Psych final.txt

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Psych final.txt
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  1. What are the techniques to study brain function?
    • Lesion technique
    • Electrical activity
    • PET Scan
    • MRI
  2. What is the Lesion technique?
    Lobectomy
  3. What is an EEG?
    An electroencephalogram (EEG) is a test to measure the electrical activity of the brain.
  4. What is a PET scan?
    Radioactive Glucose to see the most active areas of the brain
  5. What is an MRI?
    • Looks at brain tissue
    • Can look at brain damage
  6. What is an FMRI?
    FMRI looks at oxygen consumption.
  7. What is the Medula?
    • The brain stem
    • Responsible for heart rate and breathing
  8. What is the Reticular formation responsible for?
    Sleep/wake cycle
  9. What is the Thalamus responsible for?
    • It is the way station/filter for all senses except smell
    • Relay station
  10. What is the Cerebellum responsible for?
    • Fine motor skills
    • Speech
    • Balance
  11. What is the Limbic system for?
    • Emotions
    • Amygdala is part of the Limbic system
  12. What is the Amygdala responsible for?
    Rage/fear
  13. What is the Hypothalamus responsible for?
    • Thermoregulation
    • Maintains homeostasis
  14. What are the lobes of the Cerebral Cortex?
    • Frontal Lobe
    • Parietal Lobe
    • Temporal Lobe
    • Occipital Lobe
  15. What is the Frontal Lobe responsible for?
    • Executive functions
    • Plans
    • Goals
    • Motor function
  16. What is the Parietal responsible for?
    Touch and sensation
  17. What is the Occipital lobe responsible for?
    Vision
  18. What is the Temporal lobe responsible for?
    Hearing
  19. What makes up the CNS?
    Brain and spinal cord
  20. What makes up the PNS?
    • Somatic Nervous system
    • Autonomic nervous system
    • Sympathetic nervous system
    • Parasympathetic nervous system
  21. What is the Somatic nervous system?
    Skeletal, motor function. Purposeful movement.
  22. What is the Autonomic nervous system?
    • Glands
    • Organs
    • Everything "automatic"
  23. What is the Sympathetic nervous system?
    • Adranergic
    • Fight or flight
  24. What is the Parasympathetic nervous system?
    • Calming
    • Feed or bread
  25. What is the make up of a neuron?
    • Dendrites
    • Cell body
    • Axon
    • Myelinated sheaths
    • Synapse.
  26. What are some Neurotransmitters?
    • Acetacholine
    • GABA
    • Glutamate
    • Epi
    • Nor Epi
    • Seratonin
    • Dopamine
  27. What is the Threshold?
    What the exhibitory stimulate reach the sensory action potential they reach a threshold
  28. What is the Scientific attitude?
    • Curiosity
    • Humility
    • Skeptical
    • Openmindness
  29. What is the scientific method?
    • Theory
    • Hypothesis
    • Variable definition
    • Replication
  30. What is a Theory/
    Integrated statement made upon observation
  31. What are the different ways to sample effects?
    • Random - equal chance of being selected and represent all options
    • Representative - Ask everyone
    • Naturalistic observation - Just watch
  32. What is the Correlation Coefficient?
    • Represents how closely related the variables are.
    • -1 close relation (Both went down)
    • +1 close relation (both went up)
    • 0 no relation
  33. Dr. Jones wants to know if caffeine improves grades. Caffeine is the _____?
    Independent variable
  34. When hypotheses are tested, the result is typically _____?
    Confirmation or revision of the theory
  35. What is the brain's ability to modify itself following damage?
    Plasticity
  36. A deficiency of myelin causes _____?
    MS
  37. What is SQ3R?
    A study method
  38. What is MRI?
    Magnetic resonance imaging
  39. What is the junction between the sending and receiving neurons?
    Synapse
  40. Correlating certain traits permits ____?
    Prediction
  41. Which neurotransmitter is most involved in mood, hunger and sleep?
    Serotonin
  42. What is the limbic system link to?
    Emotion and drives
  43. The double-blind procedure is ____?
    Only the data collector knows which treatments the participants receive
  44. Which enables the right and left hemispheres to communicate?
    Corpus callosum
  45. The thalamus receives information from all senses except?
    Smell
  46. Which has the greatest representation in the sensory cortex?
    Forehead
  47. Which is the dependent variable?
    The outcome factor
  48. Why do some protest the use of animals in research?
    • Animals feel pain
    • animals are similar and different from us
  49. What is the correct order of the scientific method?
    • Theory
    • Hypothesis
    • Observation
  50. What is a random assignment?
    Assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance
  51. The knoblike structure at the end of the axon is the ____?
    Terminal
  52. What is an Antagonist?
    An antagonist mimic neurotransmitters
  53. What is an agonist?
    Block neurotransmitters
  54. What is Aphasia
    The general term for a language disorder
  55. What lobe is involved in speaking an muscle movement?
    Frontal
  56. What lobe is responsible for sight?
    The occipital lobe
  57. Fraternal twins are ___?
    • Can be same sex or other
    • From the separate fertilized eggs
  58. What is behavior?
    Anything an organism does
  59. Endorphins are linked to?
    Pain/pleasure
  60. Its difficult to wave your hand and foot in opposite directions. What part of the brain is involved here?
    Motor cortex and frontal lobe
  61. What a neuron fires, it____?
    • Has reached threshold
    • Send and action potential
    • Does not cross the synaptic gap
  62. How will a young child's brain react after a hemisphere is removed?
    It will compensate by recruiting other brain areas, by plasticity
  63. Saying "I knew that it would happen to him eventually" is an example of?
    Hindsight bias
  64. Excess neurotransmitters are taken up by the sending neuron. This is called ____?
    reuptake
  65. What is a netlike structure important in alertness and arousal?
    The Reticular formation
  66. What do counseling psychologists do?
    Help people cope with challenges, including academic, vocational, and martial issues
  67. What is the definition of psychology?
    The scientific study of behavior and mental process
  68. Which is the "master gland"?
    Hypothalamus
  69. What is the function of the sympathetic nervous system?
    • Arousal
    • Expend energy
  70. What does the cognitive perspective focus on?
    How we process information
  71. What is the independent variable?
    What is manipulated by the experimenter
  72. Which research method measures cause and effect?
    Experiment
  73. What is Curare?
    Ach Antagonist
  74. What is the Behaviorism perspective?
    How we learn and observable responses
  75. What is the Neuroscience Perspective?
    Brain functions
  76. What is reg Social-culture perspective?
    How we are influenced by each other
  77. What is the behavior genetics perspective?
    Nature and nurture
  78. What is the purpose of a control group?
    It allows for comparison and to control the possible placebo effect.
  79. Damage to which part of the brain causes amnesia for explicit memories?
    Hippocampus
  80. To access a memory, we may activate associations called ______?
    Declarative memories
  81. ____ Intelligence involves well-defined problems having one right answer?
    Analytical
  82. Which in incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event?
    Misinformation effect
  83. Which type of memory gives us conscious recall?
    Explicit
  84. Presenting an issue in two different but logically equivalent ways is ____?
    Framing effect
  85. Deja vu most commonly happens to those who are ____?
    Well educated and imaginative
  86. What is the duration of echoic memory?
    3-4sec
  87. Classical conditioning associates _____ and operant conditioning associates _____?
    • two stimuli
    • a response and a consequence
  88. At that level of mental retardation does someone require constant aid and supervision?
    Profound
  89. Children who experience high levels of physical punishment tend to be ____?
    Aggressive
  90. Memories recovered via hypnosis or guided imaginary are ___?
    Unreliable
  91. ROYGBIV is an example of ____?
    Chinking and Pneumonic divice
  92. Imagination effects involve ____?
    Recalling things that never happened
  93. Remembering the first and last item in a list is the ___?
    Serial position effect
  94. Which kind of memory is processed by the cerebellum?
    Implicit memory
  95. Children learn by imitating adults and other models. This is ___?
    Observational learning
  96. What is source amnesia?
    Claiming to have witnessed an event you only heard about.
  97. Spanking is a form of what?
    Punishment
  98. Typing your old password instead of your new one is ______?
    Proactive interference
  99. What is the definition of a fixed ratio schedule?
    Reward after a specified number of responses
  100. A procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward a goal is ____?
    Discrimination learning
  101. The prolonged strengthening of neural firing is called ____?
    Procedural learning
  102. What is the latent learning?
    Learning that may not be apparent until an incentive is offered.
  103. A clear memory of an emotionally significant event is?
    Flashbulb memory
  104. What is sensory memory?
    Immediate and brief recording of information into memory
  105. Cognitive psychologists study?
    Decision- making
  106. When do children enter the stage which involved telegraphic speech?
    24months
  107. When asked to imagine a bird, most people would imagine a robin rather than a penguin because a robin is _____?
    A prototype.
  108. IQ was traditionally calculated by dividing mental age by ___?
    Chronological age
  109. When we're happy we recall happy memories. This is ____?
    Mood-congruent
  110. The process of defining meaningful scores relative to pretested group is ___?
    Standardization
  111. Rehearsal is ____?
    Effortful processing
  112. ______ Involves linking several behaviors into one rewarding routine.
    Chaining
  113. Which produces a response that prepares the organism for biologically significant event over which it has no control?
    Classical conditioning
  114. What is the ability to produce ideas that are both novel and valuable?
    Creativity
  115. Why is forgetting a good thing?
    We'd e cluttered with useless information if we didn't
  116. Which are the 4 basic types of reinforcers?
    • Positive
    • Negative
    • primary
    • Conditioned
  117. A relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience is called ____?
    Learning
  118. The ability to perceive, understand, manage and use emotions is ____?
    Emotional intelligence
  119. A person with amnesia may still be able to learn new skills by way of ___?
    • Implicit memory
    • Procedural memory
  120. The tendency to cling to one's beliefs in the face of contrary evidence is ____?
    Belief perseverance
  121. When does retroactive interference occur?
    • When new information interferes with old information
    • (password example)
  122. What is an example of an unconditioned response?
    Salivating to food
  123. What is an example of a unconditioned stimulus ?
    Food
  124. What is an example of a conditioned response?
    Salivating to bell
  125. What is an example of a conditioned stimulus?
    Bell
  126. List and give an example of the 4 partial reinforcement schedules?
  127. What is the difference between punishment and negative reinforcement.
  128. What are the seven methods for improving memory?
    • Rehearsal
    • Sleep
  129. What is a Psychological disorder?
    Deviant, distressful, dysfunctional behavior patterns
  130. What do Rorschach inkblots encourage?
    They encourage people to express their inner feelings in response to looking at ambiguous pictures
  131. What is not a cause of anxiety?
    Under-active frontal lobes
  132. What are the big 5 personality factors?
    • Conscientiousness
    • Agreeable
    • Neuroticism
    • Open to experience
    • Extroversion
  133. What is associated with PTSD?
    • Social withdrawal
    • Jumpy annoyance
    • Nightmares
  134. What is Not reciprocal determinism?
    Your genes
  135. Fundamental traits are?
    Characteristics behaviors and conscious motives
  136. What is an example of displacement?
    A manager reprimanding an employee after a negative review from the CEO
  137. What is the spotlight effect?
    How much we feel others notice us
  138. WHo pioneered the concept of unconditional positive regard?
    Rogers
  139. Someone who refuses to perceive painful realities is showing what?
    Denial
  140. What is Self-actualization?
    The process of fulfilling our potential
  141. Intense dread, dizziness and chest pain are symptoms of what?
    Panic disorder
  142. What is external locus control?
    The perception that outside forces control your destiny
  143. Repressing angry feelings and showing exaggerates friendliness is what?
    Reaction formation
  144. When you are a victim of a self -fulfilling prophecy?
    You act as other expect you to
  145. An extraverted person is most likely to?
    Have low brain arousal
  146. What so the big 5 personality traits predict?
    Average behavior across situations
  147. Which is a group of disorders characterized by disorganized thinking, disturbed perceptions and inappropriate emotions and actions?
    Schizophrenia
  148. Murderous minds have reduced activation in what area?
    Frontal cortex.
  149. Rationalization is?
    Generating self-justifying explanations that hide one's real motives
  150. What does MMPI assess?
    Abnormal personality tendencies
  151. Which neurotransmitter is the most involved in schizophrenia?
    Dopamine
  152. DSM-IV is?
    A classification scheme
  153. Which is not true of those who are excessively optimistic?
    They consider the risks of their actions
  154. Which are two forms of mood disorders?
    Major depression and bipolar disorders.
  155. Calm, secure, and self satisfied are "endpoints" of?
    Neuroticism
  156. Which is an example of regression?
    Escaping the world by mentally "going back" to childhood
  157. Moody and reversed people are _____?
    Unstable introverted
  158. Which disorders is most culturally universal?
    Schizophrenia
  159. Rats subjected to unpredictable shocks become chronically anxious. This suggests that anxiety is a response primarily to?
    Fear conditioning
  160. The phallic stage occurs during?
    3-6 yrs
  161. Which defense mechanism involves retreating to an earlier stage of development?
    Regression
  162. The oral stage occurs during?
    0-18mo
  163. When is the Anal stage?
    18-36mo
  164. When is the Latency stage?
    6-12yrs
  165. Which combines keen intelligence, charming personality, and amorality?
    Antisocial personality disorder
  166. Accepting credit for successes but blaming the situation for poor performance is?
    Self-serving bias
  167. When you relax and say what comes to mind, no matter how embarrassing or trivial, this is _____?
    Free association
  168. Which disorder is marked by hyperactivity, impulsivity and extreme inattention?
    ADHD
  169. Someone who is disciplined, organized and careful has a high level of what?
    Conscientiousness
  170. What is learned helplessness?
    Passive resignation in the face of aversive events
  171. In bipolar disorder, the brain rapidly consumes glucose during what state?
    Manic
  172. What should you NOT say if you want to ten an apartment?
    Im getting out of a mental hospital in a few days
  173. Which is based on sexual an aggressive drives?
    Id
  174. What are the criteria for Harmful dysfunction?
    • Atypical
    • Maladaptive
    • Disturbing
    • Unjustified
  175. What are three personality disorders?
    • Narcissistic personality disorder
    • Antisocial personality disorder
    • Borderline personality disorder
  176. What are the defense mechanisms?
    • Repression
    • Projection
    • Displacement
    • Sublimation
    • Denial
    • Regression
    • Rationalization
    • Reaction formation

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