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What is the chorion?
The external membrane of the placenta
During the first trimester, the chorion is the source of what hormone?
What is the source of ginadotropin during the first trimester?
Why does the chorion secrete gonadotropin?
To maintain the corpus luteum's steroid production
What produces steroids that support gestation during the 2nd and 3rd trimester?
What is placental steroidogenisis?
Steroid production by the placenta in the 2nd and 3rd trimester
What is an early indicator of pregnancy?
Metabolites in the urine
When does the switch from uterine dependence on the ovaries for steroid support to dependence on the placenta occur?
The end of the first trimester
What is the interval of the greatest likelihood of miscarriage?
The first trimester
What hormones are the main hormones produced by the placenta (5)?
- Human chorionic gonadotropin
- human placental lactogen
Describe the hormonal role of the anterior pituitary during pregnancy?
- Secretes very little FSH and LH
- Increased secretion of prolactin
What organ produces prolactin?
The anterior pituitary
Salt and water are retained or flushed during production?
Retained at a higher rate
What causes water and salt to be retained at a higher rate during pregnancy?
Increased aldosterone, vasopressin and estrogen levels
What do increased estrogen, vasopressin and aldosterone cause during pregnancy?
Increased water and salt retention
What do the kidneys secrete during pregnancy?
- 1,25-duhydroxyvitamin D
What organ secretes renin, erythropoietin and 1-25-dihydroxyvitamin D during pregnancy?
What does the adrenal cortex secrete during pregnancy?
What does the Posterior pituitary secrete during pregnancy?
What does the Parathyroid secrete during pregnancy?
What hormones cause the glandular tissue to develop during pregnancy?
- Human placental prolactin