BIOL 404-Exam 4-Reproduction 23
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How do spermacides work?
Kill sperm in the vagina
What is the failure rate of spermacides?
What isthe failure rate of sterilization?
What is the failure rate of IUDs?
How do hormonal birth controls work?
- prevent ovulation by suppressing LH spike
- Alter endometrium to prevent implantation
- Thicken cervical mucus
What form of hormonal birth control is the most effective?
Injectable or implantable
What can alter sex differentiation?
- atypical chromosomal combinations
- Mis-expression of SRY
- Androgen insensitivity
- Production of Mullerian-inhibiting substance
What establishes the onset of puberty?
Increased adrenal androgens
What does increased adrenal androgens indicate?
The onset of puberty
What causes menopause?
The cessation of ovarian response to GnRH
What is the name for the cessation of ovarian response to gonadotrophins?
What hormones are important for parturition?
oxytocin and prostaglandins
What two hormones increase continually during pregnancy?
estrogens and progesterone
What hormone is only produced during the first trimester?
Describe major changing hormone levels during pregnancy
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