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What are the techniques to study brain function?
- Lesion technique
- Electrical activity
- PET Scan
What is the Lesion technique?
What is an EEG?
An electroencephalogram (EEG) is a test to measure the electrical activity of the brain.
What is a PET scan?
Radioactive Glucose to see the most active areas of the brain
What is an MRI?
- Looks at brain tissue
- Can look at brain damage
What is an FMRI?
FMRI looks at oxygen consumption.
What is the Medula?
- The brain stem
- Responsible for heart rate and breathing
What is the Reticular formation responsible for?
What is the Thalamus responsible for?
- It is the way station/filter for all senses except smell
- Relay station
What is the Cerebellum responsible for?
- Fine motor skills
What is the Limbic system for?
- Amygdala is part of the Limbic system
What is the Amygdala responsible for?
What is the Hypothalamus responsible for?
- Maintains homeostasis
What are the lobes of the Cerebral Cortex?
- Frontal Lobe
- Parietal Lobe
- Temporal Lobe
- Occipital Lobe
What is the Frontal Lobe responsible for?
- Executive functions
- Motor function
What is the Parietal responsible for?
Touch and sensation
What is the Occipital lobe responsible for?
What is the Temporal lobe responsible for?
What makes up the CNS?
Brain and spinal cord
What makes up the PNS?
- Somatic Nervous system
- Autonomic nervous system
- Sympathetic nervous system
- Parasympathetic nervous system
What is the Somatic nervous system?
Skeletal, motor function. Purposeful movement.
What is the Autonomic nervous system?
- Everything "automatic"
What is the Sympathetic nervous system?
- Fight or flight
What is the Parasympathetic nervous system?
What is the make up of a neuron?
- Cell body
- Myelinated sheaths
What are some Neurotransmitters?
- Nor Epi
What is the Threshold?
What the exhibitory stimulate reach the sensory action potential they reach a threshold
What is the Scientific attitude?
What is the scientific method?
- Variable definition
What is a Theory/
Integrated statement made upon observation
What are the different ways to sample effects?
- Random - equal chance of being selected and represent all options
- Representative - Ask everyone
- Naturalistic observation - Just watch
What is the Correlation Coefficient?
- Represents how closely related the variables are.
- -1 close relation (Both went down)
- +1 close relation (both went up)
- 0 no relation
Dr. Jones wants to know if caffeine improves grades. Caffeine is the _____?
When hypotheses are tested, the result is typically _____?
Confirmation or revision of the theory
What is the brain's ability to modify itself following damage?
A deficiency of myelin causes _____?
What is SQ3R?
A study method
What is MRI?
Magnetic resonance imaging
What is the junction between the sending and receiving neurons?
Correlating certain traits permits ____?
Which neurotransmitter is most involved in mood, hunger and sleep?
What is the limbic system link to?
Emotion and drives
The double-blind procedure is ____?
Only the data collector knows which treatments the participants receive
Which enables the right and left hemispheres to communicate?
The thalamus receives information from all senses except?
Which has the greatest representation in the sensory cortex?
Which is the dependent variable?
The outcome factor
Why do some protest the use of animals in research?
- Animals feel pain
- animals are similar and different from us
What is the correct order of the scientific method?
What is a random assignment?
Assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance
The knoblike structure at the end of the axon is the ____?
What is an Antagonist?
An antagonist mimic neurotransmitters
What is an agonist?
What is Aphasia
The general term for a language disorder
What lobe is involved in speaking an muscle movement?
What lobe is responsible for sight?
The occipital lobe
Fraternal twins are ___?
- Can be same sex or other
- From the separate fertilized eggs
What is behavior?
Anything an organism does
Endorphins are linked to?
Its difficult to wave your hand and foot in opposite directions. What part of the brain is involved here?
Motor cortex and frontal lobe
What a neuron fires, it____?
- Has reached threshold
- Send and action potential
- Does not cross the synaptic gap
How will a young child's brain react after a hemisphere is removed?
It will compensate by recruiting other brain areas, by plasticity
Saying "I knew that it would happen to him eventually" is an example of?
Excess neurotransmitters are taken up by the sending neuron. This is called ____?
What is a netlike structure important in alertness and arousal?
The Reticular formation
What do counseling psychologists do?
Help people cope with challenges, including academic, vocational, and martial issues
What is the definition of psychology?
The scientific study of behavior and mental process
Which is the "master gland"?
What is the function of the sympathetic nervous system?
What does the cognitive perspective focus on?
How we process information
What is the independent variable?
What is manipulated by the experimenter
Which research method measures cause and effect?
What is Curare?
What is the Behaviorism perspective?
How we learn and observable responses
What is the Neuroscience Perspective?
What is reg Social-culture perspective?
How we are influenced by each other
What is the behavior genetics perspective?
Nature and nurture
What is the purpose of a control group?
It allows for comparison and to control the possible placebo effect.
Damage to which part of the brain causes amnesia for explicit memories?
To access a memory, we may activate associations called ______?
____ Intelligence involves well-defined problems having one right answer?
Which in incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event?
Which type of memory gives us conscious recall?
Presenting an issue in two different but logically equivalent ways is ____?
Deja vu most commonly happens to those who are ____?
Well educated and imaginative
What is the duration of echoic memory?
Classical conditioning associates _____ and operant conditioning associates _____?
- two stimuli
- a response and a consequence
At that level of mental retardation does someone require constant aid and supervision?
Children who experience high levels of physical punishment tend to be ____?
Memories recovered via hypnosis or guided imaginary are ___?
ROYGBIV is an example of ____?
Chinking and Pneumonic divice
Imagination effects involve ____?
Recalling things that never happened
Remembering the first and last item in a list is the ___?
Serial position effect
Which kind of memory is processed by the cerebellum?
Children learn by imitating adults and other models. This is ___?
What is source amnesia?
Claiming to have witnessed an event you only heard about.
Spanking is a form of what?
Typing your old password instead of your new one is ______?
What is the definition of a fixed ratio schedule?
Reward after a specified number of responses
A procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward a goal is ____?
The prolonged strengthening of neural firing is called ____?
What is the latent learning?
Learning that may not be apparent until an incentive is offered.
A clear memory of an emotionally significant event is?
What is sensory memory?
Immediate and brief recording of information into memory
Cognitive psychologists study?
When do children enter the stage which involved telegraphic speech?
When asked to imagine a bird, most people would imagine a robin rather than a penguin because a robin is _____?
IQ was traditionally calculated by dividing mental age by ___?
When we're happy we recall happy memories. This is ____?
The process of defining meaningful scores relative to pretested group is ___?
Rehearsal is ____?
______ Involves linking several behaviors into one rewarding routine.
Which produces a response that prepares the organism for biologically significant event over which it has no control?
What is the ability to produce ideas that are both novel and valuable?
Why is forgetting a good thing?
We'd e cluttered with useless information if we didn't
Which are the 4 basic types of reinforcers?
A relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience is called ____?
The ability to perceive, understand, manage and use emotions is ____?
A person with amnesia may still be able to learn new skills by way of ___?
- Implicit memory
- Procedural memory
The tendency to cling to one's beliefs in the face of contrary evidence is ____?
When does retroactive interference occur?
- When new information interferes with old information
- (password example)
What is an example of an unconditioned response?
Salivating to food
What is an example of a unconditioned stimulus ?
What is an example of a conditioned response?
Salivating to bell
What is an example of a conditioned stimulus?
List and give an example of the 4 partial reinforcement schedules?
What is the difference between punishment and negative reinforcement.
What are the seven methods for improving memory?
What is a Psychological disorder?
Deviant, distressful, dysfunctional behavior patterns
What do Rorschach inkblots encourage?
They encourage people to express their inner feelings in response to looking at ambiguous pictures
What is not a cause of anxiety?
Under-active frontal lobes
What are the big 5 personality factors?
- Open to experience
What is associated with PTSD?
- Social withdrawal
- Jumpy annoyance
What is Not reciprocal determinism?
Fundamental traits are?
Characteristics behaviors and conscious motives
What is an example of displacement?
A manager reprimanding an employee after a negative review from the CEO
What is the spotlight effect?
How much we feel others notice us
WHo pioneered the concept of unconditional positive regard?
Someone who refuses to perceive painful realities is showing what?
What is Self-actualization?
The process of fulfilling our potential
Intense dread, dizziness and chest pain are symptoms of what?
What is external locus control?
The perception that outside forces control your destiny
Repressing angry feelings and showing exaggerates friendliness is what?
When you are a victim of a self -fulfilling prophecy?
You act as other expect you to
An extraverted person is most likely to?
Have low brain arousal
What so the big 5 personality traits predict?
Average behavior across situations
Which is a group of disorders characterized by disorganized thinking, disturbed perceptions and inappropriate emotions and actions?
Murderous minds have reduced activation in what area?
Generating self-justifying explanations that hide one's real motives
What does MMPI assess?
Abnormal personality tendencies
Which neurotransmitter is the most involved in schizophrenia?
A classification scheme
Which is not true of those who are excessively optimistic?
They consider the risks of their actions
Which are two forms of mood disorders?
Major depression and bipolar disorders.
Calm, secure, and self satisfied are "endpoints" of?
Which is an example of regression?
Escaping the world by mentally "going back" to childhood
Moody and reversed people are _____?
Which disorders is most culturally universal?
Rats subjected to unpredictable shocks become chronically anxious. This suggests that anxiety is a response primarily to?
The phallic stage occurs during?
Which defense mechanism involves retreating to an earlier stage of development?
The oral stage occurs during?
When is the Anal stage?
When is the Latency stage?
Which combines keen intelligence, charming personality, and amorality?
Antisocial personality disorder
Accepting credit for successes but blaming the situation for poor performance is?
When you relax and say what comes to mind, no matter how embarrassing or trivial, this is _____?
Which disorder is marked by hyperactivity, impulsivity and extreme inattention?
Someone who is disciplined, organized and careful has a high level of what?
What is learned helplessness?
Passive resignation in the face of aversive events
In bipolar disorder, the brain rapidly consumes glucose during what state?
What should you NOT say if you want to ten an apartment?
Im getting out of a mental hospital in a few days
Which is based on sexual an aggressive drives?
What are the criteria for Harmful dysfunction?
What are three personality disorders?
- Narcissistic personality disorder
- Antisocial personality disorder
- Borderline personality disorder
What are the defense mechanisms?
- Reaction formation