Med Terms 1/3

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kmariie
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Med Terms 1/3
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2013-04-30 01:22:57
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Med Terms 1/3 Standard anatomical terms Planes & Landmark lines
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  1. Aberrant
    Deviating from normal.

    i.e. aberrant conduction in the heart
  2. acronym
    A mnemonic device that spells out a WORD.

    i.e. SCUBA, RADAR
  3. Air
    78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen and about 1% "other" gases
  4. Alkaline
    • The pH of arterial blood is 7.4 (plus or minus 0.05, so 7.35-7.45) therefore... Alkaline is greater than 7.45 which is outside of the normal range.  
    • "acid-alkaline balance"
  5. Altered mental status
    • A change in the way a person thinks and behaves that may signal disease in the central nervous system or elsewhere in the body.
    • NOT the same as "decreased level of consciousness"
  6. ambient
    The environment surrounding on all sides.

    i.e. ambient temperature or ambient noise
  7. Angle of Louis
    AKA the Sternal Angle, is the angle between the sternum and manubrium.
  8. antibiotics
    • Interfere with the growth of bacteria (they are bacteriostatic).
    • Do NOT work against viruses.
  9. aphagia
    Inability to swallow.
  10. aphasia
    • 1. Motor aphasia: "expressive" aphasia, inability to speak
    • 2. Sensory aphasia: "receptive" aphasia, inability to understand speech
  11. apneustic breathing
    Because the Hering-Bruer Reflex is not working, they inhale, and stay there too long, not exhaling when their lungs are full.
  12. arrhythmia
    "Without rhythm"
  13. dysrhythmia
    Bad or abnormal rhythm
  14. attenuated
    Weakened or diluted
  15. biological death
    When brain cells die after the heart and lungs stop functioning which begins occurring after 4-6 minutes.
  16. blanch
    • to make pale
    • i.e. checking cap refill
  17. blood tubing
    Usually very short IV tubing with a larger lumen; helpful for severe shock.
  18. bolus
    A mass (given all at once). 

    i.e. Meds given as a bolus, large "wad" of food
  19. Broselow tape
    A color coded system that helps clinicians decide what doses of medications to administer and what size medical equipment is needed based on the infant's height and weight.
  20. cardiac sphincter
    Located posterior to the heart, a slit in the diaphragm.  Often incompetent resulting in "reflux" of gastric contents back up into the throat (aka "heartburn").
  21. cathartic
    Any kind of release. 

    i.e. Sorbitol added to activated charcoal works like a cathartic to clear the poison
  22. caudal
    At or near the tail end of the body (NOT the foot end).
  23. caustic
    Capable of burning tissue by chemical reaction.  Used to describe acid or alkali burns.
  24. collateral circulation
    As coronary arteries gradually become blocked, the heart muscle opens up additional avenues for blood around the blockage.
  25. consensual reactivity
    Part of the neuro assessment.

    i.e. When you shine a light into only one eye, both pupils should respond together
  26. contiguous
    Touching or in close contact.
  27. crackles
    Breath or lung sound. AKA "Rales"
  28. definitive
    Provide the final solution.
  29. diaphragmatic breathing
    Breathing with the diaphragm rather than the intercostals, usually due to inability to take a deep breath.  Can be a likely indicator of a spinal cord injury in the neck
  30. dilate
    Make or become wider, larger, or more open.
  31. elicited
    "Brought forth" 

    i.e. Eliciting a response.
  32. endocrine
    A gland that secretes hormones directly into the blood stream to carry out an effect at some distant location, or on a distant gland.
  33. etiology
    The study of the CAUSE of a disorder or disease.

    i.e. The etiology of most cardiac dysrhythmias is hypoxia.
  34. Exacerbate
    To make worse.
  35. expectorant
    A medicine that promotes the secretion of sputum by the air passages, used esp. to treat coughs.

    i.e. Robitussin increases coughing in order to clear the junk out of your lungs.
  36. exsanguination
    to bleed massively, or to "bleed out"
  37. FiO2
    "Fractional inspired oxygen" The normal FiOis 21%. 

    i.e. Placing supplemental oxygen on the patient increases the FiO2.
  38. fluid challenge 
    Normally 250-500 mL run in IV "wide open", then reduced to TKO.  It is important to check vital signs, breath sounds, and for SOB. 
  39. fluid resuscitation
    1000 mL run in "wide open", then reduced to TKO. It is important to check vital signs, breath sounds, and for SOB. 
  40. funguses
    Modern term for 'fungi'.
  41. Golden Hour
    Within in an hour, from the time of the accident, a trauma patient can reach a surgical table, their odds of survival are greatly improved. 
  42. Golden 10 Minutes
    In the field, it is the goal to see that TRAUMA patients leave the scene within 10 minutes of EMS arrival.

    i.e. Studies have shown clearly that long work-ups, IV's and splinting do NOT improve the patient's condition; how quickly the patient gets to surgery will. 
  43. heat cramps
    Heat cramps have replaced large amounts of fluid (water) without salt.  Salty solutions or salts help this condition. 
  44. anaerobic cramps
    Occur when you don't supply the muscle with enough oxygen, often because the blood has thickened and slowed down due to dehydration secondary to sweating.  Condition improves through muscle massage. 
  45. hematocrit
    The percentage of all solids vs. liquids in blood, about 45% is normal.
  46. hyperbaric oxygen chamber
    AKA "hyperbaric chamber/ REcompression chamber" A specially equipped pressure vessel used to administer pure oxygen.  Often used to treat severe burns or possibly pressure sores. 
  47. hypercarbia
    AKA "hypercapnia" High levels of carbon dioxide in the blood. Refers to high PCO2 (Partial pressure carbon dioxide).
  48. hyperpnea
    Abnormally DEEP breathing.
  49. tachypnea
    An increase in RATE of breathing.
  50. idiopathic 
    A unique or distinct origin to a disease, sometimes as "unknown origin".
  51. inotropic
    Muscle + change

    i.e. Epinephrine and digitalis have positive inotropic effects on the heart by increasing contractility.
  52. intrinsic
    "built in"

    i.e. The intrinsic rate of the heart is either a NUMBER (about 72) or it is a RANGE of numbers (60-100).
  53. ischial tuberosity
    A bump located on the lowest bone of the pelvis. 

  54. lumen
    Internal diameter of a tube.

    i.e. lumen of a blood vessel, endotracheal tube, IV. 
  55. maceration
    The over-softening of the skin. 

    i.e. Removing a band aid after a long amount of time, the skin has been macerated. 
  56. medulla
    The inner or central part of an organ. 
  57. mnemonic
    A memory tool.
  58. MRSA
    • Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureas
    • A common skin bacteria that has become resistant to the common treatment protocol. 
  59. mucolytic
    An agent used to thin mucus. 
  60. mucous membranes
    Considered to be an extension of your surface skin (contiguous with it). 

    i.e. The bladder and intestine are lined with mucous membranes.
  61. nitrites
    Any salt or ester of nitrous acid.
  62. osmolality
    A statement about or a measurement of the osmotic pressure. Similar to osmolarity or tonicity.

    i.e. Adding an IV of D5W to the body will decrease the osmolality of the blood because it acts as a hypotonic solution.
  63. paralysis
    Does not involve sensation referring to motor functions.  
  64. parameter
    The variables, the limits, or the conditions which affect whatever is being discussed. 
  65. pathognomonic
    "Classic" or closely tied to a particular disease.

    i.e. A pathognomonic sign for CVA is sudden onset of hemiplegia without any prior traumatic history. 
  66. precursor
    Something that comes before. 

    i.e. A PVC landing on a T wave may be the precursor to V-fib. 
  67. prophylaxis
    For protection.
  68. pulse oximeter
    Uses the color of the blood to estimate the oxygen saturation level.
  69. Raccoon's eyes
    "Bilateral, symmetrical, periorbital ecchymosis"

     
  70. reflux
    The flowing back of a liquid, often referring to gastric relux or gastroesophageal reflux.
  71. Reye's Syndrome
    A life-threatening metabolic disorder in young children, of uncertain cause but sometimes precipitated by aspirin.  It is advised to use other ways to control temperature and discomfort in children with colds or viral infections. 
  72. second messenger
    Any of several classes of intracellular signals acting at or situated within the plasma membrane and translating electrical or chemical messages from the environment into cellular responses.
  73. SCUBA
    • "Self contained breathing apparatus"
    • SCBA's and SCUBA are used to provide oxygen.  Regulators come with a purge button as many demand valves do.  These demand valves can pose dangerous when used on a unconscious patient by risking filling the stomach with oxygen. 
  74. semantics
    Relationship of meanings.

    i.e. Jerk, or SOB 
  75. sequestration
    Hiding or being kept away from.
  76. seroconversion
    The change of a serologic test from negative to positive, indicating the development of antibodies in response to infection or immunization.
  77. shock
    A rapid and progressive deterioration or depressed state of the vital body functions brought about by an insufficient supply oxygenated blood being delivered to the tissues. 
  78. silent MI
    Will have most other signs of MI, just NO pain.
  79. sonorous
    An abnormal breath sound indicating some sort of upper airway obstruction.  The sound is loud and rounded. 
  80. stenosis
    Narrowing of a passage.

    i.e. Aortic stenosis, coronary stenosis, mitral stenosis, esophageal stenosis.
  81. surfactant
    • An agent that changes surface tension.  
    • SURF-ace ACT-ive A-ge-NT
  82. syndrome
    A collection of signs and symptoms that point to a single underlying problem. 
  83. tetany 
    A state of strong muscular contraction. 

    i.e. Occurs with hypocalcemia, black widow spider bite, or infection from the tetanus bacterium.
  84. tilt test
    • AKA "Orthostatic vitals or Postural vitals"
    • A drop of 20 mmHg in BP or rise in pulse of 20 in supine, Fowler's with legs dangling over the side, and standing.  The tilt test indicates if a patient is hypovolemic.
  85. titration
    To measure out. 
  86. tonicity
    The amount of crystalloids. Related to osmolality or osmolarity.

    i.e. Tonicity of the solution
  87. tort
    In civil law, a personal injury.

    i.e. Paramedics could be sued under tort law.
  88. transfer of command
    When an EMT transfers a patient to a Paramedic, RN, or MD.  Must be face-to-face, and should include a briefing on what was found and what was done. 
  89. unremarkable
    Used by physicians to mean that there is nothing significant to point out. 
  90. venous blood
    • 70-75% is saturated with oxygen upon its return to the right heart and lungs.
    • "under saturated blood"
  91. Venturi mask
    Designed to deliver a flow that is barely above normal air in order to avoid depressing respiratory drive with excessive oxygen. 
  92. vertebral arch
    A structure arising dorsally from a vertebral centrum and enclosing the spinal cord.  This arch is made up of the "LAMINA".

  93. viscous
    A solution that is sticky or gummy.

    i.e. Dehydration increases the viscosity of the blood, making it thicker (or stickier).
  94. vitreous humor
    Jelly-like fluid behind the eye lens that can be replaced by injecting saline in its place in case of loss. 
  95. VRE
    • Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus
    • A common intestinal bacteria that has become resistant to one of our strongest antibiotics.
  96. volar
    Front of the forearm.

  97. watt-seconds
    Equivalent to Joules.
  98. Wooden's Rule
    "Failing to prepare, is preparing to fail." 
  99. "in toto"
    means "in total"
  100. "in vivo"
    means "in life" (in living tissue, how it happens or how it works in the body)
  101. "in vitro"
    means "in glass" (in a glass dish this drug kills that bacteria, but that does not necessarily mean it will do the same thing inside a human body)
  102. abduction
    moving a limb away from the midsagittal plane
  103. adduction
    moving a limb toward the midsagittal plane
  104. afferent
    moving toward a central object, as a sensory nerve signal traveling to the brain is afferent
  105. anterior
    pertaining to the front side of the body
  106. caudal
    pertaining to the tail end
  107. central
    refers to structures that are at the center
  108. cephalic
    pertaining to the head
  109. cranial
    pertaining to the skull (or head)
  110. deep
    refers to organs or structures that are found deep within the body
  111. distal
    used with limbs- more distant measured from the armpit or groin crease (the point of origin of the limb)
  112. dorsal
    the BACK surface of the body
  113. dorsiflexion
    bending the hand at the wrist backward is dorsiflexion, as is curling the toes upward
  114. efferent
    moving away from a central object, as a motor nerve signal traveling from the brain is efferent
  115. extension
    movement of a body part to straighten out the angle at a joint, or straighten

  116. flexion
    movement of a body part at a joint to bend or decrease the angle

  117. inferior
    lower down
  118. lateral
    to the side- from the midsagittal plane
  119. lateral rotation
    • also called "external rotation"
    • rotating a limb from the anatomical position outward 
  120. medial
    to the middle- to the midsagittal plane
  121. medial rotation
    • also called "internal rotation"
    • rotating a limb from the anatomical position inward
  122. peripheral
    away from the center, as in peripheral nervous nervous system
  123. posterior
    pertaining to the rear side of the body
  124. pronation
    meaning "to change to prone" therefore it involves turning the palm to face downward (or prone)
  125. proximal
    used with limbs- "closer to" measured from the armpit or groin crease (the point of origin of the limb)
  126. retraction
    as in suprasternal retractions, a sign of respiratory distress
  127. superficial
    closer to the surface
  128. superior
    higher up
  129. supination
    meaning "to change to supine" therefor it involves turning the palm to face upward (or supine)
  130. ventral
    the BELLY surface of the body
  131. frontal plane
    the frontal plane runs through the "midline" and is actually the mid-axillary plane (or mid-axillary line running straight down the center of the armpit)

  132. midsagittal plane
    plane running through the center of the body separating it into right and left halves

  133. transverse plane
    • also called "horizontal plane" separates the body into top and bottom halves
  134. parasternal area
    the area down either side of the sternum where there is cartilage connecting the sternum to the ribs

  135. paravertebral area
    • the area down either side of the spine where the ribs connect to the spinal vertebrae
  136. mid-clavicular line
    also corresponds to the mid-nipple line in the male
  137. anterior axillary line
    looking from the side, a line drawn vertically downward from the front fold of the armpit
  138. mid-axillary line
    looking from the side, a line drawn vertically downward from the middle of the armpit
  139. posterior axillary line
    looking from the side, a line drawn vertically downward from the back fold of the armpit
  140. mid-scapular line
    a line drawn vertically down the back from the center of the scapula
  141. abandonment
    "...without the patient's consent" or without their understanding the consequences if they refuse care
  142. accessory muscles
    "Secondary" type of respiratory muscles, but should be viewed as a "third" type.  Diaphragm is first, external intercostals is second.  Use of accessory muscles indicate severe respiratory distress in the patient.
  143. acetabulum
    the hip joint or hip socket
  144. acute coronary syndrome
    Newer term describing a spectrum of clinical diseases that are acute... In the field we are really dealing with acute coronary syndromes since diagnoses can not be made until later.
  145. acute MI
    Occurring during the period when circulation to a region of the heart is obstructed and necrosis is occurring.
  146. advanced EMT
    AKA EMT-Intermediate or EMT-II
  147. adrenal glands
    Located on top of the kidney. Produce hormones that help control heart rate, blood pressure, the way the body uses food, the levels of minerals such as sodium and potassium in the blood, and other functions particularly involved in stress reactions.  Release epinephrine (or adrenaline).
  148. adventitious breath sounds
    Not in the usual place, really unusual.
  149. aging
  150. agonal 
    pertaining to or associated with agony (especially death agonies), "death like"
  151. alpha
  152. ALTE
    • Apparent Life Threatening Event
    • Refers to a sudden event, often characterized by apnea or other abrupt changes in the child's behavior. Symptoms include one or more of the following: apnea, change in color or muscle tone, coughing, or gagging.
  153. aneurysm
    • Abnormal widening or ballooning of a portion of an artery due to weakness in the wall of the blood vessel.
  154. anterograde amnesia
    patient is unable to remember what they were doing for the 10-30 minutes right before the injury
  155. anthrax
  156. apex
    The top or highest part of something.

    • i.e. apex of the heart
  157. appendix
    • the cecum is the first portion of the large intestine
  158. artery
    Blood vessel made up of smooth muscle and carries blood away from the heart at fairly high pressures.  
  159. arteriosclerosis
    thickening, hardening and loss of elasticity of the walls of the arteries. 
  160. atherosclerosis
    Form of arteriosclerosis characterized by deposits of fat and cholesterol within the muscular wall of an artery. 
  161. aspiration
    A drawing of something in, out, up, or through by or as if by suction. The withdrawal of fluid or friable tissue from the body.
  162. ascites
    The accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity, causing abdominal swelling.  
  163. assault
    putting a person in reasonable fear of harm; threatening them with injury.
  164. battery
    actual touching of a person without their consent
  165. atelectasis
    refers to a condition of "stale air" in the lungs
  166. automated transport ventilator
    • otherwise known as a "demand valve" that ventilates a non-breathing patient based on the time and tidal volume settings you select
  167. AVPU
    Alert > Verbal > Physical stimulus or greater > Painful > Unresponsive
  168. bacteria

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