Passing of traits from parents to children. In chromosomes (nucleus.)
Study of heredity.
P generation has 2 dominant and 2 recessive, dominant always shows.
Law of independant assortment
Each pair of chromosomes seperates on its own in mieosis.
1 of each chromosome (gamete).
A pair (2h).
The side that has the codons/info.
Other is a complement (dummy strand).
Where is DNA and what does it do?
Where is mRNA and what does it do?
Nucleus, cytoplasm, and ribosome.
Where are ribosomes?
DNA backbone is made of?
Phosphate and deoxyribose.
Voltage= Current (amps) x Resistance (watts)
V = A x W
Power (watts) = Voltage (v) x Current (amps)
W = V x A
Average increase in in global temperature.
Causes of global warming
-Increase of fossil fuels --> CO2
-Solar flares. Sun --> 99.5% of energy
Current effects of global warming
1. Climate refugees are relocating because it is getting too hot.
2. Decrease in glaciers, increase in sea levels. Decrease in fresh water because it's mixing with the salt water. Most increase in polar regions b/c it's white.
3. Increase in food price. Climate is shifting and changing growing.
4. Increase in storm power due to increased water temperature.
5. Tropical Diseases are stronger in heat.
Smog: primary or secondary?
Citys with a moist, cloudy climate and few traffic problems would pribably NOT have
When car emissions react with O2 and UV rays, what is formed?
If one object in the series does not recieve electricity, then none of the objects in the series will work.
If one object in the circuit does not recieve electricty, it does not affect the other objects.
The ability to do work.
Move matter and electrcity.
2 types of energy
Energy of movement (in use)
Stored/ at rest.
Energy of position of matter.
6 main forms of energy
3. thermal (heat)
energy in the matter of the nucleus (protons and neutrons).
Break down larger nuclei to form smaller ones.
Used in nuclear bomb and nuclear powerplant.
Combine small nuclei to form a bigger nucleus.
Used on stars. H+H=He
motion of matter
movement of molecules = friction (James Prescott Joule)
lowest form of energy
energy of waves (the electromagentic spectrum)
energy of electrons
energy of bonds of matter (electron bonds between atoms)
The ultimate beginning form of all energy transformations is?
nuclear energy from the sun.
Which form of energy is always considered intermediate and why?
Electrical- we want the actual end result of the energy, (light on), not electricity itself.
Law of Conservation of Energy
Matter: cannot be created. cannot be destroyed. CAN change from on form to another.
10 most common energy sources
alka selter's energy
chemical --> mechanical
Newton's cradle energy
energy is converted. frictio, heat is lost, and sound is converted. eventually all energy is converted, and the cradle stops.
Most used energy source
energy source used to generate the most electricty
second most used energy source for electricity
nonrenewable energy sources
gathering of electrons in one place
Number of peaks that pass a point in a set amount of time.
distance from one peak to the next peak.
why is electrical energy useful?
it is easily converted into other forms of energy
moves through the magnetic field.
enter and exit at the same rate
What happens as our living standards increase>
carrying capacity decreases
Law of conservation of matter
matter can't be created or destroyed, but it can be rearranged.
powers photosynthesis, water cycle, wind, waves, fossil fuels, biomass
renewable. gravitiational pull of moon and sun on earth.
renewable.. Earth's heat is from fission in crust
Uranum 235 is nonrenewable, but abundant. nuclear power plants.
some day? hydrogen in oceans and such powers it. nonrenewable, but plentiful.
measure of the amount of stuff in an an object (measure of an objects resistance to change). Ex: golf ball vs shot put. Which is harder to throw? Stop?
anything that occupies space and has mass. You can see, touch, and feel matter.
force x distance