BIOL 404-Exam 4-Reproduction 22

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kyleannkelsey
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216379
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BIOL 404-Exam 4-Reproduction 22
Updated:
2013-04-28 15:22:23
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BIOL 404 Exam Reproduction 22
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BIOL 404-Exam 4-Reproduction 22
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  1. prostaglandins provide positive feedback for labor to what organs?
    The uterus
  2. What provides only local feedback to induce labor?
    Prostaglandins
  3. What action from the positive feedback produced from cervical pressure happens in the hypothalamus?
    Increased action potentials to the posterior pituitary
  4. What is the action of the posterior pituitary during labor?
    It increases oxytocin secretion
  5. What affect t does increased oxytocin have during labor?
    Increased uterine contractions
  6. What are the general actions of prostaglandins on the uterus?
    • Constrict blood vessels, causing menstruation
    • Change blood vessels in endometrium during early pregnancy to facilitate implantation
    • Increases contraction of myometrium during menstruation and parturition
    • Causes cervical dilation
  7. What chemical causes cervical dilation?
    Prostaglandins
  8. What chemical causes blood vessel changes that facilitate implantation?
    Prostaglandins
  9. What chemicals cause blood vessel constriction during menstruation?
    Prostaglandins
  10. What action do prostaglandins have on the corpus luteum?
    • May interfere with hormone secretion and function
    • role in apoptosis of the corpus luteum
  11. What major hormones stimulate development of teh mammary glands during pregnancy?
    • Prolactin
    • Estrogens
    • Progestins
  12. Describe the breasts prior to pregnancy?
    Ducts with few aveoli
  13. What happens to breast during pregnancy?
    • Aveoli grow
    • mid pregnancy = aveoli acquire a lumen
    • Dilate during lactation
  14. Wt what point during pregnancy do the aveoli acquire a lumen?
    Mid-pregnancy
  15. Whta hormone promotes the synthesis of milk?
    Prolactin
  16. What hormone promotes milk ejection?
    Oxytocin
  17. Describe how nursing works:
    • Child stimulates mechanoreceptors
    • Oxytocin is released
    • Milk ejects
  18. Describe the pathway for milk synthesis:
    • Mechanoreceptor stimulation of the breasts
    • Hypothalamus decreases dopamine
    • Increased prolactin synthesis by anterior pituitary
    • more milk produced
  19. How do barrier methods work?
    Prevent sperm from entering the uterus
  20. What is the failure rate of barrier methods?
    12-13%

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